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Coronation Street

Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. The programme centres on Coronation Street in Weatherfield, a fictional town based on inner-city Salford. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in 1902 and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII; the series airs six times a week: Monday and Friday 7:30–8 pm and 8:30–9 pm. Since 2017, ten sequential classic episodes of the series dated from 1986 onwards have been broadcast weekly on ITV3; the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warren's initial proposal was rejected by the station's founder Sidney Bernstein, but he was persuaded by producer Harry Elton to produce the programme for 13 pilot episodes. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, is now a significant part of British culture. Coronation Street is made by ITV Granada at MediaCityUK and shown in all ITV regions, as well as internationally.

On 17 September 2010, it became the world's longest-running television soap opera and was listed in Guinness World Records. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's sixtieth anniversary. Influenced by the conventions of kitchen sink realism, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth, working-class community, combined with light-hearted humour and strong characters; the show averages around six million viewers per episode. The show premiered its 10,000th episode on Friday 7 February 2020; the first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, was not a critical success. Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial, won over by Coronation Street's ordinary characters; the programme made use of Northern English language and dialect. Early episodes told the story of student Ken Barlow, who had won a place at university, thus found his working-class background—as well as his parents and Ida —something of an embarrassment.

The character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, the decline of similar communities. In an episode from 1961, Barlow declares: "You can't go on just thinking about your own street these days. We're living with people on the other side of the world. There's more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends." Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, in British and global soap history. At the centre of many early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, her friends: timid Minnie Caldwell, bespectacled Martha Longhurst; the trio were likened to the Greek chorus, the three witches in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, as they would sit in the snug bar of The Rovers Return Inn, passing judgement over family and each other. Headstrong Ena clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals.

Elsie resented Ena's gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the following year in 1962, he left in 1963, but returned three years in 1966. He left again and returned 42 years in 2008. In March 1961, Coronation Street reached No. 1 in the television ratings and remained there for the rest of the year. Earlier in 1961, a Television Audience Measurement showed that 75% of available viewers tuned into Corrie, by 1964 the programme had over 20 million regular viewers, with ratings peaking on 2 December 1964, at 21.36 million viewers. Storylines throughout the decade included Elsie's mystery poison-pen letter, the 1962 marriage of Ken and Valerie Tatlock, the death of Martha Longhurst in 1964, the birth of the Barlow twins in 1965, Elsie Tanner's wedding to Steve Tanner and a train crashing from the viaduct, Steve Tanner's murder in 1968, a coach crash in 1969. In spite of rising popularity with viewers, Coronation Street was criticised by some for its outdated portrayal of the urban working class, its representation of a community, a nostalgic fantasy.

After the first episode in 1960, the Daily Mirror printed: "The programme is doomed from the outset... For there is little reality in this new serial, which we have to suffer twice a week." By 1967, critics were suggesting that the programme no longer reflected life in 1960s Britain, but reflected how life was in the 1950s. Granada hurried to update the programme, with the hope of introducing more issue-driven stories, including Lucille Hewitt becoming addicted to drugs, Jerry Booth being in a storyline about homosexuality, Emily Nugent having an out-of-wedlock child, introducing a black family, but all of these ideas were dropped for fear of upsetting viewers; the show's production team was tested when many core cast members left the programme in the early 1970s. When Arthur Leslie died in 1970, his character, Rovers' landlord Jack Walke

Black Water Transit

Black Water Transit is a 2009 American crime drama film based on the novel of the same name by Carsten Stroud. It stars an ensemble cast including Laurence Fishburne and Karl Urban. In post-Katrina New Orleans, shipping executive Jack Vermillion finds himself getting more than he bargained for after agreeing to help feds expose smuggler and all-around bad seed Earl Pike. Laurence Fishburne as Jack Vermillion Karl Urban as Earl Pike Brittany Snow as Sardoonah Aisha Tyler as Casey Spandau Stephen Dorff as Nicky Alex Sol as Jimmy Rock Beverly D'Angelo as Valeriana Schick Bill Cobbs as Frank Vermillion Evan Ross as Gary Vermillion Leslie Easterbrook as Bet TannenAt various points in the film's development, Bruce Willis, Vin Diesel, Samuel L. Jackson were attached to star. Filming took place in and around New Orleans between June and August 2007. Filming locations included the 9th Ward and local military installations. In August 2008, Kaye revealed to the Los Angeles Times that he had screened a rough-cut of the film to actor Lawrence Fishburne.

According to Kaye, his lead "loved" the film, conceived as a Die Hard-like thriller. However, Kaye suggested his script changes were used as an excuse by producer David Bergstein to hold back payments on the film, that Bergstein was attempting to alleviate his financial trouble by casting doubt on the film's bankability. On April 8, 2009, the production company came to an agreement with Cayman Islands-based financier Aramid Entertainment for the completion and release schedule for the film, which, at that point, remained unfinished. According to legal documents, Bergstein requested a sum of $1,775,000 for post-production. In May 2009, Kaye screened a cut of the film at the Cannes Film Festival. In July 2009, Aramid Entertainment provided a notice of default regarding the agreement to complete and release Black Water Transit, noting the production company had failed to provide with some of the necessary signatures for the agreement. In November 2009, Bergstein and his co-producer Ron Tutor were sued by a New York-based hedge fund for $120 million.

Bergstein and Tutor both confirmed. However, both reiterated that the film was "unreleasable". In January 2010, it was reported that Bergstein had reached a settlement in another lawsuit related to the film. In June 2010, the rights for Black Water Transit, valued at $26 million, were sold by Library Asset Acquisition Company to Black Water Transit Acquisition Company at a foreclosure auction for $2 million. However, as both companies were suspected to be owned by Bergstein and Tutor, the sale was opposed by a key creditor and a federal bankruptcy trustee. In March 2012, Kaye confirmed the film was still unfinished and that some additional material needed to be shot, he elaborated on the tonal shift of the project. "The film we made so far is not the film they expected," he said. "But as you edit, you learn more about the subject matter, more about the actors, nothing is set in stone. Movies are made many times—once in the writing, once in preproduction, once again during the shoot, once again in editing, in post, again when you put it in the marketplace.

These things, they change all the time, that's what I love about it, the constant reinvention."In September 2014, it was reported that Bergstein and Aramid Entertainment had reached a settlement in their lawsuit and that the rights for the film would revert to Bergstein, pending a New York bankruptcy court approval. In May 2016, Bergstein issued a press release regarding a recent complaint by Aramid Entertainment against its former executive, David Molner; the complaint mentioned the project had gone into litigation, with the repayment of Aramid's $17.5 million "Black Water Transit loan" dependent on the outcome. The press release noted that "actions against other firms involved remain in litigation." In June 2018, Bergstein was sentenced to eight years in prison for fraud. Earlier that month, Kaye signed on to direct a screenplay by murdered writer Gary DeVore. Black Water Transit on IMDb Black Water Transit at Rotten Tomatoes

Citizen Koch

Citizen Koch is a 2013 film produced and directed by Tia Lessin and Carl Deal, concerning the political influence of American plutocrats on the political process following the US Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. FEC which granted corporations the ability to anonymously spend unlimited money to influence public policy and elections; the film focuses on the eponymous Koch brothers, in particular, their political and financial support for Wisconsin governor Scott Walker, who represents the Citizen Koch in the title. The film chronicles the rise of the Tea Party movement in response to the election of the first African-American President in 2008, the strategic attacks on organized labor by Gov. Walker and Koch political operatives in other states as a strategy to eliminate liberal opposition. Citizen Koch was completed using funds from a successful Kickstarter campaign, after public television's Independent Television Service pulled funding it had committed; the filmmakers were told by ITVS staff that the title, which referenced conservative billionaire David Koch, would be "extremely problematic" as Koch served on the boards of flagship public broadcasters WNET and WGBH.

The filmmakers were told directly by ITVS staff that the financial support would be restored after it premiered at the Sundance Film Festival, if they removed references to David Koch from the film. Regarding the allegations of censorship and The New Yorker article which helped bring the case to public attention, the PBS ombudsman has stated: Although some of Mayer's reporting about "Citizen Koch" is based on unnamed sources, the strength of the article does reflect the internal concerns that can or did, as the thrust of her article suggests, lead to intense internal pressures that come to equal self-censorship; the reporting and quotes throughout appear convincing. One unnamed public television official, referring to the "Citizen Koch" proposal, is quoted as saying that, "because of the Koch brothers, ITVS knew WNET would never air it. Never." The film premiered at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival and was named to the shortlist by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for best documentary feature.

Dark Money Koch Brothers Exposed Company Town Mayer, Jane. "Stephen Colbert on David Koch and PBS". The New Yorker. Rehm, Diane. "The Intersection Of Political Influence And Journalism". The Diane Rehm Show. WAMU. Robbins, Christopher. "How Billionaire David Koch Gets PBS To Dance, Dance". Gothamist. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Stelter, Brian. "The Documentary'Citizen Koch' Regains Money". The New York Times. Thomas, Rob. "Citizen Koch filmmakers Claim PBS Killed Their Doc to Please Koch Brothers". The Capital Times. Macauley, Scott. "The Power of the Purse". Filmmaker Magazine; the Reid Report. "Does'free speech' mean'dark money?" MSNBC. Citizen Koch on IMDb Official website

Adolf Marks

Adolf Fyodorovich Marx, last name spelled Marcks and Marks, known as A. F. Marx, was an influential 19th-century German publisher in Russia best known for the weekly journal Niva, he obtained Russian citizenship. Marx was born in the son of Friedrich Marx, a maker of tower clocks. After finishing his education, he went to work in a bookstore, in 1859 moved to Russia to take jobs in the book trade, first with F. A. Bietepage and I. K. Kalugin to deal with their German books, in the foreign department of Moritz Wolf's bookstore, "one of the best bookshops in St. Petersburg." After a brief period as chief editor for German and French correspondence for the Great Russian Railway Company, he decided to open his own publishing company in St. Petersburg in 1869, he published books on literature and history, from 1870 Niva, the weekly journal for which he is best known. The office of the publishing house was at 22 Malaya Morskaya Street and its printing house at 29 Izmaylovsky Avenue. After the death of Marx the publishing house was reorganized as the A. F. Marx Publishing and Printing Joint-Stock Company.

In 1897, he was awarded a title of nobility. He was buried in the cemetery of Novodevichy Monastery. Saint Petersburg Encyclopedia entry Deutsche Buchhändler biography Lyudi biography TextReferat biography

La UniĆ³n Airport (Honduras)

La Unión Airport is an airport serving the town of La Unión in Olancho Department, Honduras. The grass runway is 2 kilometres northeast of the town. There is high terrain west through northeast of the airport, with a hill north of the runway; the Bonito VOR-DME is located 43.4 nautical miles north-northwest of the airport. The La Ceiba NDB-DME is located 43.9 nautical miles north-northwest of the airport. Aviation portal Transport in Honduras List of airports in Honduras OpenStreetMap - La Unión HERE Maps - La Unión OurAirports - Carta Airport SkyVector Aeronautical Charts - Carta Accident history for La Union Airport at Aviation Safety Network

Military history of Nigeria during World War II

Nigeria participated in World War II as a British colony. It in September 1939, following the government's acceptance of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Nazi Germany; as a British colony, Nigeria entered the war on the side of the Allies. Nigeria was a key country in the African theatre of war, with Nigeria serving as a critical part of the Allied African strategy. In addition to Nigeria's importance as a staging point in Africa, several infantry regiments were raised to serve the British armies around Africa and Asia. Throughout the war, 45,000 Nigerian soldiers served in the British Army in Africa and southeast Asia. Nigerian regiments formed the majority of the 81st and 82nd West Africa Divisions of the British Army. Nigerian soldiers fought in most notably India. Despite the successful fighting record of the Nigerian troops, none of the commanding officers of the Nigerian corps were from Nigeria; these were instead selected from around the British Commonwealth. The first Nigerian officers were selected towards the war's end.

Nigeria's involvement in WWII helped fuel the struggle for independence from colonial rule. This was because participation of Africans in these wars exposed them to ideas of self-determination and independent rule. Nigeria's entry was first marked by a verbal agreement to join the Allied Forces in declaration of war against Germany. Nigeria accepted the British invitation to join the war unanimously. Influential Nigerian political leaders such as Nnamdi Azikiwe and Herbert Macaulay, hitherto critics of British colonial rule, reversed gear and appealed to all Nigerians to support the war effort. Within days of the declaration, the Nigerian War Relief Fund was established, a volunteer fundraising movement designed to increase local support for Britain; the war had significant popular support in Nigeria. While many soldiers joined the British Army willingly, there were instances of forced conscription of Nigerian men, some as young as 16. In response to critical manpower shortages following the invasion of Europe by Axis Powers and France began to scour their colonies for supplies of able-bodied fighting men.

These men included combatants, military laborers and specialist units, from 1942 onward, their role transformed from a defensive role in defending the empire in Africa, to an offensive role in repelling Japanese invaders in the far eastern parts of the British Empire. The British Home office was aware that by sending colonial soldiers it would risk exposing them to radical political ideas which could destabilize British rule in Africa, African forces were therefore sent more to south-east Asia. Despite British claims that their African forces were volunteers, the majority of Nigerian soldiers in WWII were conscripted through tribal authorities or private workplaces; the first Nigerian units to see combat in WWII served in the British campaigns in East Africa. In 1940, the 1st Brigade was the first Nigerian unit to be deployed against the Axis Powers in Kenya. A total of 9,000 West African soldiers fought alongside regiments from the Gold Coast, the other British Colonial possessions in West-Africa.

At this stage in the war, Nigeria's troop contributions were small, would not grow until the conclusion of the African campaigns of the war. Throughout the East African Campaigns, the Nigerian forces were organised at battalion level, no whole divisions were created from Nigerian soldiers. Despite this, British officers reported being impressed with the capabilities of the Nigerian soldiers. For many Nigerian citizens, the invasion of Ethiopia at the outbreak of WWII was a wake-up call to the Axis threat. Therefore, as early as 1935, Nigerian efforts on the home front were concentrated on raising funds to support the war effort in Ethiopia. After the success of the Allied campaigns in Africa, with increasing need for soldiers to be deployed elsewhere, British command decided to form two divisions to fight in southeast Asia; the 81st Division was formed from West African brigades deployed in 1943. In 1944, the 82nd Division was formed sailed to British Ceylon from the east coast of Africa, they moved to Burma and took part in the third Arakan campaign in December 1944.

The Allied forces in Burma faced a more entrenched Japanese Imperial force. Despite this, through use of aerial re-supply and effective use of the jungle terrain, the Allied forces were able to push the Japanese out of Burma; the jungle terrain forced the Allied forces to adopt new tactics and logistical strategies, a task which the Nigerian forces excelled at. The two West African divisions uniquely used non-combatant soldiers as porters, auxiliaries head-carrying supplies and ammunition. While British units used traditional resupply methods, the African porters enabled the West African divisions greater mobility than the famed Chindit units native to Burma; the British units used their air-superiority to great effect throughout the campaign, with the RAF flying resupply missions which enabled the Allied forces to fight in the jungles. The 81st Division was deployed deep into the front, where it faced intense fighting for nearly a year before being relieved by the 82nd Division. By January 1945, the 82nd Division had reached Apuakwa on the Kaladan River, where they had been ordered to meet up with the 81st Division.

From here the 81st Division was intended to return to India for rest and refit, the 82nd Division was to take up the 81st Division's role of engaging Japanese elements. The largest engagement of the campaign fought by Nigerian forces was the Battle of Myohaung, a swiftly executed operation to seize the town of Myohaung. Both Nigeria