Florida is a Chilean town and commune located in the Concepción Province, Biobío Region. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Florida spans an area of 608.6 km2 and has 10,177 inhabitants. Of these, 3,875 lived in urban areas and 6,302 in rural areas. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population fell by 2.5%. As a commune, Florida is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a communal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Juan Vergara Reyes. The communal council has the following members: Aureliano Illanes Jorge Roa Juan Contreras Agustin Montero José Lizama Renán Arriagada Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Florida is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Sergio Bobadilla and Clemira Pacheco as part of the 45th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain and Hosain Sabag Castillo as part of the 12th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Florida
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers, their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago and spread eastward to the Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up over 80% of the indigenous peoples in Chile, about 9% of the total Chilean population, they are concentrated in Araucanía. Many have migrated to the Buenos Aires area for economic opportunities; the Mapuche traditional economy is based on agriculture. In times of war, they would elect a toki to lead them, they are known for the textiles woven by women, which have been goods for trade for centuries, since before the arrival of European explorers. At the time of Spanish arrival the Araucanian Mapuche inhabited the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers.
South of it, the Huilliche and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mapuche groups migrated eastward into the Andes and pampas and establishing relationships with the Poya and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups; the Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture, in what came to be called Araucanization. Some Mapuche mingled with Spanish during colonial times, their descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile, but Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late 19th century. Since Mapuche have become subjects, nationals and citizens of the respective states. Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.
The Spanish colonizers of South America referred to the Mapuche people as Araucanians. However, this term is now considered pejorative by some people; the name was derived from the placename rag ko, meaning "clayey water". The Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy", is not the root of araucano. It's thought that the various Mapuche groups called themselves "Reche" during the Spanish conquest due to their supposed pure native blood, "Re" meaning pure and "Che" meaning peopleThe name "Mapuche" is used both to refer collectively to the Picunche and Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía, or at other times to the Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía. However, Mapuche is a recent endonym meaning "People of the Land", is preferred to be used when referring to the "Mapuche" people after the Arauco War The Mapuche define themselves with territorial entities arranged along geographical line as: Pwelche or Puelche: "people of the east" occupied Pwel mapu or Puel mapu, the eastern lands. Pikunche or Picunche: "people of the north" occupied Pikun-mapu, the "northern lands".
Williche or Huilliche: "people of the south" occupied Willi mapu, the "southern lands". Pewenche or Pehuenche: "people of the pewen/pehuen" occupied Pewen mapu, "the land of the pewen tree". Lafkenche: "people of the sea" occupied Lafken mapu, "the land of the sea". Nagche: "people of the plains" occupied Nag mapu, "the land of the plains"; the ancient Mapuche Toqui like Lef-Traru, Kallfülikan or Pelontraru were Nagche. Wenteche: "people of the valleys" occupied Wente mapu, "the land of the valleys". Archaeological finds have shown the existence of a Mapuche culture in Chile and Argentina as early as 600 to 500 BC. Genetically Mapuches differ from the adjacent indigenous peoples of Patagonia; this suggests a "different origin or long lasting separation of Mapuche and Patagonian populations". Troops of the Inca Empire are reported to have reached the Maule River and had a battle with the Mapuches between the Maule River and the Itata River there; the southern border of the Inca Empire is believed by most modern scholars to have been situated between Santiago and the Maipo River or somewhere between Santiago and the Maule River.
Thus the bulk of the Mapuche escaped Inca rule. Through their contact with Incan invaders Mapuches would have for the first time met people with state organization, their contact with the Incas gave them a collective awareness distinguishing between them and the invaders and uniting them into loose geo-political units despite their lack of state organization. At the time of the arrival of the first Spaniards to Chile the largest indigenous population concentration was in the area spanning from Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago—that is the Mapuche heartland; the Mapuche population between Itata River and Reloncaví Sound has been estimated at 705,000–900,000 in the mid-16th century by historian José Bengoa. The Spanish expansion into Mapuche territory was an offshoot of the conquest of Peru. In 1541 Pedro de Valdivia founded Santiago; the northern Mapuche tribes, known Promaucaes and Picunches, fought unsuccessfully against Spanis
Concepción Province, Chile
Concepción Province is one of four provinces of the Chilean region of Bío Bío. Its capital, Concepción, is part of the Greater Concepción conurbation, the nation's second largest metropolitan area after Santiago; as a province, Concepción is a second-level administrative division of Chile, governed by a provincial governor, appointed by the president. The province comprises twelve communes, each governed by a municipality consisting of an elected alcalde and municipal council. According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, the province spans an area of 3,439.3 km2 and had a population of 912,889 inhabitants, giving it a population density of 265.4/km2. It is the second most populated province after the more than five times larger Santiago Province. Of these, 879,854 lived in 33,035 in rural areas. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population grew by 8.5%
The Biobío River is the second largest river in Chile. It originates from Icalma and Galletué lakes in the Andes and flows 380 km to the Gulf of Arauco on the Pacific Ocean; the major tributaries of the river are the Laja. The river is Chile's second-longest river and Biobío basin is Chile's third largest watershed, after Loa and Baker basins; the river is the widest river in Chile, with an average width of 1 km. In the Metropolitan area of Concepción, the river is crossed by four bridges: Biobío Railroad Bridge, Biobío Bridge, Juan Pablo II Bridge and Llacolén Bridge; the Biobío river originates at the east shore of Galletué Lake. The river flows east for a few kilometers to the point where it receives the waters of the near Icalma Lake, through a short stream, it turns its course northwestward, meandering through a broad Andean valley and merging with some minor tributaries, as are the Lonquimay and the Rahue. The Lonquimay is fed by some glaciers of Sierra Nevada and passes close to the town of the same name.
Just downstream from the confluence with the Rahue, the upper course of the river-locally known as Alto Bío Bío-begins to run through a narrow valley surrounded by mountains, the path becoming sloped. The river, along the lower course of its tributaries in this area, is impounded by Ralco Dam. Below the dam, the river skirts a southwestern spur of Callaqui volcano before falling into Pangue Reservoir. After reaching the Intermediate Depression, the river flows through a flat area, being joined by the Duqueco and Bureo Rivers, increasing its width between 60 and 120 meters and reducing its speed, allowing navigation in some zones. In the middle course, the Vergara River joins the Biobío near Nacimiento, draining a substantial part of southern river basin after receiving the waters of the Malleco and Rahue Rivers, which constitute a northwest-oriented and parallel drainage network to the Biobío of a great part of the northern Andean portion of the Araucanía Region. Below the Vergara River the Biobío is joined by the Tavolevo River flowing east from the Nahuelbuta Range, the Guaqui River coming from the east in the Andes foothills, the small Rele River coming from the west from the northern part of the eastern slopes of the Nahuelbuta Range.
To the east of Chilean Coastal Range, near the cities of San Rosendo and La Laja, Biobío River is joined by the Laja River, its major tributary in terms of volume of water. From here, the river follows its course increasing its width reaching 2 km wide at its mouth on Pacific Ocean, near San Pedro de la Paz, Gran Concepción. Along the way the Quilacoya River joins the Biobío River on its north bank nine kilometers above the town of Hualqui; the name "Biobío" comes from the Mapuche language. The Biobío was the traditional borderline, or "La Frontera", during the part of the War of Arauco between La Araucanía, the southern Mapuche self-ruled areas and northern Spanish-ruled Captaincy General of Chile; the territory south of the river was not incorporated into the Chilean state until the 1880s after the campaigns of the "Pacification of Araucanía". In the past, the river was navigable by ship up to the city of Nacimiento. However, deforestation during the 1900s led to heavy erosion that choked the river with silt and made it untraversable to boats.
In the early 1980s it was renowned as being one of world's best whitewater rafting venues, with a trip that lasted seven days through some of Chile's wilderness areas. Endesa, the Chilean state-run power company at that time, constructed the Pangue Dam, despite strong protests by environmentalists. With the loss of the whitewater rafting venue, there was the displacement of indigenous Pehuenche people, who had lived in the area for centuries; this article draws on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, accessed July 10, 2007. EVALUACION DE LOS RECURSOS HIDRICOS SUPERFICIALES EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO BIO BIO
San Pedro de la Paz
San Pedro de la Paz is a Chilean city and commune located in the Concepción Province, Biobío Region. It has some 80,447 inhabitants according to the 2002 national census. In 2005, the Pedro Aguirre Cerda avenue, the main avenue in the city, was completed. Most of the inhabitants of this comuna commute daily to Concepción - either by car, bus or train - over the Biobío River, it is considered to be part of Greater Concepción conurbation. San Pedro was established during the Conquest of Chile first as fort la Candelaria, destroyed following the death of Governor Martín García Óñez de Loyola in 1599, it was rebuilt as part of La Frontera by Alonso de Ribera as fort San Pedro de la Paz in 1603. A small settlement grew up around it. During the Chilean War of Independence the town was burned in 1821, by the royalist Juan Manuel Picó on the order of Vicente Benavides during the Battle of San Pedro; the fort was ruined by the 1835 Concepción earthquake. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, San Pedro de la Paz spans an area of 112.5 km2 and has 80,447 inhabitants.
Of these, 80,159 lived in 288 in rural areas. The population grew by 18.6 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, San Pedro de la Paz is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Audito Retamal Lazo. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, San Pedro de la Paz is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by José Miguel Ortiz and Enrique Van Rysselberghe as part of the 44th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain and Hosain Sabag Castillo as part of the 12th senatorial constituency. Diccionario geográfico de la República de Chile, SEGUNDA EDICIÓN CORREGIDA Y AUMENTADA, NUEVA YORK, D. APPLETON Y COMPAÑÍA. 1899. Pg. 721 San Pedro de Bío-Bío Francisco Solano Asta Buruaga y Cienfuegos Municipality of San Pedro de la Paz
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. As the air mass gains altitude it cools down adiabatically, which can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create clouds and, under the right conditions, precipitation. Precipitation induced by orographic lift occurs in many places throughout the world. Examples include: The Mogollon Rim in central Arizona The western slope of the Sierra Nevada range in California The mountains near Baja California North – La Bocana to Laguna Hanson; the windward slopes of Khasi and Jayantia Hills in the state of Meghalaya in India. The Western Highlands of Yemen, which receive by far the most rain in Arabia; the Western Ghats that run along India's western coast. The Great Dividing Range of Eastern and South Eastern Australia which forces uplift of moist air originating from the ocean to the east; the mountains of New Zealand, which faces a prevailing westerly flow off the Tasman Sea.
The mountains of western Tasmania which face a prevailing westerly flow. The southern Andes, which faces a prevailing westerly flow off the Pacific Ocean; the Northwestern United States and Canada see prevailing westerly flow off the northern Pacific Ocean. Places on the sea-facing side of coastal mountains see in excess of 140 inches of precipitation per year; these locales are on the side of the mountains which are in the path of storm systems, therefore receive the moisture, squeezed from the clouds. The ski country region of New York and Pennsylvania with lake effect snows. Transylvania County, North Carolina, which gets the most rainfall of anywhere in the Eastern U. S.. The Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia; the Eastern seaboard of Madagascar. Table Mountain, Cape Town, South Africa; the cold Atlantic air mass flows up over the north western face to 3,500 feet above sea level and is met by the warm Indian Ocean air mass from the south eastern back side of the mountain forming the famous "Table Cloth".
Oppland mountain area, Norway. The Front Range Foothills of Northern Colorado – west of Boulder to Golden as storms pass by. Winter storms can produce 5–6 feet of snow; the highest precipitation amounts are found upwind from the prevailing winds at the crests of mountain ranges, where they relieve and therefore the upward lifting is greatest. As the air descends the lee side of the mountain, it dries, creating a rain shadow. On the lee side of the mountains, sometimes as little as 15 miles away from high precipitation zones, annual precipitation can be as low as 8 inches per year. Areas where this effect is observed include: The Himalayas block moisture from the Tibetan Plateau The Atacama Desert in Peru and Chile Switzerland's Rhone valley Areas east of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest Areas east of the Olympic Mountains in Washington state, The Great Basin of the United States, east of the Sierra Nevada Geography of the United States Pacific Mountain System Pacific Cordillera California's Central Valley The Canadian Prairies All of the Hawaiian Islands.
The entire island of Kaho'olawe is in the rain shadow of Maui North East England is in the rain shadow of the Pennines, this combined with Britain's prevailing wind from the South West. This explains the significant differences between the rainfall in the North North East; the Judean Desert in the Land of Israel and the Dead Sea. Downslope winds occur on the leeward side of mountain barriers when a stable air mass is carried over the mountain by strong winds that increase in strength with height. Moisture is removed and latent heat released as the air mass is orographically lifted; as the air mass descends, it is compression heated. The warm foehn wind, locally known as the Chinook wind, Bergwind or Diablo wind or Nor'wester depending on the region, provide examples of this type of wind, are driven in part by latent heat released by orographic-lifting-induced precipitation. A similar class of winds, the Sirocco, the Bora and Santa Ana winds, are examples where orographic lifting has limited effect since there is limited moisture to remove in the Saharan or other air masses.
As air flows over mountain barriers, orographic lift can create a variety of cloud effects. Orographic fog is formed as the air rises up the slope and will envelope the summit; when the air is humid, some of the moisture will fall on the windward slope and on the summit of the mountain. When there is a high wind, a banner cloud is formed downwind of the upper slopes of isolated, steep-sided mountains, it is created by the low pressure areas in the downwind vortices drawing in humid air from the lower slopes of the mountain. This reduction in pressure compared to the surrounding air increases condensation, in the same manner as an aircraft's wingtip vortices; the most famous such cloud forms in the lee of the Matterhorn. The leeward edge of an extensive mass of orographic clouds may be quite distinct. On the leeward side of the mountain, the air flowing downward is known as a foehn wind; because some of the moisture that has condensed on the top of the mountain has precipitated, the foehn is drier, the lower moisture content causes the descending air mass to warm up more than it had cooled down during ascent.
The distinct cut-off line which forms along and parallel to the ridge line is sometimes known as a foehn wall. This is because the edge appears stationary and it appears to h