Downtown is the largest business district in Houston, located near the geographic center of the metropolitan area at the confluence of Interstate 10, Interstate 45, Interstate 69. The 1.84-square-mile district, enclosed by the aforementioned highways, contains the original townsite of Houston at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou, a point known as Allen's Landing. Downtown has been the city's preeminent commercial district since its founding in 1836. Today home to nine Fortune 500 corporations, Downtown contains 50 million square feet of office space and is the workplace of 150,000 employees. Downtown is a major destination for entertainment and recreation. Nine major performing arts organizations are located within the 13,000-seat Theater District at prominent venues including Alley Theatre, Hobby Center for the Performing Arts, Jones Hall, the Wortham Theater Center. Two major professional sports venues, Minute Maid Park and the Toyota Center, are home to the Houston Astros and Houston Rockets, respectively.
Discovery Green, an urban park located on the east side of the district adjacent to the George R. Brown Convention Center, anchors the city's convention district. Downtown is Houston's civic center, containing Houston City Hall, the jail and civil courthouses of Harris County, a federal prison and courthouse. Downtown is a major public transportation hub, lying at the center of the light rail system and ride system, the metropolitan freeway network. Over 100,000 people commute through Downtown daily. An extensive network of pedestrian tunnels and skywalks connects a large number of buildings in the district. Geographically, Downtown is bordered by East Downtown to the east, Third Ward to the south, Midtown to the southwest, Fourth Ward to the west, Sixth Ward to the northwest, Near Northside to the north; the district's streets form a strict grid plan of 400 square blocks, oriented at a southwest to northeast angle. The northern end of the district is crossed by Buffalo Bayou, the banks of which function as a linear park with a grade-separated system of hike-and-bike trails.
Downtown Houston is a 1,178-acre area bounded by Interstate 45, Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59, Interstate 10/U. S. Highway 90. Several sub-districts exist within Downtown, including: Ballpark – Includes Minute Maid Park and surrounding restaurants and office space. Convention – Includes the George R. Brown Convention Center, Discovery Green, the Toyota Center, some of the largest hotels in the city. Civic Center – Contains the core of Houston's government, including City Hall – the Houston Public Library Central Library is here, Harris County – The district includes the Harris County courts complex, the University of Houston–Downtown is on the edge of the district. Historic – This was the original town center of Houston and dates from the 19th century; the center of the historic district is the Market Square, where the original city hall building stood. Medical – located along Interstate 45 in the southern corner of the district. Shopping – Main Street Square has a pavilion and fountains built around the Main Street Square Station – GreenStreet and the Shops at Houston Center are in the area.
Skyline -- forms the base of Downtown's employment. The buildings are connected by the extensive underground tunnel network. Theater – The 17 block area includes many performing arts venues, Bayou Place, the Houston Aquarium. Warehouse – Home to Houston’s alternative art scene, unique dining options, live music, artists’ studios and downtown’s first lofts. Downtown Houston encompasses the original townsite of Houston. After the Texas Revolution, two New York real estate investors, John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman Allen, purchased 6,642 acres of land from Thomas F. L. Parrot and his wife, for US$9,428; the Allen brothers settled at the confluence of White Oak and Buffalo bayous, a spot now known as Allen's Landing. A team of three surveyors, including Gail Borden, Jr. and Moses Lapham, platted a 62-square-block townsite in the fall of 1836, each block 250 by 250 feet, or 62,500 square feet in size. The grid plan was designed to conform to the winding route of Buffalo Bayou; each block was subdivided into 12 lots – five 50-by-100 foot lots on each side of the block, two 50-by-125 foot lots between the rows of five.
The Allen brothers, motivated by their vision for urban civic life, specified wide streets to accommodate commercial traffic and reserved blocks for schools and civic institutions. The townsite was cleared and drained by a team of Mexican prisoners and black slaves. By April 1837, Houston featured a dock, commercial district, the capitol building of the Republic of Texas, an estimated population of 1,500; the first city hall was sited at present-day Market Square Park in 1841. The relocation of the Texan republic's capital to Houston required a significant political campaign by the Allen brothers; the Allens gifted a number of city blocks to prominent Texas politicians and agreed to construct the new capitol building and a large hotel at no cost to the government. The Allens donated blocks to celebrities, prominent lawyers
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind only the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. With its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houston's newspaper of record; the Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, a held multinational corporate media conglomerate with $10 billion in revenues. The paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including 300 journalists and photographers; the Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and Austin. It reports; the publication serves as the "newspaper of record" of the Houston area. Headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway, it has two websites: houstonchronicle.com. Chron.com is free and has breaking news, traffic, pop culture, events listings, city guides.
Houstonchronicle.com, launched in 2012 and accessible after subscription purchase, contains analysis, reporting and everything found in the daily newspaper. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers; the history of the newspaper can be best understood. The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a former reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post, Marcellus E. Foster. Foster, covering the Spindletop oil boom for the Post, invested in Spindletop and took $30 of the return on that investment — at the time equivalent to a week's wages — and used it to fund the Chronicle; the Chronicle's first edition was published on October 14, 1901 and sold for two cents per copy, at a time when most papers sold for five cents each. At the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper consolidated the Daily Herald.
In 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones, a local businessman and prominent builder, to construct a new office and plant for the paper, "and offered half-interest in the newspaper as a down payment, with twenty years to pay the remainder. Jones agreed, the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South."Under Foster, the paper's circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, drew much attention in the 1920s for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows. On a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicle's reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by its readers, it has grown into a citywide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.
In 2003, Goodfellows distributed 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area. In 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper, he had approached Foster about selling, Foster had answered, "What will you give me?". Jones described the buyout of Foster as follows: Wanting to be liberal with Foster if I bought him out, since he had created the paper and owned most of the stock, had made a success of it, I thought for a while before answering and asked him how much he owed, he replied,'On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars.' I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts and give him 100,000 spending money. In addition, I would give him a note for 500,000 secured by a mortgage on the Chronicle Building, the note to be payable at the rate of 35,000 a year for thirty-five years, which I figured was about his expectancy. I would pay him 20,000 dollars a year as editor of the paper and 6,000 dollars a year to continue writing the daily front-page column,'MEFO,' on the condition that either of us could cancel the editorship and/or the MEFO-column contracts on six months notice, that, if I canceled both the column and the editorship, I would give him an additional 6,000 dollars a year for life.
I considered the offer more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said,'I will take it,' and the transaction was completed accordingly. In 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. According to The Handbook of Texas Online, the Chronicle represented conservative political views during the 1950s: "...the Chronicle represented the conservative political interests of the Houston business establishment. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of rapid economic growth on life in the city, it did not perform investigative journalism. This resulted in a stodgy newspaper. By 1959, circulation of the rival Houston Post had pulled ahead of the Chronicle."Jones, a lifelong Democrat who organized the Democratic National Convention to be in Houston in 1928, who spent long years in public service first under the Wilson administration, helping to found the Red Cross
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Bank of China Tower (Hong Kong)
The Bank of China Tower is one of the most recognisable skyscrapers in Central, Hong Kong. Located at 1 Garden Road, the tower houses the headquarters of the Bank of China Limited. Designed by I. M. Pei and L. C Pei of I. M Pei and Partners, the building is 315.0 m high with two masts reaching 367.4 m high. It was the tallest building in Hong Kong and Asia from 1989 to 1992, it was the first supertall skyscraper outside the United States, the first to break the 305 m mark, it is now the fourth tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong, after International Commerce Centre, Two International Finance Centre and Central Plaza. The 6,700 m2 site on which the building is constructed was the location of Murray House. After its brick-by-brick relocation to Stanley, the site was sold by the Government for "only HK$1 billion" in August 1982 amidst growing concern over the future of Hong Kong in the run-up to the transfer of sovereignty; the building was built by the Hong Kong Branch of the Bank of China. The top four and the bottom 19 storeys are used by the Bank.
Ownership has since been transferred to BOCHK, although the Bank of China has leased back several floors for use by its own operations in Hong Kong. The Government had given preferential treatment to Chinese companies, was again criticised for the apparent preferential treatment to the BOCHK; the price paid was half the amount of the 6,250 m² Admiralty II plot, for which the MTR Corporation paid HK$1.82 billion in cash. The BOC would make initial payment of $60 million, with the rest payable over 13 years at 6% interest; the announcement of the sale was poorly handled, a dive in business confidence ensued. The Hang Seng Index fell 80 points, the HK$ lost 1.5% of its value the next day. The tower was built by Japanese contractor Kumagai Gumi. Superstructure work began in May 1986; the tower is a steel-frame structure. The spray-on fireproofing material applied to the steel structure, a product called Monokote MK-5, was a source of controversy as it contains asbestos. At the time, the use of asbestos was only banned in Hong Kong.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 interrupted publicity surrounding the building's design and construction. A press conference scheduled for 24 May 1989, two weeks before the massacre, was intended to show off the building's "designer socialist furnishings", but was called off as the student demonstrations in Beijing escalated; the public relations firm that organised the conference explained to the South China Morning Post that "under the circumstances, it has been decided to stop any publicity to do with the Bank of China."Once developed, gross floor area was expected to be 100,000 m². The original project was intended for completion on the auspicious date of 8 August 1988. However, owing to project delays, groundbreaking took place in March 1985 two years late, it was topped out in 1989, occupied on 15 June 1990. Designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect I. M. Pei, the building is 315.0 m high with two masts reaching 367.4 m high. The 72-storey building is located near Central MTR station.
This was the tallest building in Hong Kong and Asia from 1990 to 1992, the first building outside the United States to break the 305 m mark, the first composite space frame high-rise building. That means it was the tallest outside the United States from its completion year, 1990, it is now the fourth tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong, after International Commerce Centre, Two International Finance Centre and Central Plaza. A small observation deck on the 43rd floor of the building was once open to the public, but is now closed; the whole structure is supported by the four steel columns at the corners of the building, with the triangular frameworks transferring the weight of the structure onto these four columns. It is covered with glass curtain walls. While its distinctive look makes it one of Hong Kong's most identifiable landmarks today, it was the source of some controversy at one time, as the bank is the only major building in Hong Kong to have bypassed the convention of consulting with feng shui masters on matters of design prior to construction.
The building has been criticised by some practitioners of feng shui for its sharp edges and its negative symbolism by the numerous'X' shapes in its original design, though Pei modified the design to some degree before construction following this feedback. The building's profile from some angles resembles that of a meat cleaver and it is sometimes referred to as a "vertical knife"; this earned it the nickname “一把刀” in Cantonese meaning'One Knife'. The Bank Of China Tower can be accessed by the Mass Transit Railway by walking through Chater Garden from Central Station Exit J2. In the 2012 film Battleship, the building is torn in half by a crashing alien spaceship and its spire falls into the streets of Hong Kong, killing many people. In Star Trek: Voyager, the building is used as the exterior of Starfleet Communications Research Center; the building in seen on the attraction It's a Small World at Hong Kong Disneyland. The building was featured in the film Transformers: Age of Extinction, where Bumblebee and Dinobot Strafe makes their final stand against the Decepticon drone Stinger.
The building appears in Cardcaptor Sakura: The Movie for several scenes. Bank of China Building, the old headquarters of the Bank of China List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong List of buildings and structures in Hong Kong List of tallest freestanding structures in the world About BOC Tower on Bank of China website Great Buildings Online
KBR Tower is a 550 ft tall skyscraper in Downtown Houston, United States. The KBR Tower has the headquarters of KBR; the 40 story building has about 1,047,748 square feet of rentable office space. The design architect was Neuhaus & Taylor, the general contractor was Linbeck Construction Company, the mechanical engineer was Sam P. Wallace, the structural engineer was Ellisor Engineering, Inc; the building was completed in 1973. By 1991, Dresser Industries and its subsidiary, M. W. Kellogg, switched office buildings. Kellogg took over 400,000 square feet of space on 16 floors of the Houston skyscraper occupied by its parent firm; the skyscraper was renamed the M. W. Kellogg Tower. In exchange Dresser took over space at 3 Greenway Plaza, renamed to the Dresser Tower; the building swap satisfied Kellogg's need for more space. In 1998, Exxon announced that it was forming Exxon Upstream Development Co.. The company planned to house the company in the Kellogg Tower before moving it to the Greenspoint business district.
By 2001, Halliburton owned the tower in a joint venture with TrizecHahn. In August of that year, Halliburton announced that it would consolidate 8,000 local employees to office space in Westchase. Halliburton planned to vacate about 650,000 square feet of Class B office space in the Kellogg Tower. In December 2001 Halliburton canceled its plans to relocate employees to Westchase. Nancy Sarnoff of the Houston Business Journal said that it made more sense for the company to lease existing space instead of constructing new office space in times of economic downturns. In 2004, Jeanneret & Associates renewed its lease of 9,806 square feet space in the KBR Tower for 10 years. In 2009, at the KBR Tower, Brookfield Properties began offering office suites from 1,200 square feet to 2,000 square feet to small businesses and laid off individuals seeking to start their own businesses. In 2010, KBR signed a 20-year lease for 1,200,000 square feet at 500 Jefferson. In 2011 Brookfield Properties Corp. offered a 50% interest in the KBR Tower for sale.
Paul Layne, Suresh Brookfield's Houston area executive vice president, said that the KBR lease made the building a major candidate for the sale of its interest. KBR owns the other 50% interest. Layne did not state. Layne said. In 2012 an affiliate of W. P. Carey purchased the KBR Tower. List of tallest buildings in Houston Emporis Skyscraperpage Brookfield Properties
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and headquartered in Houston, Texas. It had ownership interests and brand partnerships with several carriers. Continental started out as one of the smaller carriers in the United States, known for its limited operations under the regulated era. Post 1978, Continental grew into one of the country's largest carriers despite facing financial troubles and other issues becoming one of the more successful airlines in the United States; the airline merged with UAL Corporation via a stock swap in 2010. Continental's shares were acquired by UAL Corporation. During the integration period, each airline ran a separate operation under the direction of a combined leadership team, based in Chicago; the integration was completed on March 3, 2012. Although the merged airline retained the United name, it uses Continental's operating certificate and livery. Varney Speed Lines was formed in 1934, operating airmail and passenger services in the American Southwest over a route originating from El Paso and extending through Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, New Mexico to Pueblo, Colorado.
The airline commenced operations with the Lockheed Vega, a single-engine plane that carried four passengers. Following cancellation of all domestic airmail contracts by the Roosevelt administration in 1934, Robert F. Six learned of an opportunity to buy into the Southwest Division of Varney Speed Lines which needed money to handle its newly won Pueblo-El Paso route. Six was introduced to Louis Mueller. Mueller had helped found the Southwest Division of Varney in 1934 with Walter T. Varney; as an upshot of all this, Six bought into the airline with US$90,000 and became general manager on July 5, 1936. Varney was awarded a 17-cent-rate airmail contract between El Paso; the carrier was renamed Continental Air Lines on July 8, 1937. Six relocated the airline's headquarters to Denver Union Airport in Denver in October 1937. Six changed the name to "Continental" because he wanted the airline name to reflect his desire to have the airline fly all directions throughout the United States. During World War II Continental's Denver maintenance base converted Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, Boeing B-29 Superfortresses and North American P-51 Mustangs for the United States Army Air Forces.
Profits from military transportation and aircraft conversion enabled Continental to contemplate expansion and acquisition of new airliners after the war. Among those were the Douglas DC-3, the Convair 240 and the Convair 340; the Convairs were Continental's first pressurized airliners. The airline's early route was El Paso to Albuquerque and Denver, with routes being added during the war from Denver, El Paso eastward across Kansas, New Mexico, Texas. In 1946 Continental flew Denver to Kansas City, Tulsa, to Oklahoma City, from El Paso and Albuquerque to San Antonio; each route included stops in several of 22 smaller cities. In the early 1950s, Continental began several interchange routes with American and United Airlines. Routes were operated on American from Los Angeles and San Francisco to El Paso continuing onto Continental's route to San Antonio and Houston. Continental's Denver to Kansas City route would interchange onto St. Louis with Braniff Airways and United's routes from Seattle and Portland to Denver would interchange with Continental's routes onto Wichita and Tulsa.
These interchange routes continued for many years until Continental was able to secure routes of its own between each city. In 1955 Continental merged with Pioneer Air Lines, gaining access to 16 more cities in Texas and New Mexico. In August 1953 Continental flew to 35 airports and Pioneer flew to 19, but Continental's network didn't reach beyond Denver, El Paso and Kansas City until April 1957 when it started Chicago-Denver-Los Angeles, two Douglas DC-7Bs a day each way. Pioneer's Executive Vice President Harding Luther Lawrence arrived at Continental as a result of the merger. Bob Six commented on more than one occasion that, "the reason we bought Pioneer was to get Harding." Harding Lawrence implemented several innovative changes at Continental as well as a flamboyant advertising campaign during his ten years as Six's protege. During Lawrence's tenure Continental grew by 500 percent. Lawrence left Continental in April 1965 to head Braniff Airways. Six petitioned the Civil Aeronautics Board for longer routes to larger cities, hoping to transform the regional into a trunkline like United Airlines, TWA, American Airlines.
He was discussing with Boeing for Continental to become one of the first to operate the soon-to-be-launched 707. The timing was crucial, since new routes would justify the 707s, vice versa. Continental Airlines had seen a broad expansion of its routes, thanks to a responsive CAB and persistent efforts by Six and Executive Vice President Harding Lawrence, who both referred to his company as "the Airline that needs to grow." In 1958 Continental began turboprop flights with the Vickers Viscount on the new medium-haul routes. The CAB permitted Continental to drop service at many smaller cities, enabling the carrier's new aircraft to operate more economically on longer flights. In 1960 Continental flew more than three times the passenger-miles it had in 1956. (Aviation Week June 22, 1959: "Continental's current re-equipment program — involving a tota