The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Economy of Argentina
The economy of Argentina is a high income economy for fiscal year 2017 according to the World Bank. It is Latin America's third largest economy, the second largest in South America behind Brazil; the country benefits from rich natural resources, a literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, a diversified industrial base. Argentina's economic performance has been uneven, in which high economic growth alternated with severe recessions since the late twentieth century, income maldistribution and poverty increased. Early in the twentieth century Argentina had one of the ten highest per capita GDP levels in the world, at par with Canada and Australia and surpassing both France and Italy. Argentina's currency declined by about 50% in 2018 to more than 38 Argentine pesos per U. S. Dollar and today is under a stand-by program from the International Monetary Fund. Argentina is considered an emerging market by the FTSE Global Equity Index, is one of the G-20 major economies. Prior to the 1880s, Argentina was a isolated backwater, dependent on the salted meat, wool and hide industries for both the greater part of its foreign exchange and the generation of domestic income and profits.
The Argentine economy began to experience swift growth after 1880 through the export of livestock and grain commodities, as well as through British and French investment, marking the beginning of a fifty-year era of significant economic expansion and mass European immigration. During its most vigorous period, from 1880 to 1905, this expansion resulted in a 7.5-fold growth in GDP, averaging about 8% annually. One important measure of development, GDP per capita, rose from 35% of the United States average to about 80% during that period. Growth slowed such that by 1941 Argentina's real per capita GDP was half that of the U. S. So, from 1890 to 1950 the country's per capita income was similar to that of Western Europe; the Great Depression caused Argentine GDP to fall by a fourth between 1929 and 1932. Having recovered its lost ground by the late 1930s through import substitution, the economy continued to grow modestly during World War II; the war led to a reduced availability of imports and higher prices for Argentine exports that combined to create a US$1.6 billion cumulative surplus, a third of, blocked as inconvertible deposits in the Bank of England by the Roca–Runciman Treaty.
Benefiting from innovative self-financing and government loans alike, value added in manufacturing surpassed that of agriculture for the first time in 1943, employed over 1 million by 1947, allowed the need for imported consumer goods to decline from 40% of the total to 10% by 1950. The populist administration of Juan Perón nationalized the Central Bank and other strategic industries and services from 1945 to 1955; the subsequent enactment of developmentalism after 1958, though partial, was followed by a promising fifteen years. Inflation first became a chronic problem during this period. While unremarkable, this expansion was well-distributed and so resulted in several noteworthy changes in Argentine society - most notably the development of the largest proportional middle class in Latin America as well as the region's highest-paid, most unionized working class; the economy, declined during the military dictatorship from 1976 to 1983, for some time afterwards. The dictatorship's chief economist, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, advanced a corrupt, anti-labor policy of financial liberalization that increased the debt burden and interrupted industrial development and upward social mobility.
Over 400,000 companies of all sizes went bankrupt by 1982, neoliberal economic policies prevailing from 1983 through 2001 failed to reverse the situation. Record foreign debt interest payments, tax evasion, capital flight resulted in a balance of payments crisis that plagued Argentina with severe stagflation from 1975 to 1990, including a bout of hyperinflation in 1989 and 1990. Attempting to remedy this situation, economist Domingo Cavallo pegged the peso to the U. S. limited the growth in the money supply. His team embarked on a path of trade liberalization and privatization. Inflation dropped to single digits and GDP grew by one third in four years. External economic shocks, as well as a dependency on volatile short-term capital and debt to maintain the overvalued fixed exchange rate, diluted benefits, causing erratic economic growth from 1995 and the eventual collapse in 2001; that year and the next, the economy suffered its sharpest decline since 1930. Argentina's socio-economic situation has since been improving.
Expansionary policies and commodity exports triggered a rebound in GDP from 2003 onward. This trend has been maintained, creating over five million jobs and encouraging domestic consumption and fixed investment. Social programs were strengthened, a number of important firms privatized during the 1990s were renationalized beginning in 2003; these include the postal service, AySA, Pension funds, Aerolíneas Argentinas, the energy firm YPF, the railways. The economy nearly dou
December 2001 riots in Argentina
The December 2001 crisis, sometimes known as the Argentinazo, was a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on 19 and 20 December in the capital, Buenos Aires and other large cities around the country. It was preceded by a popular revolt against the Argentine government, rallying behind the motto "All of them must go!", which caused the resignation of then-president Fernando de la Rúa, giving way to a period of political instability during which five government officials performed the duties of the Argentinian presidency. This period of instability occurred during the larger period of crisis known as the Argentine great depression, an economic and social crisis that lasted from 1998 until 2002; the December 2001 crisis was a direct response to the government's imposition of "Corral" policies at the behest of economic minister Domingo Cavallo, which restricted people's ability to withdraw cash from banks.
Rioting and protests became widespread on 19 December 2001 following the president's declaration of a state of emergency and his resignation on the following day. A state of extreme institutional instability continued for the next twelve days, during which the successor president Adolfo Rodríguez Saá resigned as well. While the degree of instability subsided, the events of December 2001 would become a blow against the legitimacy of the Argentine government that would persist for the following years; the majority of the participants in the protests were unaffiliated with any political party or organization. Over the course of the protests, 39 people were killed by security forces. Of the 39 killed, nine were minors, an indication of the degree of repression ordered by the government to oppose the protests. Fernando de la Rúa, as the candidate for the Alliance for Work and Education, had assumed the role of president in December of 1999 in the middle of a recession, caused in part by the Convertibility plan passed in 1991 which pegged the value of the Argentine peso to the United States dollar.
While political reforms under the previous president Carlos Menem had succeeded in reducing inflation, the downsides of his economic policies became more and more apparent starting in 1997. Maintaining the convertibility of pesos to dollars required the government of Argentina to obtain an abundant supply of American dollars. At first, this supply was maintained by the privatization of nearly all of the Argentinian state's industries and pension funds; as the privatization process was completed, Argentina's agriculture export-based economy was unable to maintain a sufficient flow of dollars to the state, the system began to require more and more sovereign debt. One of the key factors leading to the victory of the Alliance in the 1999 elections was its promise to uphold the convertibility plan. One of de la Rúa's campaign slogans declared "With me, one peso, one dollar". Despite a changing international economic situation, mounting demands for increased monetary sovereignty, the Alliance committed itself to maintain the status quo at all costs.
De la Rúa's political situation was precarious. His arrival to power in 1999 had been possible thanks to the Alliance for Work and Education, a coalition formed by the Radical Civic Union and the FrePaSo, which managed to defeat the incumbent Justicialist Party in that year's presidential elections. However, the Alliance failed to achieve a majority in the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, lost the provincial elections to the Peronists, who remained in charge of large and critical districts such as the Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Santa Fe provinces; the government coalition was strained from the first moment. In late 2000 a political scandal broke out when it was reported that SIDE, Argentina's intelligence service, had paid massive bribes to a number of senators to approve a controversial Labor Reform Act; the head of SIDE, Fernando de Santibañes, was a personal friend of De la Rúa. The crisis came to a head on October 2000 when Vice President Carlos Álvarez resigned, citing De la Rúa's unwillingness to tackle corruption.
De la Rúa's economic policies suffered a severe blow in March 2001 when Economy Minister José Luis Machinea resigned from office. He was replaced by the then-Defense Minister Ricardo López Murphy, who himself was forced to resign following negative reception to his shock program. After only two weeks in office, López Murphy was replaced by Domingo Cavallo, who had served as Economy Minister between 1991 and 1996, and, the original author of the Convertibility plan during Menem's presidency; because of the worsening economic situation and mounting foreign debt, the government enacted two enormous campaigns of debt-expansion and refinancing under the supervision of the International Monetary Fund, named "The armoring" and "The Megaexchange" respectively. From the first moment, there were allegations of corruption and money laundering about the megacanje; the crisis caused the resignation of all the FrePaSo Cabin
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include corporate bonds; the bond is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to pay them interest or to repay the principal at a date, termed the maturity date. Interest is payable at fixed intervals; the bond is negotiable, that is, the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. This means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond, it is liquid on the secondary market, thus a bond is a form of loan or IOU: the holder of the bond is the lender, the issuer of the bond is the borrower, the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit or short-term commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds: the main difference is the length of the term of the instrument.
Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that stockholders have an equity stake in a company, whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company. Being a creditor, bondholders have priority over stockholders; this means they will be repaid in advance of stockholders, but will rank behind secured creditors, in the event of bankruptcy. Another difference is that bonds have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks remain outstanding indefinitely. An exception is an irredeemable bond, such as a consol, a perpetuity, that is, a bond with no maturity. In English, the word "bond" relates to the etymology of "bind". In the sense "instrument binding one to pay a sum to another", use of the word "bond" dates from at least the 1590s. Bonds are issued by public authorities, credit institutions and supranational institutions in the primary markets; the most common process for issuing bonds is through underwriting. When a bond issue is underwritten, one or more securities firms or banks, forming a syndicate, buy the entire issue of bonds from the issuer and re-sell them to investors.
The security firm takes the risk of being unable to sell on the issue to end investors. Primary issuance is arranged by bookrunners who arrange the bond issue, have direct contact with investors and act as advisers to the bond issuer in terms of timing and price of the bond issue; the bookrunner is listed first among all underwriters participating in the issuance in the tombstone ads used to announce bonds to the public. The bookrunners' willingness to underwrite must be discussed prior to any decision on the terms of the bond issue as there may be limited demand for the bonds. In contrast, government bonds are issued in an auction. In some cases, both members of the public and banks may bid for bonds. In other cases, only market makers may bid for bonds; the overall rate of return on the bond depends on the price paid. The terms of the bond, such as the coupon, are fixed in advance and the price is determined by the market. In the case of an underwritten bond, the underwriters will charge a fee for underwriting.
An alternative process for bond issuance, used for smaller issues and avoids this cost, is the private placement bond. Bonds sold directly to buyers may not be tradeable in the bond market. An alternative practice of issuance was for the borrowing government authority to issue bonds over a period of time at a fixed price, with volumes sold on a particular day dependent on market conditions; this was called a tap bond tap. Nominal, par, or face amount is the amount on which the issuer pays interest, which, most has to be repaid at the end of the term; some structured bonds can have a redemption amount, different from the face amount and can be linked to the performance of particular assets. The issuer has to repay the nominal amount on the maturity date; as long as all due payments have been made, the issuer has no further obligations to the bond holders after the maturity date. The length of time until the maturity date is referred to as the term or tenor or maturity of a bond; the maturity can be any length of time, although debt securities with a term of less than one year are designated money market instruments rather than bonds.
Most bonds have a term of up to 30 years. Some bonds have been issued with terms of 50 years or more, there have been some issues with no maturity date. In the market for United States Treasury securities, there are three categories of bond maturities: short term: maturities between one and five years; the coupon is the interest rate. This rate is fixed throughout the life of the bond, it can vary with a money market index, such as LIBOR, or it can be more exotic. The name "coupon" arose because in the past, paper bond certificates were issued which had coupons attached to them, one for each interest payment. On the due dates the bondholder would hand in the coupon to a bank in exchange for the interest payment. Interest can be paid at different frequencies: semi-annual, i.e. every 6 months, or annual. The yield is the rate of return received from investing in the bond, it refers either to The current yield, or running yield
A cheque, or check, is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued. The person writing the cheque, known as the drawer, has a transaction banking account where their money is held; the drawer writes the various details including the monetary amount, a payee on the cheque, signs it, ordering their bank, known as the drawee, to pay that person or company the amount of money stated. Cheques are a type of bill of exchange and were developed as a way to make payments without the need to carry large amounts of money. Paper money evolved from promissory notes, another form of negotiable instrument similar to cheques in that they were a written order to pay the given amount to whoever had it in their possession. A cheque is a negotiable instrument instructing a financial institution to pay a specific amount of a specific currency from a specified transactional account held in the drawer's name with that institution.
Both the drawer and payee may be legal entities. Cheques are order instruments, are not in general payable to the bearer as bearer instruments are, but must be paid to the payee. In some countries, such as the US, the payee may endorse the cheque, allowing them to specify a third party to whom it should be paid. Although forms of cheques have been in use since ancient times and at least since the 9th century, it was during the 20th century that cheques became a popular non-cash method for making payments and the usage of cheques peaked. By the second half of the 20th century, as cheque processing became automated, billions of cheques were issued annually. Since cheque usage has fallen, being replaced by electronic payment systems. In an increasing number of countries cheques have either become a marginal payment system or have been phased out; the spellings check and cheque were used interchangeably from the 17th century until the 20th century. However, since the 19th century, the spelling cheque has become standard for the financial instrument in the Commonwealth and Ireland, while check is used only for other meanings, thus distinguishing the two definitions in writing.
In American English, the usual spelling for both is check. Etymological dictionaries attribute the financial meaning to come from "a check against forgery", with the use of "check" to mean "control" stemming from a check in chess, a term which came into English through French, Latin and from the Persian word "shah" or "king"; the cheque had its origins in the ancient banking system, in which bankers would issue orders at the request of their customers, to pay money to identified payees. Such an order was referred to as a bill of exchange; the use of bills of exchange facilitated trade by eliminating the need for merchants to carry large quantities of currency to purchase goods and services. There is early evidence of using cheques. In India, during the Mauryan period, a commercial instrument called the adesha was in use, an order on a banker desiring him to pay the money of the note to a third person; the ancient Romans are believed to have used an early form of cheque known as praescriptiones in the 1st century BCE.
Beginning in the third century CE, banks in Persian territory began to issue letters of credit. These letters were termed čak, meaning "document" or "contract"; the čak became the sakk used by traders in the Abbasid Caliphate and other Arab-ruled lands. Transporting a paper sakk was more secure than transporting money. In the ninth century, a merchant in one country could cash a sakk drawn on his bank in another country. In the 13th century in Venice the bill of exchange was developed as a legal device to allow international trade without the need to carry large amounts of gold and silver, their use subsequently spread to other European countries. In the early 1500s in the Dutch Republic, to protect large accumulations of cash, people began depositing their money with "cashiers"; these cashiers held the money for a fee. Competition drove cashiers to offer additional services including paying money to any person bearing a written order from a depositor to do so, they kept the note as proof of payment.
This concept went on to spread to elsewhere. By the 17th century, bills of exchange were being used for domestic payments in England. Cheques, a type of bill of exchange began to evolve, they were called drawn notes, because they enabled a customer to draw on the funds that he or she had in the account with a bank and required immediate payment. These were handwritten, one of the earliest known still to be in existence was drawn on Messrs Morris and Clayton and bankers based in the City of London, dated 16 February 1659. In 1717, the Bank of England pioneered the first use of a pre-printed form; these forms were printed on "cheque paper" to prevent fraud, customers had to attend in person and obtain a numbered form from the cashier. Once written, the cheque was brought back to the bank for settlement; the suppression of banknotes in eighteenth-century England further promoted the use of cheques. Until about 1770, an informal exchange of cheques took place between London banks. Clerks of each bank visited all the other banks to exchange cheques, whilst keeping a tally of balances between them until they settled with each other.
Daily cheque clearing began around 1770 when the bank clerks met at the Five Bells, a tavern in Lombard Street in the City of London, to exchange all their cheques in