Boulogne-sur-Mer called Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, the 60th-largest in France, it is the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring. Boulogne is an ancient town, was the major Roman port for trade and communication with its Province of Britain. After a period of Germanic presence following the collapse of the Empire, Boulogne was at the centre of the County of Boulogne of the Kingdom of France during the Middle Ages, was occupied by the Kingdom of England numerous times due to conflict between the two nations. In 1805 it was a staging area for Napoleon's troops for several months during his planned invasion of the United Kingdom; the city's 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre Nausicaa.
The French name Boulogne derives from the Latin Bononia, the Roman name for Bologna in Italy. Both places—and Vindobona —are thought to have derived from native Celtic placenames, with bona meaning "foundation", "citadel", or "granary"; the French epithet sur-Mer distinguishes the city from Boulogne-Billancourt on the edge of Paris. In turn, the Boulogne in Boulogne-Billancourt originates from a church there dedicated to Notre-Dame de Boulogne, "Our Lady of Boulogne". Boulogne-sur-Mer is in Northern France, at the edge of the Channel and in the mouth of the river "Liane"; as the crow flies, Boulogne is at 30 kilometres from Calais, 50 kilometres from Folkestone, 100 kilometres from Lille and Amiens, 150 kilometres from Rouen and 215 kilometres from Paris. Boulogne is a important city of the North, exercising an influence on the "Boulonnais" territory; the coast consists of important tourist natural sites, like the capes Gris Nez and Blanc Nez, attractive seaside resorts like Wimereux, Hardelot and Le Touquet.
The hinterland is rural and agricultural. Boulogne is close to the A16 motorway. Metropolitan bus services are operated by "Marinéo"; the company Flixbus propose a bus line connecting Paris to Boulogne. There are coach services to Dunkerque; the city has railway stations, which the most important is Boulogne-Ville station, located in the south of the city. Boulogne-Tintelleries station is used by regional trains, it is located near the city centre. The former Boulogne-Maritime and Boulogne-Aéroglisseurs stations served as a boat connection for the railway. Boulogne has no cross channel ferry services since the closure of the route to Dover by LD Lines in 2010; the regional trains are TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais run by SNCF. The principal service runs from Gare de Boulogne-Ville via Gare de Calais-Fréthun, Gare de Calais-Ville to Gare de Lille-Flandres; the city is divided into several parts: City centre: groups historic and administrative buildings, accommodations, banks, pedestrian streets and places.
Fortified town: old-town where are a lot of historic monuments and the city hall and the courthouse. It is surrounded by 13th-century ramparts appreciated today by walkers. Gambetta-Sainte-Beuve: tourist area situated in the northwest of the city, on the edge of the beach and the recreational harbour. Capécure: economic and industrial area, situated in the west of the city, around the harbour. Saint-Pierre: former neighborhood of the fishermen, destroyed during World War II and reconstructed after. Chemin Vert: zone created in the 1950s, knowing today poverty and unemployment, it is the neighborhood of Franck Ribéry. Dernier Sou: residential area situated in the east of the city. Beaurepaire: residential area situated in the north of the city. Bréquerecque: residential area situated in the south of the city. Boulogne-sur-Mer has an oceanic climate that has chilly winters not far above freezing and cool summers tempered by its exposure to the sea. Considering its position, the climate is quite cold in relation to south and east coast locations in England year round.
Precipitation is higher than in said southern English locations. The foundation of the city known to the Romans as Gesoriacum is credited to the Celtic Boii. In the past,it was sometimes conflated with Caesar's Portus Itius, but, now thought to have been a site near Calais which has since silted up. From the time of Claudius's invasion in AD 43, Gesoriacum formed the major port connecting the rest of the empire to Britain, it was the chief base of the Roman navy's Britannic fleet until the rebellion of its admiral Carausius in 286. As part of the imperial response, the junior emperor Constantius Chlorus besieged it by land and sea in 293; the name of the settlement was changed to Bononia at some point between the sack of Gesoriacum and 310 as a consequence of its refounding or by the replacement of the sacked and lower-lying city by another nearby community. The city was an important town of the Morini, Zosimus called it Germanorum at the end of the 4th century. In the Middle Ages Boulogne wa
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Monte Carlo Rally
The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. Competitors would set off from all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet, in Monaco to celebrate the end of a unique event. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating improvements and innovations to automobiles. In 1909 the Automobile Club de Monaco started planning a car rally at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco; the Monte Carlo Rally was to converge on Monte Carlo. In January 1911 23 cars set out from 11 different locations and Henri Rougier was among the nine who left Paris to cover a 1,020 kilometres route; the event was won by Rougier in a Turcat-Méry 25 Hp. The rally comprised both driving and somewhat arbitrary judging based on the elegance of the car, passenger comfort and the condition in which it arrived in the principality.
The outcry of scandal when the results were published changed nothing, so Rougier was proclaimed the first winner. The 1966 event was the most controversial in the history of the Rally; the first four finishers, driving three Mini-Coopers, Timo Mäkinen, Rauno Aaltonen and Paddy Hopkirk, Roger Clark's 4th-placed Ford Cortina were all disqualified because they used non-dipping single filament quartz iodine bulbs in their headlamps, in place of the standard double filament dipping glass bulbs, which are fitted to the series production version of each models sold to the public. This elevated Pauli Toivonen into first place overall. Rosemary Smith was disqualified from sixth place, after winning the Coupe des Dames, the ladies' class. In all, ten cars were disqualified. Teams threatened to boycott the event; the headline in Motor Sport read "The Monte Carlo Fiasco." From 1973 to 2008 the rally was held in January as the first event of the FIA World Rally Championship, but between 2009 to 2011 it has been the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge programme, a championship for N/A 4WD cars, before returning to the WRC championship season again in 2012.
As as 1991, competitors were able to choose their starting points from five venues equidistant from Monte Carlo itself. With varying conditions at each starting point, this event places a big emphasis on tyre choices, as a driver has to balance the need for grip on ice and snow with the need for grip on dry tarmac. For the driver, this is a difficult choice as the tyres that work well on snow and ice perform badly on dry tarmac; the Automobile Club de Monaco confirmed on 19 July 2010 that the 79th Monte-Carlo Rally would form the opening round of the new Intercontinental Rally Challenge season. To mark the centenary event, the Automobile Club de Monaco has confirmed that Glasgow, Barcelona and Marrakesh have been selected as start points for the rally; this rally features one of the most famous special stages in the world. The stage is run from La Bollène-Vésubie to Sospel, or the other way around, over a steep and tight mountain road with many hairpin turns. On this 31km route it passes over the Col de Turini, a mountain pass road which has ice and/or snow on sections of it at that time of the year.
Spectators throw snow on the road—in 2005, Marcus Grönholm and Petter Solberg both ripped a wheel off their cars when they skidded on snow placed there by spectators, crashed into a wall. Grönholm went on to finish fifth, but Solberg was forced to retire as the damage to his car was extensive. In the same event, Sébastien Loeb set one of the fastest times in the modern era, with 21 minutes 40 seconds. Sospel has an elevation of 479m, the D70 has a maximum elevation of 1603m, for an average gradient of 6.7%. The Turini is driven at night, with thousands of fans watching the "Night of Turini" known as the "Night of the Long Knives" due to the strong high beam lights cutting through the night. In the 2007 edition of the rally, the Turini was not used. For both the 2009 and 2010 event the stage was shown live on Eurosport. † – Event was shortened after stages were cancelled. Monte Carlo or Bust! Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo Official website
De Dion-Bouton was a French automobile manufacturer and railcar manufacturer operating from 1883 to 1953. The company was founded by the Marquis Jules-Albert de Dion, Georges Bouton, Bouton's brother-in-law Charles Trépardoux; the company was formed after de Dion in 1881 saw a toy locomotive in a store window and asked the toymakers to build another. Engineers Bouton and Trépardoux had been eking out a living with scientific toys at a shop in the Passage de Léon, near "rue de la Chapelle" in Paris. Trépardoux had long dreamed of building a steam car. De Dion inspired by steam and with ample money, De Dion, Bouton et Trépardoux was formed in Paris in 1883; this became the De Dion-Bouton automobile company, the world's largest automobile manufacturer for a time, becoming well known for their quality and durability. Before 1883 was over, they had set up shop in larger premises in the Passage de Léon, Paris and dropped steam engines for boats, produced a steam car. With the boiler and engine mounted at the front, driving the front wheels by belts and steering with the rear, it burned to the ground on trials.
They built a second, La Marquise, the next year, with a more conventional steering and rear-wheel drive, capable of seating four. The Marquis de Dion entered one of these in an 1887 trial, "Europe's first motoring competition", the brainchild of one M. Fossier of cycling magazine Le Vélocipède. Evidently, the promotion was insufficient, for the De Dion was the sole entrant, but it completed the course, with de Dion at the tiller, was clocked at 60 km/h; this must be taken with considerable care. The vehicle survives, in road-worthy condition, has been a regular entry in the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. Following this singular success, the company offered steam tricycles with boilers between the front wheels and two-cylinder engines, they were built in small numbers, evidently a favorite of young playboys. They were joined by a larger tractor, able to pull trailers; this larger vehicle introduced "dead" axle. On July 22, 1894, Paris–Rouen race, it averaged 18.7 km/h over the 126 km route, but was disqualified for needing both a driver and a stoker.
Two more cars were made in 1885 followed by a series of lightweight two-cylinder tricars, which from 1892 had Michelin pneumatic tyres. In 1893, steam tractors were introduced which were designed to tow horse type carriages for passengers or freight and these used an innovative axle design which would become known as the De Dion tube, where the location and drive function of the axle are separated; the company manufactured steam buses and trucks until 1904. Trepardoux, staunchly supporting steam, resigned in 1894 as the company turned to internal combustion vehicles; the steam car remained in production less unchanged for ten years more. By 1889, de Dion was becoming convinced the future lay in the internal combustion engine, the company had built a ten-cylinder two-row rotary. After Trépardoux resigned in 1894, the company became De Bouton et Compagnie. For 1895, Bouton created a new 137 cc one-cylinder engine with trembler coil ignition. Proving troublesome at its designed speed of 900 rpm, when Bouton increased the revs, the problems vanished.
In trials, it achieved an unprecedented 3500 rpm, was run at 2,000 rpm, a limit imposed by its atmospheric valves and surface carburettor. Inlet and exhaust valves were overhead, a flywheel was fitted to each end of the crankshaft; this engine was fitted behind the rear axle of a tricycle frame bought from Decauville, fitted with the new Michelin pneumatic tires. It showed superb performance, went on the market in 1896 with the engine enlarged to 1¼ CV 185 cc, with 1¾ CV in 1897. By the time production of the petite voiture tricar stopped in 1901, it had 2¾ CV, while racers had as much as 8 CV. In 1898, Louis Renault had a De Dion-Bouton modified with fixed drive shaft and ring and pinion gear, making "perhaps the first hot rod in history"; the same year, the tricar was joined by a four-wheeler and in 1900 by a vis a vis voiturette, the Model D, with its 3¾ CV 402 cc single-cylinder engine under the seat and drive to the rear wheels through a two-speed gearbox. This curious design had the passenger facing the driver.
The voiturette had one inestimable advantage: the expanding clutches of the gearbox were operated by a lever on the steering column. The Model D was developed through Models E, G, I, J, with 6 CV by 1902, when the 8 CV Model K rear-entry phaeton appeared, with front-end styling resembling the contemporary Renault; until World War I, De Dion-Boutons had an unusual decelerator pedal which reduced engine speed and applied a transmission brake. In 1902, the Model O introduced three speeds, standard for all De Dion-Boutons in 1904. A small number of electric cars were made in 1901. De Dion-Bouton supplied engines to vehicle manufacturers such as Société Parisienne who mounted a 2.5 hp unit directly on the front axle of their front wheel drive voiturette the'Viktoria Combination'. The De Dion-Bouton engine is considered to the first high-speed lightweight internal combustion engine, it was
Société des usines Chausson
Société des usines Chausson was a French manufacturing company, based in the Paris region between 1907 and 2000, known as a supplier of components to the automotive industry. Chausson was founded in 1907 as “Ateliers Chausson Frères” in 1907 by two brothers called Jules and Gaston Chausson; the target customers were France's automakers and production was focused on metal components such as radiators and other cooling components and tubes for use in engines as components in fuel feed and exhaust systems. The company continued to specialise in heat exchangers, added car bodies to its range of specialities after the 1930s when, following a trend that had originated in the United States, steel bodies became the norm for automakers in Europe. In 1940 the factory was producing certain parts for the Dewoitine D.520 fighter aircraft and there were plans to set up a production line for the D.521, a lighter Rolls-Royce Merlin equipped version of the Dewoitine D.520, but production was aborted due to the occupation and Armistice.
After setting up ”Autocars Chausson” in 1942 attention was focused on bus bodies during the middle decades of the twentieth century. During the 1950s Chausson supplied hundreds of buses to the RATP for use around Paris. During the post war boom, by now with Peugeot and Renault its principal shareholders, Chausson produced bodies for light commercial vehicles such as the Peugeot J7, Peugeot J9, Peugeot 404 pickup and Citroën C35. Renault models bodied by Chausson included versions of the Renault 4 Fourgonette, Renault Estafette and Renault Trafic. During the 1960s and 1970s the company produced in smaller volumes and more sporadically, bodies for coupés such as the Renault Floride/Caravelle, the Opel GT and the Citroën SM. Activity peaked in the 1970s by when the business employed 15,000 people, was operating factories at Asnières-sur-Seine, Meudon, Creil and Laval. By now Chausson had absorbed or been merged with other companies in the automotive sector such as Chenard et Walcker and Brissonneau and Lotz.
During the 1990s, with rapid industrial growth a receding memory and employment levels well down on the peak of twenty years earlier, Chausson became known as a textbook case of industrial “restructuring”. The company was obliged to seek court protection from its creditors, under a procedure known at that time as a ”Dépôt de bilan”, obtaining a debt moratorium in September 1993. Between 1993 and 1995 three ”Social Plans” involved the loss of a further 2,549 jobs; the company's last production facility, at Gennevilliers, closed in 2000. Danièle Linhart, Perte d'emploi, perte de soi, Érès, 2002. ISBN 2749200784 Bernard Massera et Daniel Grason, Chausson: une dignité ouvrière, Editions Syllepse, 2004. Online website featuring pictures of Chausson buses
A tricycle abbreviated to trike, is a human-powered three-wheeled vehicle. Some tricycles, such as cycle rickshaws and freight trikes, are used for commercial purposes in the developing world Africa and Asia. In the West, adult-sized tricycles are used for recreation and exercise. Tricycles are favoured by children and senior adults for their apparent stability versus a bicycle. Unconventional designs such as recumbents have a lower centre of gravity so require less care. A three-wheeled wheelchair was built in 1655 or 1680 by a disabled German man, Stephan Farffler, who wanted to be able to maintain his mobility. Since he was a watch-maker, he was able to create a vehicle, powered by hand cranks. In 1789, two French inventors developed a three-wheeled vehicle, powered by pedals. In 1818, British inventor Denis Johnson patented his approach to designing tricycles. In 1876, James Starley developed the Coventry Lever Tricycle, which used two small wheels on the right side and a large drive wheel on the left side.
In 1877, Starley developed a new vehicle he called the Coventry Rotary, "one of the first rotary chain drive tricycles." Starley's inventions started a tricycling craze in Britain. The first front steering tricycle was manufactured in 1881 by The Leicester Safety Tricycle Company of Leicester, brought to the market in 1882 costing £18, they developed a folding tricycle at the same time. Tricycles were used by riders who did not feel comfortable on the high wheelers, such as women who wore long, flowing dresses. In the UK, upright tricycles are sometimes referred to as "barrows". Many trike enthusiasts in the UK belong to the Tricycle Association, formed in 1929, they participate in day rides, time trials, a criterium series. A delta tricycle has one front wheel and two rear wheels. A tadpole tricycle has two front wheels and one rear wheel. Rear wheel steering is sometimes used, although this increases the turning circle and can affect handling; some early pedal tricycles from the late 19th century used two wheels in tandem on one side and a larger driving wheel on the other.
An in-line three-wheeled vehicle has two steered wheels, one at the front and the other in the middle or at the rear. Upright resembles a two-wheeled bicycle, traditionally diamond frame, or open frame, but with either two spaced wheels at the back or two wheels at the front; the rider straddles the frame in both delta and tadpole configurations. Steering is through a handlebar directly connected to the front wheel via a conventional bicycle fork in delta, or via a form of Ackermann steering geometry in the case of the upright tadpole. All non-tilting trikes have stability issues and great care must be used when riding a non tilting upright trike; the center of gravity is quite high compared to recumbent trikes. Because of this, non-tilting trikes are more prone to tipping over in corners and on uneven or sloping terrain. Conversely, the rider enjoys better visibility than on a recumbent because their head is higher. Recumbent trikes' advantages include stability and low aerodynamic drag. Disadvantages include greater cost and width.
The low seat may make entry difficult, on the road they may be less visible to other traffic. Recumbent delta is similar to an upright, with two wheels at the back and one at the front, but has a recumbent layout in which the rider is seated in a chair-like seat. One or both rear wheels can be driven, while the front is used for steering. Steering is either through a linkage, with the handlebars under the seat or directly to the front wheel with a large handlebar; some delta trikes can be stored upright by lifting the front wheel and resting the top of the seat on the ground. Delta trikes have higher seats and a tighter turning radius than tadpole trikes; the tight turning radius is necessary if riding on trails with offset barriers, or navigating around placed obstacles. The higher seat makes mounting and dismounting easier. With the higher seat a delta trike can be quite stable provided most of the weight is shifted back towards the rear wheels. Many delta trikes place the seat too far forward and that takes weight off the two rear wheels and puts more weight onto the front wheel making the trike more unstable.
The Hase Kettwiesel delta trike has an 18 in high seat, placed to put most of the weight onto the cambered rear wheels making it more stable. Delta trikes are suitable to be used as manual scooters for mobility, rehab and/or exercise; the Hase Lepus Comfort is an example of a rehab delta trike designed for comfort and ease of use. It has a lowered front boom and the seat can be adjusted to a height of 20 to 28 in, which aids in mounting and dismounting, it has rear wheel suspension for comfort. The 56 lb Lepus can be folded for easier storage and transportation; the weight of a delta trike can be quite close to the weight of a tadpole trike if they are both of a similar quality and similar materials ar
Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.4 km from the centre of Paris. It is the most densely populated town in Europe. Together with neighboring Neuilly-sur-Seine, it is one of the most expensive suburbs of Paris; the name Levallois-Perret comes from two housing developments and Village Levallois, which resulted in the incorporation of the commune. On the territory of what is now Levallois-Perret, before the French Revolution, the village of Villiers and the hamlet of Courcelles were there, they now give their names to two Paris Métro stations. At the time of the creation of French communes during the French Revolution, they were part of the commune of Clichy, the commune of Neuilly-sur-Seine extended over what is now the south-western part of Levallois-Perret. Landowner Jean-Jacques Perret started some housing developments in 1822 in the northeast of the commune of Neuilly-sur-Seine, in a place soon called Champerret, which gave its name to one station of the Paris Métro.
In 1845, Nicolas-Eugène Levallois started some housing developments for landowner André Noël on his land near La Planchette. The land developed by Nicolas-Eugène Levallois soon became known as Village Levallois. In the 1860s, the village had grown to the point of forming a single builtup area. Several demands were made to the authorities as a commune. On 30 June 1866, the commune of Levallois-Perret was created by detaching that part of the territory of Clichy where the Village Levallois stood and merging it with that part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine of Champerret; the Eiffel company had its factory in the city and so the structure of the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower were built there. Levallois-Perret became an important centre of the early French automotive industry with the establishment of companies such as Clément-Bayard and coachbuilders Chapron and Faget & Varnet. Citroën purchased the Clément-Bayard factory and the famous Citroën 2CV was produced in Levallois for nearly forty years.
Levallois-Perret was an important centre of cosmetics industry in the early 20th century. It is home to the large European commercial real estate company Atisreal and the conglomerate Alstom; the northern part of the famous Île de la Jatte in the river Seine, is where French impressionist painters created many of their masterpieces. It is part of the commune of Levallois-Perret. Part of the wealthy Ouest Parisien, Levallois-Perret is the most densely-populated commune of France and Europe. Patrick Balkany has been mayor of the city for 20 years in a row. Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, Belgium The Schöneberg district, Germany Clichy Neuilly-sur-Seine Asnières-sur-Seine Courbevoie Paris Levallois-Perret constitutes one canton: canton of Levallois-Perret. Alstom has its headquarters in Levallois-Perret. Speed Rabbit Pizza has its headquarters in the commune. EVA Air has its Paris office in Levallois-Perret. According to Le Journal du Net, the debt per inhabitant of Levallois is 9,030 euros, the French record.
Carrefour had its head office in Levallois-Perret. Public preschools and elementary schools: Alfred-de-Musset Anatole-France Buffon George-Sand Jules-Ferry Maurice-Ravel Saint-Exupéry Edith Gorce-Franklin Public preschools: Charles-Perrault Jean-Jaurès Louis-PasteurPublic elementary schools: Françoise-Dolto Jean-de-La-FontainePrivate preschools and elementary schools: Ecole maternelle et élémentaire Sainte-Marie-de-la-Providence Ecole maternelle et élémentaire Emilie-BrandtJunior high schools: Collège Danton Collège Jean-Jaurès Collège Louis-Blériot Collège privé Saint-JustinSenior high schools/sixth-form colleges: Lycée Léonard de VinciLycée Montalembert is in nearby Courbevoie Post-secondary: École supérieure des techniques aéronautiques et de construction automobile are in the city. Levallois-Perret is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 3: Louise Michel, Anatole France, Pont de Levallois – Bécon, it is served by Clichy – Levallois station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line.
The municipality of Levallois-Perret operates two free bus lines circulating the town. Levallois Sporting Club is one of the most important sports club in France with 14500 members. Among them you can find notable sportsperson like Gauthier Grumier and Gevrise Emane. During his youth Didier Drogba played for the football section; the traditional coat of arms for the municipality puts emphasis on the importance of industry in the its history. The centre of the arms consists of a shield with red background. Three red bees, are depicted on a silver bend from the top left to bottom right of the shield, these are another symbol of work in the city, beekeeping taking place at the île de la Jatte; the coat of arms has a wreath at the bottom around the shield and three castles topping the shield. VILLE DE / LEVALLOIS – PERRET, is inscribed in black letters above the coat of arms. A cartoon-style bee is used in the modern emblem of the municipality. Oli