Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards. It is made on "flute lamination machines" or "corrugators" and is used in the manufacture of shipping containers and corrugated boxes; the corrugated medium sheet and the linerboard are made of kraft containerboard, a paperboard material over 0.01 inches thick. Corrugated fiberboard is sometimes called corrugated cardboard, although cardboard might be any heavy paper-pulp based board. Corrugated paper was patented in England in 1856, used as a liner for tall hats, but corrugated boxboard was not patented and used as a shipping material until 20 December 1871; the patent was issued to Albert Jones of New York City for single-sided corrugated board. Jones used the corrugated board for wrapping bottles and glass lantern chimneys; the first machine for producing large quantities of corrugated board was built in 1874 by G. Smyth, in the same year Oliver Long improved upon Jones' design by inventing corrugated board with liner sheets on both sides, thereby inventing corrugated board as it came to be known in modern times.
Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in 1890 – flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair's invention resulted from an accident, he was a Brooklyn paper-bag maker during the 1870s. While he was printing seed bags, a metal ruler used to cut them. Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. Applying this idea to corrugated boxboard was a straightforward development when the material became available in the early 20th century; the corrugated box was first used for packaging pottery containers. In the mid-1950s, the case enabled fruit and produce to be shipped from farm to retailer without bruising, improving the return to producers and opening export markets. Several properties and characteristics can be measured for corrugated board; some of these include: Moisture content It ranges from 6.5-9.5%. If moisture is below a certain limit it will cause cracking in corrugated board and if it is above it will reduce the compression strength of board.
Edge crush test It predicts Box compression strength. It is reported in lb/inch. Burst strength It is pressure required to rupture corrugated sheet, it is reported in KPa or lb/inch2. Box Compression strength, it is reported in kgf or N. Flat crush test It reported in KPa. Bending resistance Impact resistance Cushioning, shock absorption Tear resistance Grammage weight per meter square of any material is called grammage, it is reported in g/m2Corrugated fiberboard. For example, edge crush, bending stiffness and surface characteristics are different, depending on the orientation to the flutes and the machine direction of manufacture. Corrugated board is manufactured on large high-precision machinery lines called corrugators running at about 500 feet per minute or more; these machines, over time, have become complex with the objective of avoiding some common problems in corrugated board production, such as warp and washboarding. The key raw material in corrugating is paper, different grades for each layer making up the corrugated box.
Due to supply chain and scale considerations, paper is produced in separate plants called paper mills. Most corrugating plants keep an inventory of paper reels. In the classical corrugator, the paper is softened with high-pressure steam. After the board is formed it is dried in the so-called dry-end. Here the newly formed corrugated board is heated from the bottom by hot plates. On the top, various pressures are applied by a load system on the belt; the corrugated medium is 0.026 pounds per square foot basis weight in the US. At the single-facer, it is heated and formed into a fluted pattern on geared wheels; this is joined to a flat linerboard with a starch based adhesive to form single face board. At the double-backer, a second flat linerboard is adhered to the other side of the fluted medium to form single wall corrugated board. Linerboards are kraft paperboard; the liner may be mottled white, colored, or preprinted. Common flute sizes are "B", "C", "E" and "F" or microflute; the letter designation relates to the order.
Flute size refers to the number of flutes per linear foot, although the actual flute dimensions for different corrugator manufacturers may vary slightly. Measuring the number of flutes per linear foot is a more reliable method of identifying flute size than measuring board thickness, which can vary due to manufacturing conditions; the most common flute size in corrugated boxes is "C" flute. Corrugated fiberboard can be specified by the construction, flute size, burst strength, edge crush strength, flat crush, basis weights of components, surface treatments and coatings, etc. TAPPI and ASTM test methods for these are standardized; the choice of corrugated medium, flute size, combining adhesive, linerboards can be varied to engineer a corrugated board with specific properties to match a wide variety of potential uses. Double and triple-wall corrugated board is produced for high stacking strength and puncture resistance. Most corrugators are two knife corrugators, w
Still Life released in Argentina and Spain under the title Naturaleza muerta, is a Spanish language thriller film and the feature film directorial debut of Gabriel Grieco. The movie had its world premiere on 7 October 2014 at the Sitges Film Festival and stars Luz Cipriot as a journalist whose devotion to her craft has placed her life in danger. In 2013 an unfinished version of the film was one of two films that were given a Bloody Work in Progress Award by the Ventana Sur film festival, which secured distribution rights for DVD, VOD and pay tv for Mexican territory. Jazmin is an intrepid young reporter that decides to investigate the disappearance of the daughter of a wealthy cattle businessman, she soon finds that this disappearance is more than what it seems, as the disappearance is related to multiple murders and the resulting story has the potential to give Jazmin a name in the reporting world. As Jazmin delves deeper and deeper into the mystery she brings herself and her cameraman closer to danger, as someone or someones do not want their activities to be uncovered.
Luz Cipriota as Jazmin Ezequiel De Almeida as Diego Cristian Toti Iglesias as cantante de'Jovenes Pordioseros' Walter Leiva as Himself Nicolas Maiques as Joaquin Grieco stated that he was inspired to create Still Life after watching an Anima Naturalis television spot that focused on animal rights NGOs. He stated that he began to view footage of cruelty inflicted on food animals, which he felt was a double standard because while the cruelty existed it did not deter consumer purchasing rates and seemed to Grieco as if the cruelty was deliberately being ignored. Grieco filmed the movie on a limited budget and actress Cipriota stated that this aspect was part of what drew her to the film. Bloody Disgusting gave Still Life 3.5 out of 5 skulls, writing that while most of the film- its opening prologue- was powerful, the film's epilogue was "so painfully contrived and farcical that it shirks off the previous 90 minutes and dives headfirst into laughable slasher territory." Still Life on IMDb
A focus puller or first assistant camera is a member of a film crew's camera department whose primary responsibility is to maintain the camera lens's optical focus on whatever subject or action is being filmed. "Pulling focus" or "rack focusing" refers to the act of changing the lens's focus distance setting in correspondence to a moving subject's physical distance from the focal plane. For example, if an actor moves from 8m to 3m away from the focal plane within a shot, the focus puller will change the distance setting on the lens during the take in precise relation to the changing position of the actor. Additionally, the focus puller may shift focus from one subject to another within the frame, as dictated by the specific requirements of the shot. A good focus puller will have an intimate knowledge of optical theory. Depending on the parameters of a given shot, there is very little room for error; as such, the role of a focus puller is important within the realm of a film production. One must consider that an actor may not be able to duplicate his or her best performance in a subsequent take, so the focus puller is expected to perform flawlessly on every take.
Because of these factors, some production personnel consider the focus puller to have the most difficult job on set. British cinematographer Oliver Stapleton has written: The 1st AC has one of the hardest jobs on the set, and it's one of those jobs. You get an almighty bollocking, or you get fired... Focus Pulling not only involves what it sounds like, but the Focus Puller "runs" the department, in the sense of taking care of all the camera gear, making sure that everything is tickety-boo. I have my own camera, so it's treated well! A focus puller relies on the Operator to tell him if the shot is out of focus — after all only the operator is looking through the lens. During production, 1st ACs are responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of all camera equipment and accessories, including. 1st ACs arrive on set before the director, director of photography and camera operator, ensures the camera and all required lenses are prepared for the day's shoot. During filming, the 1st AC is responsible for moving the camera to each setup as directed by the Director of Photography.
On larger budget productions, the camera is mounted on a dolly for most of the day, operated by the Dolly Grip. At the end of each shooting day, 1st ACs clean the equipment and pack it up in preparation for the next day. If there is a problem with the rushes, the focus puller communicates with the film lab to fix any faults with the camera or film stock. Sharp focus is fundamental to reproducing a realistic, appealing image, a viewer's attention is automatically drawn to sharper areas; when done good pulling goes unnoticed by the audience. The shooting of a scene begins with a blocking rehearsal, in which the various actors' positions are established. During the rehearsal, the 2nd AC lays tape marks on the floor at all points an actor pauses movement; the actors leave set to go through hair and makeup, stand-ins come in to take their places at these various positions for the purposes of lighting and focus-mark setting. Once a camera position is established by the director of photography and camera operator, the 1st AC begins to measure the various distances between the actors' marks and the focal plane of the camera.
These distances are recorded in a series of grease pencil/pen marks on the focus barrel of the lens, and/or the marking disc on the follow focus device. Using the stand-ins or 2nd AC, marks are checked through the viewfinder and/or the onboard monitor for accuracy. Marks may be repositioned in order to provide specific framing desired, the 1st AC must be aware of this and re-measure/re-set their marks accordingly. Additionally, the 1st AC may have the 2nd AC lay down specific distance marks on the floor which will be referenced during the take as actors move between their marks, in order to assist in adjusting the focus to the correct intermediate distances; when the actors return to set, there is a rehearsal for camera in which the focus puller and operator will practice the shot and make sure everything has been set up properly. During a take, the focus puller modifies the focus based on the dialog, movement of the actors or subject, movement of the camera, the DoP's directions, compensates on the fly for actors missing their marks or any unforeseen movement.
In cases where an obstruction prevents the focus puller from seeing all their marks, they may request the 2nd AC call the marks for them over a 2-way radio during the shot. In some situations, such as on long lenses, wide apertures close distances, or any combination of the three, a subject moving a few millimeters may require immediate and precise focus correction. After a take, if the focus puller feels they've made a mistake — be it a timing error, a missed mark, or any other issue which may have rendered some part of the take "soft" — he or she will report this to the operator or director of photography, may ask for another take if another wasn't planned. Traditionally, the focus puller used only their marks and their own well-developed sense of distance estimation to achieve good results. Over the last decade, the in
Highway 17B was the highway designation for six business routes of Highway 17, the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway through the Canadian province of Ontario. Each was the original route of Highway 17 through the town or city that it served, was subsequently given the 17B designation when a newer bypass route was constructed to reduce traffic pressure on the urban street network. Four of the five original 17B routes have been decommissioned by the Ministry of Transportation, are now maintained only by their local municipalities. However, in some cases the "Highway 17B" name may still be informally used by local residents to refer to the routes, old highway shields may still be visible along the route in some locations; the lone remaining original 17B designation exists in North Bay. A new Highway 17B was designated in 2009, following a jurisdictional dispute between the Ministry of Transportation and the Garden River First Nation; the 17B route in Ottawa extended from the Queensway along Richmond Road to Carling Avenue, thence easterly to Bronson Avenue.
It headed north along Bronson to the one-way pair of Chamberlain Avenue eastbound and Catherine Street westbound between Bronson and another pair of one-way streets, Kent Street northbound and O'Connor Street southbound. It travelled along those streets between Catherine/Chamberlain and Wellington Street, thence easterly, passing Parliament Hill; the route continued easterly along Rideau Street and Montreal Road, rejoining the Queensway at Beacon Hill North. The Highway 17B route through North Bay travelled along Main Street from the western city limits to Algonquin Avenue, where it split into two one-way routes, McIntyre Street for westbound traffic and Oak Street for eastbound traffic; the Highway 17B designation travelled along McIntyre and Oak between Algonquin Avenue and Fisher Street, Fisher Street constituted the remainder of the easterly route, rejoining Highway 17 near Northgate Square shopping mall. McIntyre and Oak Streets, as well as the small portions of Fisher Street and Algonquin Avenue which connected the two one-way streets, were designated as part of Highway 11B.
However, after January 1, 1998, the eastern end of Highway 17B was rerouted along former Highway 63 to the intersection of Highway 11 and Highway 17 and Highway 63. The section within North Bay was maintained under a Connecting Link agreement until November 1998, after which it was repealed; this left only the short one kilometre section outside the western city limits under provincial maintenance. The following table lists the major junctions along Highway 17B, as noted by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario; the entire route is located in Nipissing District. Highway 17B in Sault Ste. Marie travelled southerly along Great Northern Road from Second Line to McNabb Street, thence along Pim Street to Wellington Street. From there it followed a loop of one-way streets through downtown Sault Ste. Marie, travelling westbound along Wellington to Cathcart Street west along Cathcart to Huron Street. Along Huron Street, the route met the Canadian terminus of the Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge before turning eastbound along Queen Street to Andrew Street, southbound along Andrew to Bay Street, easterly to Pim Street, northerly back to Queen, easterly along Queen to Church Street, northerly along Church back to the intersection of Pim and Wellington.
From that point, it travelled easterly along Wellington Street and Trunk Road and rejoined Highway 17 at Black Road. Although the route is no longer part of the provincial highway system, some signage remains identifying the route as 17B; the Highway 17B route through Thessalon was a short loop which travelled along Lakeside Drive, Frances Street, Huron Street and River Street. At the eastern terminus of Highway 17B, River Street continued northward as Highway 129. Highway 17B through Thunder Bay extended eastward from Highway 17 along Arthur Street to the corner of May Street at the shore of the Kaministiquia River, it turned north along May Street, continued along Memorial Avenue and Algoma Street to the corner of Bay Street turned east along Bay Street to Water Street along the shore of Thunder Bay. It travelled northeasterly along Water Street to Cumberland Street, continuing northeasterly to Hodder Avenue in the east end of the city,traveling along present day Lakeshore Drive, ends at McKenzie Ontario.
The entire route through Thunder Bay was cosigned as 17B and 11B. In 2007, the province of Ontario redesignated a former portion of Highway 17 in the Algoma District, from Echo Bay to Sault Ste. Marie, after the opening of a new expressway alignment in the area. Although the official provincial designation was Highway 638, the Garden River First Nation — through which the route passes — has insisted on the designation of Highway 17B instead going so far as to post their own non-official Highway 17B signs on the route; as of February 2009, at the southern/eastern terminus with Highway 17, the highway has been rebadged as Highway 17B. The signage is in evidence until the intersection of Highway 638 at Echo Bay, after which the route no longer has any official identification; the southern terminus of 17B at Highway 17 features no 17B signage whatsoever. The intersection is identified from 17 as Bar River Road. However, the Ministry of Transportation Annual Average Daily Traffic Logs include the Garden River Highway 17B, as do some road maps.
In February 2010, Garden River's band council publicly warned that they would consider imposing tolls on the routes of both Highway 17 and Highway 17B through their territory if the provincial government did not assist the council with a funding shortfall of $1 million. At some point since
The Brazil women's national football team has represented Brazil at the FIFA Women's World Cup on eight occasions in 1991, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015 and 2019. They were runners-up once, they reached the third place once. For the World Cup Women's Women qualified as South American Champion. For this they won both games. On November 17, 1991, they played in Foshan their first World Cup match and won against Japan 1-0. Elane scored the first World Cup goal for the Brazilians. In the second game followed a 0: 5 against the United States. After a 0-2 draw against Sweden in the last group match Brazil became group third and dropped out with it; the Brazilians for the world cup through South American champions. With four wins against Argentina, Chile and Bolivia Brazil became group winners against Argentina, but had to compete again against Argentina in the final and won this 2-0. At the World Cup, Brazil started again with this time against Sweden, they lost against Japan with 1: 2 and Germany with 1: 6.
Thus, Brazil equalized with Japan, but the worse goal difference only the fourth place. All CONMEBOL members had registered for the third World Cup or qualifying South America Champion, so they played in two groups. Brazil prevailed in its group with four wins against Peru, Colombia and Venezuela. Ecuador were defeated 11-1 in 7-1 in the final. Argentina failed to win against Mexico in the Inter-American play-offs, which made Mexico the first to qualify. Mexico was in the USA kick-off opponents of Brazil and lost 1-7. Pretinha and Sissi scored three goals each; this time, Brazil won the second game: Italy was defeated 2-0. After a 3: 3 draw against Germany, Brazil were group winners on goal difference and scored in the quarter-finals Nigeria. After 35 minutes it was 3-0 for Brazil, but since the Africans scored in the second half and three goals, there was an extension. In this Sissi succeeded the Golden goal for 4: 3. In the semifinals against the host USA was lost but with 0: 2; the USA became World Champion for the second time.
Brazil reached third place in the small final against defeated defending champion Norway by a penalty shoot-out win. The 2003 World Cup should take place again in People's Republic of China. Due to the SARS epidemic, the tournament was temporarily relocated to the United States, thus the World Cup took place for the second time in the USA. In the Qualification, again held as South American champions, Brazil only had to compete in the last four rounds, for which the other three teams will qualify first had. With three wins against Argentina and Peru qualified Brazil as a South American champions for the World Cup, but the runners-up Argentina could book the World Cup ticket. In the USA, they met in the first group match South Korea and won 3-0. Against Norway followed a 4-1 win and with a 1-1 draw against France was reached as a group first the quarterfinals. Here Sweden was the opponent and with a 1: 2 difference Brazil. Sweden reached the final, but lost by the first Golden goal in a women's World Cup game against Germany with the German women for the first time became world champion.
Four years the World Cup took place for the second time in the People's Republic of China. In the 2006 South American Women's Football Championship, which once again served as Qualification, the 10 CONMEBOL members played four teams in two groups of five for the finals. Brazil first met Paraguay, Venezuela and Bolivia. With four victories, Brazil reached the final round, but was there only second behind Argentina in front of Uruguay and Paraguay. With that Argentina and Brazil drove again to the World Cup. In the final, they met in the first game New Zealand and won 5: 0. Against hosts China followed a 4-0 and Denmark was defeated 1-0; this Brazil reached the quarter-finals as group winners. In a varied game, Australia was beaten 3-2 to reach the semi-final against the USA. Here, Brazil managed to give the USA their highest international defeat 4-0. Brazil reached its first World Cup final for the first time, making it the third nation after Germany and Sweden to do so for men and women; the opponent was defending champion Germany, who had reached the final without conceding, scoring the highest World Cup win of the season with a 11-0 draw against Argentina in the opening match.
After a goalless first half Birgit Prinz succeeded in the 52nd minute with their 14th goal of the World Cup 1-0 lead. In the 64th minute Cristiane was fouled in the German penalty area. However, Marta's penalties failed Nadine Angerer); the following attacks could not use the Brazilians in goals. Four minutes from time, the decision was made: After a corner, Simone Laudehr headed the ball 2-0, thus defended the German team as the first in a women's World Cup title. The runner-up is the best placement so far for Brazil. In addition, Marta received the Golden Boot as the top scorer and the Golden Ball as the best player of the tournament. For the World Cup in Germany, the Brazilians qualified again as the winner of 2010 South American Women's Football Championship. With four wins in the preliminary round first Colombia, Paraguay and Uruguay were distanced. In the final round, there are three wins against Colombia and Argentina, who lost against Colombia on the final day of the match, giving Colombia instead of Argentina the World Cup ticket.
In Germany, Brazil was in a group with World Cup newcomer Equatorial Guinea and Australia solved. A 1-0 win over Australia and a 3-0 win over Norway would have been enough to draw against the newcomer from the other side of the
Pyrrhalta viburni is a species of leaf beetle native to Europe and Asia known as the viburnum leaf beetle. It was first detected in North America in 1947 in Canada. However, specimens had been collected in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia in 1924. In 1996 it was discovered in a park in New York, where native plantings of arrowwood were found to be damaged by larval feeding; the UK-based Royal Horticultural Society stated that its members reported Pyrrhalta viburni as the "number one pest species" in 2010. Female beetles create ` spaces' in pith tissue, they lay eggs in clusters and cover them with frass. Eggs overwinter in these cavities where they are protected from water predation; the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris is used and developed as a biological control agent against the beetle. Viburnum leaf beetle on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site PEST ALERT: Viburnum Leaf Beetle Penn State College of Agriculture Gardeners' World Bugguide.net. Species Pyrrhalta viburni - Viburnum Leaf Beetle