Corsican language

Corsican is a Romance language from the Italo-Dalmatian family, spoken predominantly on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. Corsican is related to Tuscan and therefore to the Florentine-based Italian; some languages, which originated from Corsican but are heavily influenced by Sardinian and are nowadays considered to be languages on their own, are spoken, to some extent written, on the island of Sardinia. Under the longstanding sway of Pisa and Genoa over Corsica, Corsican used to play the role of a vernacular in combination with Italian, the island's official language. Over the next two centuries, the use of French in the place of Italian grew to the extent that, by the Liberation in 1945, all the islanders had a working knowledge of French; the 20th century saw a language shift, with the islanders changing their language practices to the extent that there were no monolingual Corsican speakers left by the 1960s. By 1995, an estimated 65 percent of islanders had some degree of proficiency in Corsican, a minority, amounting to around 10 percent, used Corsican as a first language.

As for Corsican, a bone of contention is whether it should be considered an Italian dialect or its own language. It is not possible to ascertain what an author means by these terms. For example, one might read from some scholars that Corsican belongs to the Centro-Southern Italian dialects and is related to the Tuscan dialect of Italian. Mutual intelligibility between Italian and the dialects of Corsican is in fact high, with particular reference to the Northern varieties. Despite the geographical proximity, it has indeed been noted that the closest linguistic neighbour to Corsican is not Sardinian, which constitutes a separate group, but rather Tuscan and the extreme Southern Italian lects like Siculo-Calabrian; the matter is controversial, as the island was and culturally bound to the Italian Mainland from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, installed in a diglossic system where both Corsican and Italian were perceived as two sociolinguistic levels of the same language. "Tuscanising" their tongue allowed for a practice of code-mixing typical of the Mainland Italian dialects.

One of the characteristics of standard Italian is the retention of the -re infinitive ending, as in Latin mittere "send". Such infinitival ending is lost in Tuscan as well as Corsican, which has mette / metta, "to put"; the Latin relative pronouns qui/quae "who", quod "what", are inflected in Latin. The biggest difference between standard Italian and Corsican is that the latter uses the u termination, whereas standard Italian uses the o ending. For example, the Italian demonstrative pronouns questo "this" and quello "that" become in Corsican questu or quistu and quellu or quiddu; this feature was typical of the early Italian texts during the Middle Ages. The Corsican language has been influenced by the languages of the major powers taking an interest in Corsican affairs; the term "gallicised Corsican" refers to the evolution of Corsican starting from about the year 1950. The term "distanciated Corsican" refers to an idealized variety of Corsican following linguistic purism, by means of removing any French-derived elements.

The common relationship between Corsica and central Italy can be traced from as far back as the Etruscans, who asserted their presence on the island in as early as 500 BC. In 40 AD, the natives of Corsica did not speak Latin; the Roman exile, Seneca the Younger, reports that both coast and interior were occupied by natives whose language he did not understand. Whatever language was spoken is still visible in the toponymy or in some words, for instance in the Gallurese dialect spoken in Sardinia zerru'pig'. An analogue situation was valid for Sicilian as well; the occupation of the island by the Vandals around the year 469 marked the end of authoritative influence by Latin speakers. If the natives of that time spoke Latin, they must have acquired it during the late empire, it has been theorised that a Sardinian variety might have been spoken in Corsica, prior to the island's Tuscanisation under Pisan and Genoese rule. The two most spoken forms of the Corsican language are the groups spoken in the Bastia and Corte area, the groups spoken around Sartène and Porto-Vecchio.

The dialect of Ajaccio has been described as in transition. The dialects spoken at Calvi and Bonifacio are closer to the Genoese dialect known as Ligurian; this division along the Girolata-Porto Vecchio line was due to the massive immigration from Tuscany which took place in Corsica during the lower Middle Ages: as a result, the northern Corsican dialects became close to a central Italian dialect like Tuscan, while the southern Corsican varieties could keep the original characteristics of the language which make it much m

Shlomo Eitan

Rabbi Shlomo Eitan is a Hebrew language linguist who developed teaching methods for Hebrew. Eitan rejects the immersion method for the learning of Hebrew, popular in most Hebrew language schools. Eitan instead focuses on teaching the structure of the languages in incremental steps, he is recognized internationally as an expert in teaching of languages. Eitan was graduated from Yeshiva University. In 1979, Eitan moved to Israel. Eitan has taught at many institutions including Hebrew University, Jerusalem College of Technology, Yeshivat HaKotel, Aish HaTorah. Rabbi Eitan now teaches at Mayanot College of Jewish Studies. In May 2012 Rabbi Eitan started "Hebrew for All". Ulpan Tommer, Yehonatan. "Learning Hebrew better". Sydney Edition. Jerusalem: The Australian Jewish News. P. 9. Samuel, Joanna. "Hebrew made easy". In Jerusalem; the Jerusalem Post. Official site of Rabbi Eitan's Online lessons by Rabbi Eitan

Virginia State Route 169

State Route 169 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of Virginia. The state highway runs 7.41 miles from Interstate 64 and U. S. Route 60 to US 258 within the independent city of Hampton. SR 169 is a C-shaped route that connects the Hampton neighborhoods of Phoebus, Buckroe Beach, Fox Hill. SR 169 begins at the highway's partial cloverleaf interchange with I-64 and US 60 just north of the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel; the road continues west onto the campus of the Hampton VA Hospital. SR 169 heads east as two-lane Mallory Street into the Phoebus neighborhood of Hampton, where the highway intersects SR 143 and US 258. Both highways provide access to Fort Monroe. From US 258, SR 169 heads northeast as a four-lane divided highway to the Buckroe Beach neighborhood. Next to Buckroe Park, the state highway intersects SR 351. SR 169 turns west and runs concurrently with SR 351 on two-lane Pembroke Avenue before turning northeast onto Old Buckroe Road; the state highway follows the two-lane road to the southern edge of the Fox Hill neighborhood, where the highway turns west onto Fox Hill Road.

SR 169 follows the four-lane undivided highway west and southwest through several neighborhoods to its northern terminus at US 258. The road from State Route 9, at the intersection of County and Mallory Streets in Phoebus, northeast along Mallory Street to the intersection of Point Comfort Avenue and Resort Boulevard at Buckroe Beach, was added to the state highway system in 1923 as State Route 394. In the 1928 renumbering, SR 394 became State Route 512, in the 1933 renumbering it became State Route 169. In 1934, a loop at Buckroe Beach was added to SR 169, running north on Resort Boulevard, west on Buckroe Avenue, south on Mallory Street. In addition to this loop, SR 169 was extended north and west from Buckroe Beach in 1966, running west on State Route 351 and replacing part of what had been State Route 167 on Old Buckroe Road and Fox Hill Road, ending at State Route 278 just north of U. S. Route 258; the loop was removed in 1975. Fox Hill Road has since been realigned to meet US 258 east of SR 278.

At the Phoebus end, SR 169 was extended southwest along Mallory Street to Mellen Street, a single block extra, in 1979, due to a realignment of State Route 143. SR 169 has never extended further along Mallory Street to Interstate 64 near the Veterans Administration, despite Hampton requesting said extension in 1948 and this extension being signed on I-64; the entire route is in Hampton. Virginia Highways Project: VA 169