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Corvette

A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper warship; the warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was that of the sloop-of-war. The modern types of ship below a corvette are coastal patrol craft, missile boat and fast attack craft. In modern terms, a corvette is between 500 tons and 2,000 tons, although recent designs may approach 3,000 tons, which might instead be considered a small frigate; the word "corvette" is first found in Middle French, a diminutive of the Dutch word corf, meaning a small ship, from the Latin corbis, meaning "basket". The rank "corvette captain", equivalent in many navies to "lieutenant commander", derives from the name of this type of ship; the rank is the most junior of three "captain" ranks in several European and South American navies, because a corvette, as the smallest class of rated warship, was traditionally the smallest class of vessel entitled to a commander of a "captain" rank.

During the Age of Sail, corvettes were one of many types of warships smaller than a frigate and with a single deck of guns. They were closely related to sloops-of-war; the role of the corvette consisted of coastal patrol, fighting minor wars, supporting large fleets, or participating in show-the-flag missions. The English Navy began using small ships in the 1650s, but described them as sloops rather than corvettes; the first reference to a corvette was with the French Navy in the 1670s, which may be where the term originated. The French Navy's corvettes grew over the decades and by the 1780s they were ships of 20 guns or so equivalent to the British Navy's post ships; the British Navy did not adopt the term until the 1830s, long after the Napoleonic Wars, to describe a small sixth-rate vessel somewhat larger than a sloop. The last vessel lost by France during the American War of Independence was the corvette Le Dragon, scuttled by her captain to avoid being seized by a British squadron off Monte Cristi, Haïti in January 1783.

Most corvettes and sloops of the 17th century were around 40 to 60 ft in length and measured 40 to 70 tons burthen. They carried four to eight smaller guns on a single deck. Over time, vessels of increasing size and capability were called corvettes. Ships during the steam era became more maneuverable than their sail ancestors. Corvettes during this era were used alongside gunboats during colonial missions. Battleships and other large vessels were unnecessary when fighting the indigenous people of the Far East and Africa; the modern corvette appeared during World War II as an easily-built convoy escort vessel. The British naval designer William Reed drew up a small ship based on the single-shaft Smiths Dock Company whale catcher Southern Pride, whose simple design and mercantile construction standards lent itself to rapid production in large numbers in small yards unused to naval work. First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill Prime Minister, had a hand in reviving the name "corvette". During the arms buildup leading to World War II, the term "corvette" was attached to the Tribal-class destroyer.

The Tribals were so much larger than and sufficiently different from other British destroyers that some consideration was given to resurrecting the classification of "corvette" and applying it to them. This idea was dropped, the term applied to small, mass-produced antisubmarine escorts such as the Flower class of World War II; the first modern corvettes were the Flower class. Their chief duty was to protect convoys throughout the Battle of the Atlantic and on the routes from the UK to Murmansk carrying supplies to the Soviet Union; the Flower-class corvette was designed for offshore patrol work, was not ideal when pressed into service as an antisubmarine escort. It was shorter than ideal for oceangoing convoy escort work, too armed for antiaircraft defense, the ships were faster than the merchantmen they escorted; this was a particular problem given the faster German U-boat designs emerging. Nonetheless the ship was quite seaworthy and maneuverable, but living conditions for ocean voyages were challenging.

As a result of these shortcomings, the corvette was superseded in the Royal Navy as the escort ship of choice by the frigate, larger, better armed, had two shafts. However, many small yards could not produce vessels of frigate size, so an improved corvette design, the Castle class, was introduced in the war, with some remaining in service until the mid-1950s; the Royal Australian Navy built 60 Bathurst-class corvettes, including 20 for the Royal Navy crewed by Australians, four for the Indian Navy. These were described as Australian minesweepers, or as minesweeping sloops by the Royal Navy, were named after Australian towns; the Bird-class minesweepers or trawlers were referred to as corvettes in the Royal New Zealand Navy, two and Moa, rammed and sank a much larger Japanese submarine, I-1, in 1943 in the Solomon Islands. In Italy, the Regia Marina, in dire need of escort vessels for its convoys, designed the Gabbiano-class corvette, of which 29 were built between 1942 and 1943. Modern navies began a trend

Denise Caruso

Denise Caruso is an American journalist and analyst specializing in the industries of digital technology and biotechnology. She was dubbed “the Walter Winchell of Silicon Valley” by WIRED magazine, she is the Founder and Executive Director of The Hybrid Vigor Institute, a non-profit think tank created in 2000 that emphasizes cross-sector collaboration. She lives and works in Pittsburgh, where she is a Senior Research Scholar in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. Caruso earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, California. Caruso is the author of Intervention: Confronting the Real Risks of Genetic Engineering and Life on a Biotech Planet; the book was awarded a silver medal at the 2007 Independent Publishers Book Awards for science writing, was on Strategy+Business magazine’s “Best Business Books of 2007” list. Caruso began her career as a technology journalist reporting for two trade publications.

In the 1990s, Caruso was a founding editor of “Digital Media: A Seybold Report,” a digital monthly newsletter published by the Ziff Davis-owned Seybold Publications. In 2007, she wrote the "Re:framing" column for the Sunday Business section of The New York Times. Caruso’s work has been featured in The Wall Street Journal, Columbia Journalism Review, WIRED, I. D. magazine, the Utne Reader and the San Jose Mercury News. Beginning in April 1997, she took a one-year position as visiting scholar at Interval Research Corporation in Palo Alto, California, a think tank and product incubator funded by Paul Allen. In spring 1997, Caruso was a visiting lecturer at Stanford University’s Human-Computer Interaction program, in the university's Computer Science department. Caruso is a member of the Global Business Network, an affiliated researcher at the Center for Risk Perception and Communication at Carnegie Mellon University. Caruso is a frequent keynote speaker, panelist and moderator at a variety of symposia and industry events, including the first-ever Harvard Conference on Internet and Society in 1996 and at the Journalism and Technology conferences at the Nieman Foundation at Harvard University.

In 1997, Caruso provided on-air commentary and interviews with industry personalities for a MSNBC cable television show about the Internet, called The Site. She has provided commentary for National Public Radio's "Morning Edition" and "All Things Considered." Caruso was executive producer of Spotlight, an executive conference for the interactive media industry. Since 2003, Caruso has been active in the biotechnology field, proposing more research and risk assessment for advancing technologies like transgenetic crops. With funding from the National Science Foundation, Caruso has completed case studies on the risks of xenotransplantation using genetically modified pig, the risks of pandemic avian influenza. Caruso’s articles on pandemic influenza risks have been published in the Global Public Health journal and the Harvard Business Review. Since 1995, Caruso has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Independent Media Institute, she is a Board Member Emeritus of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

She serves on the advisory boards of Public Knowledge, a Washington D. C. based public interest group. The Hybrid Vigor Institute website

Charlie Watt

Charlie Watt is a former Canadian Senator. A hunter and businessman by profession, Watt is an Inuk and served as Northern officer with the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs from 1969 to 1979, he was an early leader in the Indigenous rights movement in Canada, represented the Quebec Inuit in the negotiations leading to the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. In 1984 he was appointed to serve in the Senate of Canada, he was the second Inuk to achieve this post. In 2018, he resigned from the Senate of Canada following 34 years of representing the Inuit in the Upper Chamber, he did so following his election to President of Makivik Corporation. This was his third election to the position, he achieved it with 54% of the vote, he resigned from the Senate, effective March 2018 in order to focus on his duties with Makivik. At a meeting of representatives from Northern Quebec Inuit communities, held in Inoucdjouac in April 1971, Charlie Watt was elected as one of the six founding directors of the Northern Quebec Inuit Association, incorporated in June 8, 1972.

Although Robert Bourassa was convinced of the viability and economic importance of a massive hydroelectric project on Inuit and Cree traditional lands, since his first meeting, on December 16, 1969, with Hydro-Québec president, it was only when Bourassa, became Premier of Quebec on April 29, 1970, that the project was introduced in the provincial cabinet in March 1971, announced to the public in April 30, 1971. The James Bay Hydroelectric Development Project ignored the rights of the Inuit and Cree who lived in northern James Bay and northern Quebec. In 1972 the NQIA and the Quebec Association of Indians applied for an injunction to stop the hydro "project of the century" to the Quebec Superior Court. Although the original ruling in their favour was overturned, by 1975 they had negotiated the "first major comprehensive land claims agreement in northern Canada, heralding in a new era in aboriginal land claims." The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, signed in November 1975, was one of three landmark court decisions that brought about "an important shift in the recognition of the rights of First Nations in Canada."He has been active with a number of aboriginal businesses including the Makivik Corporation, Air Inuit, Seaku Fisheries, Uttuulik Leasing, Kigaq Travel.

Watt served as co-chair of the Inuit Committee on National Issues from 1979 to 1984 and has served with the Nunavik Constitutional Committee and the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada. Senator Watt served on the Board of the Circumpolar Chamber of Commerce as one of its first directors. An Officer of the National Order of Quebec, Watt is the 1997 recipient of the National Aboriginal Achievement Award. Watt was appointed to the Senate on January 1984, by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Appointed at age 39, Watt was the second-youngest person at appointment, serving in the Senate. Senator Charlie Watt represented the Senatorial Division of Inkerman, he served in the Senate of Canada from January 16, 1984 until March 16, 2018. During his 34 years in the Senate of Canada, Watt founded the Special Committee on Aboriginal Peoples which became the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples, he served on numerous Senate Standing Committees including: Fisheries and Oceans and Constitutional Affairs, he is the founder and first Chairman of the Senate Special Committee on the Arctic.

He is most notable for championing Inuit rights in Canada and for speaking his language in the Senate Chamber and at committee meetings. He was instrumental in changing Senate rules to allow the use of his mother tongue and for producing the first materials in Inuktitut on the Canadian Parliamentary System, he is known for his ongoing work with First Nations and Metis communities in Canada. In 2007, while serving on the Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Watt participated in their report called: Taking Section 35 Rights Seriously, non-derogation clauses relating to Aboriginal and Treaty RightsIn September of that same year he introduced Bill S229 An Act to amend the Income Tax Act and the Excise Tax Act.https://www.parl.ca/LegisInfo/BillDetails.aspx? Language=E&billId=4772639 This was to bring attention to the high cost of living in northern Canada. Watt introduced the bill to make Nunavik a GST free zone. Although the bill did not make it to the House of Commons, it brought northerners to Ottawa to discuss their unique living situation and the high costs of goods and services.

In December 2011, Watt introduced bill S207 An Act to Amend the Interpretation Act, the committee report was adopted in the Senate, but the bill was dropped from the order paper in June 2013. In his final year at the Senate of Canada, Watt created the Special Committee on the Arctic and he was the first Chair of the committee, their work is continuing under the leadership of Senators Patterson and Bovey https://sencanada.ca/en/committees/arct/ Watt was educated at schools in: Kuujjuaq, Quebec. In 1997, he was awarded the Aboriginal Achievement Award by Buffy Sainte Marie for his role in community development, he is married to Ida, is father to Donald, Lisa and Charlene