Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine-making stretches over millennia; the science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A winemaker may be called a vintner; the growing of grapes is viticulture and there are many varieties of grapes. Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production and sparkling wine production. Red wine, white wine, rosé are the other main categories. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may be made from other plants, see fruit wine. Other similar light alcoholic drinks include mead, made by fermenting honey and water, kumis, made of fermented mare's milk. There are five basic stages to the wine making process which begins with picking. After the harvest, the grapes are prepared for primary ferment. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color.
White wine is made by fermenting juice, made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice. White wine is made from red grapes. Rosé wines are either made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color or by blending red wine with white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of the tannins contained in the skins. To start primary fermentation yeast may be added to the must for red wine or may occur as ambient yeast on the grapes or in the air. Yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this fermentation, which takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol and carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine; the press wine is blended with the free run wine at the winemaker's discretion. The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The next process in the making of red wine is malo-lactic conversion. This is a bacterial process which converts "crisp, green apple" malic acid to "soft, creamy" lactic acid softening the taste of the wine. Red wine is sometimes transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of months; the wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to bottling. The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for wine of good structure with high levels of acid, tannin or sugar. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after five years than it will after just one year. Depending on the quality of grape and the target wine style, some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the winemaker. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production. Variations on the above procedure exist. With sparkling wines such as Champagne, an additional, "secondary" fermentation takes place inside the bottle, dissolving trapped carbon dioxide in the wine and creating the characteristic bubbles.
Sweet wines or off-dry wines are made by arresting fermentation before all sugar has been converted into ethanol and allowing some residual sugar to remain. This can be done by chilling the wine and adding sulphur and other allowable additives to inhibit yeast activity or sterile filtering the wine to remove all yeast and bacteria. In the case of sweet wines, initial sugar concentrations are increased by harvesting late, freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar, allowing or encouraging botrytis cinerea fungus to dehydrate the grapes or allowing the grapes to raisin either on the vine or on racks or straw mats. In these high sugar wines, the fermentation stops as the high concentration of sugar and rising concentration of ethanol retard the yeast activity. In fortified wines, such as port wine, high proof neutral grape spirit is added to arrest the ferment and adjust the alcohol content when the desired sugar level has been reached. In other cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine after the fermentation is done, a technique known in Germany as süssreserve.
The process produces wastewater and lees that require collection and disposal or beneficial use. Synthetic wines, engineered wines or fake wines, are a product that do not use grapes at all and start with water and ethanol and adds acids, amino acids and organic compounds; the quality of the grapes determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor. Grape quality is affected by variety as well as weather during the growing season, soil minerals and acidity, time of harvest, pruning method; the combination of these effects is referred to as the grape's terroir. Grapes are harvested from the vineyard from early September until early November in the northern hemisphere, mid February until early March in the southern hemisphere. In some cool areas in the southe
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
DNA profiling is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints. DNA analysis intended to identify. DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime, it is used in parentage testing, to establish immigration eligibility, in genealogical and medical research. DNA profiling has been used in the study of animal and plant populations in the fields of zoology and agriculture. Starting in the 1980s scientific advances allowed for the use of DNA as a mechanism for the identification of an individual; the first patent covering the modern process of DNA profiling was filed by Dr. Jeffrey Glassberg in 1983, based upon work he had done while at Rockefeller University in 1981. Glassberg, along with two medical doctors, founded Lifecodes Corporation to bring this invention to market; the Glassberg patent was issued in Belgium BE899027A1, Canada FR2541774A1, Germany DE3407196 A1, Great Britain GB8405107D0, Japan JPS59199000A, United States as US5593832A.
In the United Kingdom, Geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys independently developed a DNA profiling process in beginning in late 1984 while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester. The process, developed by Jeffreys in conjunction with Peter Gill and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service, was first used forensically in the solving of the murder of two teenagers, raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire in 1983 and 1986. In the murder inquiry, led by Detective David Baker, the DNA contained within blood samples obtained voluntarily from around 5,000 local men who willingly assisted Leicestershire Constabulary with the investigation, resulted in the exoneration of Richard Buckland, an initial suspect who had confessed to one of the crimes, the subsequent conviction of Colin Pitchfork on January 2, 1988. Pitchfork, a local bakery employee, had coerced his coworker Ian Kelly to stand in for him when providing a blood sample—Kelly used a forged passport to impersonate Pitchfork.
Another coworker reported the deception to the police. Pitchfork was arrested, his blood was sent to Jeffrey's lab for processing and profile development. Pitchfork's profile matched that of DNA left by the murderer which confirmed Pitchfork's presence at both crime scenes. Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different that it is possible to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic twins. DNA profiling uses repetitive sequences that are variable, called variable number tandem repeats, in particular short tandem repeats known as microsatellites, minisatellites. VNTR loci are similar between related individuals, but are so variable that unrelated individuals are unlikely to have the same VNTRs; the process, developed by Glassberg and independently by Jeffreys, begins with a sample of an individual's DNA. Reference samples are collected through a buccal swab; when this is unavailable other methods may be needed to collect a sample of blood, semen, vaginal lubrication, or other fluid or tissue from personal use items or from stored samples.
Samples obtained from blood relatives can indicate an individual's profile, as could previous profiled human remains. A reference sample is analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of the techniques discussed below; the DNA profile is compared against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match. When a sample such as blood or saliva is obtained, the DNA is only a small part of what is present in the sample. Before the DNA can be analyzed, it must be purified. There are many ways this can be accomplished; the cell and nuclear membranes need to be broken up to allow the DNA to be free in solution. Once the DNA is free, it can be separated from all other cellular components. After the DNA has been separated in solution, the remaining cellular debris can be removed from the solution and discarded, leaving only DNA; the most common methods of DNA extraction include organic extraction, Chelex extraction, solid phase extraction. Differential extraction is a modified version of extraction in which DNA from two different types of cells can be separated from each other before being purified from the solution.
Each method of extraction works well in the laboratory, but analysts selects their preferred method based on factors such as the cost, the time involved, the quantity of DNA yielded, the quality of DNA yielded. After the DNA is extracted from the sample, it can be analyzed, whether it be RFLP analysis or quantification and PCR analysis; the first methods for finding out genetics used for DNA profiling involved RFLP analysis. DNA is cut into small pieces using a restriction enzyme; this generates DNA fragments of differing sizes as a consequence of variations between DNA sequences of different individuals. The fragments are separated on the basis of size using gel electrophoresis; the separated fragments are transferred to a nitrocellulose or nylon filter. The DNA fragments within the blot are permanently fixed to the filter, the DNA strands
Valpolicella is a viticultural zone of the province of Verona, east of Lake Garda. The hilly agricultural and marble-quarrying region of small holdings north of the Adige is famous for wine production. Valpolicella ranks just after Chianti in total Italian Denominazione di Origine Controllata wine production; the red wine known as Valpolicella is made from three grape varieties: Corvina Veronese and Molinara. A variety of wine styles is produced in the area, including a recioto dessert wine and Amarone, a strong wine made from dried grapes. Most basic Valpolicellas are light, fragrant table wines produced in a novello style, similar to Beaujolais nouveau and released only a few weeks after harvest. Valpolicella Classico is made from grapes grown in the original Valpolicella production zone. Valpolicella Superiore has an alcohol content of at least 12 percent. Valpolicella Ripasso is a form of Valpolicella Superiore made with dried grape skins that have been left over from fermentation of Amarone or recioto.
Winemaking in the region has existed since at least the time of the ancient Greeks. The name "Valpolicella" appeared in charters of the mid-12th century, combining two valleys thought of independently, its etymology is unknown. Today Valpolicella's economy is based on wine production; the region, colloquially called the "pearl of Verona", has been a preferred location for rural vacation villas. Seven comuni compose Valpolicella: Pescantina, San Pietro in Cariano, Marano di Valpolicella, Sant’Ambrogio di Valpolicella and Sant’Anna d’Alfaedo; the Valpolicella production zone was enlarged to include regions of the surrounding plains when Valpolicella achieved DOC status in 1968. In December 2009, the production of Amarone and recioto dessert wines within the Valpolicella DOC received their own separate Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status. Viticulture has been used in the Veneto region since at least the time of the ancient Greeks, though the exact period of cultivation for the Valpolicella area is not known.
The tradition of using dried-grapes was known as the "Greco" or "Greek style" of winemaking, with its origins dating back to this period. In the 6th century AD, the Roman writer Cassiodorus notes that the sweet wines of the area were favorites in the courts of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Since the 8th century AD, the Republic of Venice was long a vital trading port in the Mediterranean, linking the Byzantine Empire with the rest of Europe. Merchants records shows that one of the items traded through Venice was local wines produced in Verona province in the hills west of Venice. During the 15th and 16th century, struggles with the Ottoman Turks led to frequent blockades of the Venetian ports, limiting the amount of available export wines from the Greek isles and abroad; this further stimulated the development of domestic vineyards for the Venetians, who pushed further into the hills of the Verona and the Valpolicella region. While the exact etymology is unknown, it is possible that the name is derived from several Greek and Latin phrases that meant "the valley of many cellars".
The 19th century brought a series of calamities to most wine producing regions of Italy-including the phylloxera epidemic, downy mildew and the political upheaval of the Risorgimento. According to the 1889 writings of the French wine historian Dr. C. B. Cerletti, one of the few Italian wine regions to emerge from this period unscathed was Valpolicella. In the 1950s, the "Amarone" style of winemaking was rediscovered. In 1968, the Valpolicella region received official recognition for quality wine production when it was granted its own DOC. However, with DOC recognition came a large expansion of vineyard areas that were permitted to produce Valpolicella DOC wine, including land in the fertile plains of the Po River, which tend to produce excessively large yields of grapes with varying qualities. Additionally the grape composition for Valpolicella wines were expanded to include varieties of lower potential quality such as Molinara and Rondinella; this led to a general drop in quality, which had a detrimental impact on not only the area's reputation on the international wine market but on sales and prices.
As winemaking became less profitable, the vineyards in the most labor-intensive areas were uprooted and abandoned. This shifted the source of grape production further away from the better quality producing hillside regions down to the fertile plains. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Amarone wines of Valpolicella experienced a spike in popularity on the world's wine market. Production of Amarone jumped from 522,320 US gallons in 1972 to 1.2 million gallons by 1990. By 2000 Amarone production grew to over 3.9 million. By this point, the price for grapes destined for Amarone production was nearly three times higher than what a comparable quantity of grapes would fetch for basic Valpolicella production; this sparked renewed interest in planting vineyards in the high altitude hillside locations that produced lower yields of grapes better suited for Amarone production. In the 21st century, the reputation of Valpolicella wines continued to expand on the world's wine market, as ambitious winemakers began to invest more in advanced viticultural and winemaking techniques that produce higher quality wines.
In 2003, the DOC regulations were adjusted to eliminate mandatory blending requirements for sub-quality grapes such as Molinara. At the end of 2009, the production of both Amarone and recioto d
Acids in wine
The acids in wine are an important component in both winemaking and the finished product of wine. They are present in both grapes and wine, having direct influences on the color and taste of the wine as well as the growth and vitality of yeast during fermentation and protecting the wine from bacteria; the measure of the amount of acidity in wine is known as the “titratable acidity” or “total acidity”, which refers to the test that yields the total of all acids present, while strength of acidity is measured according to pH, with most wines having a pH between 2.9 and 3.9. The lower the pH, the higher the acidity in the wine. However, there is no direct connection between total acidity and pH. In wine tasting, the term “acidity” refers to the fresh and sour attributes of the wine which are evaluated in relation to how well the acidity balances out the sweetness and bitter components of the wine such as tannins. Three primary acids are found in wine grapes: tartaric and citric acids. During the course of winemaking and in the finished wines, butyric and succinic acids can play significant roles.
Most of the acids involved with wine are fixed acids with the notable exception of acetic acid found in vinegar, volatile and can contribute to the wine fault known as volatile acidity. Sometimes, additional acids, such as ascorbic and sulfurous acids, are used in winemaking. Tartaric acid is, from a winemaking perspective, the most important in wine due to the prominent role it plays in maintaining the chemical stability of the wine and its color and in influencing the taste of the finished wine. In most plants, this organic acid is rare, but it is found in significant concentrations in grape vines. Along with malic acid, to a lesser extent citric acid, tartaric is one of the fixed acids found in wine grapes; the concentration varies depending on the soil content of the vineyard. Some varieties, such as Palomino, are disposed to having high levels of tartaric acids, while Malbec and Pinot noir have lower levels. During flowering, high levels of tartaric acid are concentrated in the grape flowers and young berries.
As the vine progresses through ripening, tartaric does not get metabolized through respiration like malic acid, so the levels of tartaric acid in the grape vines remain consistent throughout the ripening process. Less than half of the tartaric acid found in grapes is free standing, with the majority of the concentration present as potassium acid salt. During fermentation, these tartrates bind with the lees, pulp debris and precipitated tannins and pigments. While some variance among grape varieties and wine regions exists about half of the deposits are soluble in the alcoholic mixture of wine; the crystallization of these tartrates can happen at unpredictable times, in a wine bottle may appear like broken glass, though they are in fact harmless. Winemakers will put the wine through cold stabilization, where it is exposed to temperatures below freezing to encourage the tartrates to crystallize and precipitate out of the wine, or electrodialysis which removes the tartrates via a membrane process.
Malic acid, along with tartaric acid, is one of the principal organic acids found in wine grapes. It is found in nearly every fruit and berry plant, but is most associated with green apples, the flavor it most projects in wine, its name comes from the Latin malum meaning “apple”. In the grape vine, malic acid is involved in several processes which are essential for the health and sustainability of the vine, its chemical structure allows it to participate in enzymatic reactions that transport energy throughout the vine. Its concentration varies depending on the grape variety, with some varieties, such as Barbera and Sylvaner, being disposed to high levels; the levels of malic acid in grape berries are at their peak just before veraison, when they can be found in concentrations as high as 20 g/l. As the vine progresses through the ripening stage, malic acid is metabolized in the process of respiration, by harvest, its concentration could be as low as 1 to 9 g/l; the respiratory loss of malic acid is more pronounced in warmer climates.
When all the malic acid is used up in the grape, it is considered “over-ripe” or senescent. Winemakers must compensate for this loss by adding extraneous acid at the winery in a process known as acidification. Malic acid can be further reduced during the winemaking process through malolactic fermentation or MLF. In this process, bacteria convert the stronger malic acid into the softer lactic acid, thus after MLF, wine has a higher pH, a different mouthfeel. The bacteria behind this process can be found in the winery, in cooperages, which make oak wine barrels that will house a population of the bacteria or they can be introduced by the winemaker with a cultured specimen. For some wines, the conversion of malic into lactic acid can be beneficial if the wine has excessive levels of malic acid. For other wines, such as Chenin blanc and Riesling, it produces off flavors in the wine that would not be appealing for that variety. In general, red wines are more put through MLF than whites, which means a higher likelihood of finding malic acid in w
Denominazione di origine controllata
Denominazione di origine controllata is a quality assurance label for Italian wines. The system is modeled on the French Appellation d'origine contrôlée designations; the Italian government introduced the system in 1963 and overhauled it in 1992 to comply with European Union law on protected geographical designations of origin, which came into effect that year. There are three levels of labels: DO — Denominazione di Origine, DOC — Denominazione di Origine Controllata, DOCG — Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita. All three require that a food product be produced within the specified region using defined methods and that it satisfy a defined quality standard; the need for a DOCG identification arose when the DOC designation was, in the view of many Italian food industries, given too liberally to different products. A new, more restrictive identification was created as similar as possible to the previous one so that buyers could still recognize it, but qualitatively different; the three original DOCGs were Brunello, Vino Nobile, Barolo, followed by Barbaresco.
A notable difference for wines is that DOCG labelled wines are analysed and tasted by government–licensed personnel before being bottled. To prevent manipulation, DOCG wine bottles are sealed with a numbered governmental seal across the cap or cork. Italian legislation additionally regulates the use of the following qualifying terms for wines: Classico: reserved for wines produced in the region where a particular type of wine has been produced "traditionally". For the Chianti Classico, this "traditional region" is defined by a decree from July 10, 1932, Riserva, which may be used only for wines that have been aged at least two years longer than normal for a particular type of wine. Wines labelled DOCG may only be sold in bottles holding 5 litres or less. For wines produced in Bolzano, where German is an official language, DOC may alternatively be written as Kontrollierte Ursprungsbezeichnung and DOCG may be written as Kontrollierte und garantierte Ursprungsbezeichnung. Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union List of Italian DOCG wines List of Italian DOC wines List of Italian products with protected designation of origin Indicazione geografica tipica, for high-quality wines that do not fit DOC/DOCG regulations referred to as the Italian equivalent to the French vin de pays system.
Traditional food An excerpt from the relevant Italian law V. Q. P. R. D. Vini: Elenco e Riferimenti Normativi al 07.02.2006 published by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, which lists every DOC and DOCG wine as of February 2006, together with the dates of the decrees by which the appellation was instituted, the provinces in which the wine is permitted to be produced. Complete list of italian DOC wines
Amarone della Valpolicella known as Amarone, is a rich Italian dry red wine made from the dried grapes of the Corvina and other approved red grape varieties. Valpolicella is within the large Veneto region near Venice. In Italian, the name Amarone means "the Great Bitter". Notable wines have been produced in Valpolicella since ancient times, but the Verona wine was not marketed as Amarone before 1953, it is believed that the label Amarone was coined by Adelino Lucchese in 1936. The wine was assigned Denominazione di Origine Controllata status in December 1990. On 4 December 2009, Amarone and Recioto della Valpolicella were promoted to the status of Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita. Total production for sale in 2008 was 8.57 million bottles. Grapes are harvested ripe in the first two weeks of October, by choosing bunches having fruits not too close to each other, to let the air flow. Grapes are allowed to dry, traditionally on straw mats; this process is called rasinate in Italian.
This concentrates the remaining sugars and flavours and is similar to the production of French Vin de Paille. The pomace left over from pressing off the Amarone is used in the production of Ripasso Valpolicellas. Modern Amarone is produced in special drying chambers under controlled conditions; this approach minimizes the amount of handling of the grapes and helps prevent the onset of Botrytis cinerea. In Amarone, the quality of the grape skin is a primary concern, as that component brings the tannins and intensity of flavor to the wine; the process of desiccation not only concentrates the juices within the grape, but increases the skin contact of the grapes. The drying process further metabolizes the acids within the grape and creates a polymerization of the tannins in the skin that contributes to the overall balance of the finished wine; the length of the drying process is 120 days, but varies according to producer and the quality of the harvest. The most evident consequence of this process is the loss of weight: 35 to 45% for Corvina grapes, 30 to 40% for Molinara, 27 to 40% for Rondinella.
Following the drying process, completed during the end of January or beginning of February, the grapes are crushed and go through a dry, low temperature fermentation process that may last up to 30 or 50 days. The reduced water content can slow down the fermentation process, increasing the risk of spoilage and potential wine faults such as high volatile acidity. After fermentation, the wine is aged in barriques made of either Slavonian oak. If fermentation is stopped early, the resulting wine will contain residual sugar and produce a sweeter wine known as Recioto della Valpolicella. Recioto was the traditional wine produced according to this method, Amarone was Recioto wines that had fermented for too long. Unlike Amarone, Recioto della Valpolicella may be used to produce a sparkling wine. Ripasso is an Italian wine produced when the partially-aged Valpolicella is contacted with the pomace of the Amarone; this will take place in the spring following the harvest. The resulting wine is more tannic, with a deeper color, having more alcohol and more extract.
The word Ripasso designates both the winemaking technique and the wine, is found on a wine label. The final result is a ripe, full-bodied wine with little acid. Alcohol content surpasses 15% and the resulting wine is released until five years after the vintage though this is not a legal requirement; the labor-intensive process of producing this wine poses significant risk for the development of various wine faults. Wet and rainy weather during harvest may cause the grapes to rot before drying out, requiring winemakers to be diligent in removing rotted bunches that can cause moldy flavors in the wine. Wine Straw wine Dessert wine Consorzio per la Tutela dei Vini Valpolicella d.o.c. Amarone Origin Amarone production regulations