Sacramento metropolitan area
The Greater Sacramento area, or Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Yuba City, CA–NV Combined Statistical Area, is a combined statistical area consisting of several metropolitan statistical areas and seven counties in Northern California and one in Western Nevada, namely Sacramento, Yolo, El Dorado, Sutter and Nevada counties in California, Douglas County in Nevada. The metropolitan area experienced a growth of nearly 20% in the last decade. In the 2000 census, the Sacramento MSA had a population of 1,930,857, it lies in the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada regions of California as well as a small region of Western Nevada. Greater Sacramento is anchored by Sacramento, the political center of California, the nation's most populous state with the largest number of representatives in the U. S. government, home of the California State Capitol and the secondary location of Supreme Court of California and was the original terminus for the First Transcontinental Railroad. Greater Sacramento contains sites of natural beauty including Lake Tahoe, the largest alpine lake in North America and numerous ski and nature resorts.
It is located in one of the world's most important agricultural areas. The region's eastern counties are located in site of the California Gold Rush, it has been one of the fastest growing regions in the United States as Sacramento continues to emerge as a distinct metropolitan center in the United States as well as having cheaper housing for commuters from and to the nearby, more expensive, San Francisco Bay Area. The Greater Sacramento area is composed of eight counties, two metropolitan areas and two micropolitan areas; the following counties are located in the Greater Sacramento area: Douglas County, Nevada El Dorado County, California Nevada County, California Placer County, California Sacramento County, California Sutter County, California Yolo County, California Yuba County, CaliforniaEl Dorado, Placer and Yolo counties comprise the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville, California Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sutter and Yuba counties comprise the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area, known as the Yuba-Sutter Area.
Nevada County comprises the Truckee-Grass Valley Micropolitan Area, Douglas County comprises the Gardnerville Ranchos micropolitan area. Greater Sacramento straddles two key regions of California, the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountains and is overlapped by the cultural influences of three areas, the Bay Area, Eastern California and Northern California. An increasing phenomenon taking shape in Greater Sacramento is growth of urban sprawl as Sacramento and its metropolitan area continue to expand; the growth is due in part to first, higher costs of living in the Bay Area which have caused commuters to move as far as Yolo and Sacramento counties and more growth and rising living costs in the core of Sacramento, building up more areas in the surrounding counties for commuters. Local and state governments are trying to prevent destruction of forests and open land and curbing the spread before Sacramento faces an urban sprawl crisis as the Greater Los Angeles Area has, it is the only interstate MSA/CSA in California.
Sacramento is the largest city in the metropolitan area, home to nearly 470,000, making it the sixth largest city in California and the 35th largest in the United States. It has been the state capital of California since 1851 and has played an important role in the history of California; when gold was discovered in nearby Sutter's Mill in Coloma, Sacramento became a boom town luring in migrants making their way from San Francisco to the gold fields of the Sierras. Although it did not become the financial and cultural center of Northern California, titles that were given to San Francisco, Sacramento became the largest transportation hub of not only Northern California, but the West Coast following the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Sacramento today continues to be one of the largest rail hubs in North America, its rail station is one of the busiest in the United States. In 2002, Time Magazine featured an article recognizing Sacramento as the most diverse and integrated city in America.
Government jobs are still the largest sector of employment in the city and the city council does considerable effort to keep state agencies from moving outside the city limits. The remainder of Sacramento County is suburban in general with most of the working population commuting to Downtown Sacramento and with a smaller proportion commuting all the way to the Bay Area. Yolo County serves as a commuter region as most of its working population commutes either to the Bay Area or Sacramento for work but is home to the University of California, Davis campus, the northernmost UC campus and only UC campus in the Greater Sacramento region. El Dorado and Placer Counties form the remainder of the inner core of Greater Sacramento and are composed of the Sierra foothills and mountains; the western areas of the counties are composed of commuter suburbs to Sacramento while the eastern areas border Lake Tahoe and are home to numerous ski resorts and towns such as South Lake Tahoe, site of the Heavenly Mountain Resort, which are popular in winter months and nature camps and resorts in summer months.
Placer County has been an important mining area not only for gold, but other minerals and granite. It is the site of Squaw Valley, which hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics, up to date, the only Winter Olympic Games to be held in California and the US West Coast and the smallest city to host an Olympics; the Yuba-Sutter Area consists of Yuba and Sutter counties and is a agricultural area, although the southern area is more suburban in character. It is home to
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. Salmon and trout with native ranges in waters draining to the Pacific Ocean are members of the genus, their range extends from Beringia southwards to Taiwan in the west and Mexico to the east. In North America, some subspecies of O. clarki are native in the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin, while others are native to the Rio Grande and western tributaries of the Mississippi River Basin which drain to the Gulf of Mexico, rather than to the Pacific. Several species of Oncorhynchus have been introduced into non-native waters around the globe establishing self-sustaining wild populations; the six Pacific salmons of Oncorhynchus are semelparous. Migration can be affected by parasites. Infected individuals can become weak and have shortened lifespans. Infection with parasites creates an effect known as culling whereby fish that are infected are less to complete the migration.
Anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss known as steelhead are iteroparous. The Coastal cutthroat trout form of Oncorhynchus clarki is considered semi-anadromous as it spends short periods of time in marine environments. Several late Miocene trout-like fossils in Idaho, in the Clarkia Lake beds, appear to be of Oncorhynchus; the presence of these species so far inland established Oncorhynchus was not only present in the Pacific drainages before the beginning of the Pliocene, but that rainbow and cutthroat trout, Pacific salmon lineages had diverged before the beginning of the Pliocene. The split between Oncorhynchus and Salmo must have occurred well before the Pliocene. Suggested dates have gone back as far as the early Miocene. One fossil species assigned to this genus, O. rastrosus, the sabertooth salmon, is a 9-foot -long species known from Late Miocene to Pleistocene fossils. Speciation among Oncorhynchus has been examined for decades, a family "tree" is not yet developed for the Pacific salmonids.
Mitochondrial DNA research has been completed on a variety of Pacific trout and salmonid species, but the results do not agree with fossil research, or molecular research. Chum and sockeye salmon lineages are agreed to have diverged in the sequence after other species. Montgomery discusses the pattern of the fossil record as compared to tectonic shifts in the plates of the Pacific Northwest of America; the divergence in Onchorhyncus lineages appear to follow the uprising of the Pacific Rim. The climatic and habitat changes that would follow such a geologic event are discussed, in the context of potential stressors leading to adaptation and speciation. One interesting case involving speciation with salmon is that of the kokanee sockeye. Kokanee sockeye evolve differently from anadromous sockeye—they reach the level of "biological species". Biological species—as opposed to morphological species—are defined by the capacity to maintain themselves in sympatry as independent genetic entities; this definition can be vexing because it applies only to sympatry, this limitation makes the definition difficult to apply.
Examples in Washington State and elsewhere have two populations living in the same lake, but spawning in different substrates at different times, eat different food sources. There is no pressure to interbreed; these types of kokanee salmon show the principal attributes of a biological species: they are reproductively isolated and show strong resources partitioning. A general decline in overall Pacific salmon populations began in the mid 19th century; as the result of western expansion and development in the U. S. experts estimate salmon populations in the Columbia River basin had been reduced to less than 20% of their pre-1850 levels by 1933. In 2008, Lackey estimated that Pacific salmon stocks in the Pacific Northwest were less than 10% of their pre-1850 numbers. Many of the remaining salmon runs are dominated by not wild salmon. Many isolated subspecies of the Pacific trouts those of Oncorhynchus mykiss rainbow trout and Oncorhynchus clarki cutthroat trout have declined in their native ranges.
Many local populations or distinct population segments of anadromous forms of steelhead have declined in their native ranges. The resulting declines have resulted in a number of populations of Oncorhynchus species or subspecies being listed as either endangered, threatened or as "Species of Special Concern" by state, federal or international authorities. Two Oncorhynchus clarki subspecies are considered extinct. Declines are attributed to a wide variety of causes—over fishing, habitat loss and degradation, artificial propagation and hybridization with or competition with introduced, non-native species. For example, the Yellowfin cutthroat trout is extinct as a result of the introduction of non-native rainbow trout into its native waters. Declines in the abundance of wild salmon due to over fishing placed greater pressure on hatcheries to increase production and restore the wild salmon stock to supply fisheries; the problem is that hatcheries can never replicate the environment of wild salmon, an issue which results in physiological and behavioral differences between wild salmon and those reared in hatcheries.
These differences are the product of genetic changes associated with inbreeding, artifi
Elk Grove, California
Elk Grove is a city in Sacramento County, located just south of the state capital of Sacramento. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2018, the population of the city was estimated at 173,702. The second-largest city in Sacramento County, Elk Grove was the fastest growing city in the U. S. between July 1, 2004, July 1, 2005. The City of Elk Grove incorporated on July 1, 2000, it is a general law city with a council/manager form of government. One of Elk Grove's most significant aspects is the Elk Grove Unified School District, the city's largest employer. Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga entered the region in 1808, naming the valley "Sacramento Valley" in honor of Sacramento, the Holy Sacrament in Spanish, giving the northerly city of Sacramento its name. A writer on Moraga's expedition wrote of the region: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths.
The air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them."Elk Grove was founded in 1850 as a stage stop for travelers coming from Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay Area, when the Elk Grove Hotel and Stage Stop was opened by James Hall and the town was named after it. In 1868 the Western Division of the Central Pacific Railroad came through about a mile east of Elk Grove. At this new location another hotel was built to accommodate travelers and was named the Elk Grove Hotel. In the following decades, Elk Grove remained a small farming community with little urban development. In the late 1980s, suburban development projects began to spring up around the community in the north near Sacramento; this was meant to serve Sacramento's population as well as San Francisco commuters seeking a community near the San Francisco Bay Area which they could settle in and still commute from. This triggered a period of rapid growth. On July 1, 2000, Elk Grove incorporated as a city; the growth peaked in 2004 and 2005 when Elk Grove was declared the fastest growing city in the US.
Apple Inc. manufactured its iMac line in Elk Grove as late as 2002. After many of those tasks were offshored, the facility was converted into an AppleCare call centre. In 2008 Elk Grove suffered from the subprime mortgage crisis due to its suburban nature; the Elk Grove Unified School District is the fifth largest school district in California and one of the fastest growing school districts in the nation. Located in southern Sacramento County, the district covers 320 square miles, one-third of the county. For the 2002-03 school year, the district served more than 52,500 students, grew to 62,767 students in the 2016-2017 school year; those students attend 40 elementary schools, 9 middle schools, 9 high schools and 7 alternative high schools. There are several private schools in town. A local community college, Cosumnes River College, offers both career training and a transfer program to four-year universities. Located nearby are California State University and the University of California, Davis.
Elk Grove is the home of the private six-year Universalist college Quest Seminary. In 2013, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy that offers a Doctor of Pharmacy degree program relocated to Elk Grove; the new Elk Grove Public Library is located at 8900 Elk Grove Blvd in a modern two-story building. It moved to this location in 2008 from its old building one block east; the library is part of the broader Sacramento Public Library system. The Elk Grove Library serves neighboring communities such as Vineyard, Wilton and Rancho Murieta. Additional local libraries supplement neighborhoods, such as the public Franklin High Library. Elk Grove parks are serviced by the Cosumnes Community Services District. Elk Grove hosts recreational and competitive level sports clubs, including: Elk Grove Aquatics Club - EGAC Elk Grove Piranhas Swim Team - EGP Elk Grove Soccer Elk Grove United Rugby Club Elk Grove Youth Baseball Elk Grove Youth Lacrosse Club Laguna Creek Gators Piranhas Aquatics Club - PAC Beginning in 2012, voters elect the mayor for a two-year term.
Prior to 2012, the mayor's position was chosen by the city council. The remaining four positions on the city council are elected by districts to four-year terms. On November 8, 2016, Steve Ly became the second directly elected mayor following Gary Davis, the first Hmong mayor in the United States; the remaining councilmembers are Pat Hume, Steve Detrick and Stephanie Nguyen. Elk Grove is in California's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Ami Bera; the Elk Grove Police Department provides policing services for the city while the Cosumnes Community Services District runs the fire department. Other companies based in Elk Grove include Citizens Telecommunications Company of California and Frontier Communications of the Southwest. Elk Grove is serviced by a fared bus system called e-Tran that drives on many of the city's main routes. Elk Grove is a sister city of Concepción de Ataco in El Salvador. Arik Armstead, linebacker for NFL's San Francisco 49ers Armond Armstead, defensive tackle for CFL's Toronto Argonauts Ami Bera, physician.
S. Representative, 7th district, California Scott Boras, baseball sports agent, named "Most Powerful Sports Agent" in 2013 by Forbes Lance Briggs, linebacker for NFL's Chicago Bears Bill Cartwright
San Joaquin County, California
San Joaquin County the County of San Joaquin is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306; the county seat is Stockton. San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton–Lodi–Tracy metropolitan statistical area within the regional San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland combined statistical area; the county is located in Northern California's Central Valley just east of the highly populated nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region and is separated from the Bay Area by the Diablo Range of low mountains with its Altamont Pass. One of the smaller counties in area in California, it has a high population density and is growing due to overflow from the Bay area's need for housing; the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the county was named for the San Joaquin River. In the early 19th century Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga, commanding an expedition in the lower great California Central Valley, gave the name of San Joaquin to the San Joaquin River, which springs from the southern Sierra Nevada.
San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valley's first permanent residence. Between 1843 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, five Mexican land grants were made in what would become San Joaquin County: Campo de los Franceses, Pescadero, Sanjon de los Moquelumnes and Thompson, it was developed for agriculture. It attracted more settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush; the Central Pacific Railroad in the 1860s utilized San Joaquin County's exceptionally flat terrain to construct a rail line from Sacramento to Stockton and southwest through Altamont Pass to the San Francisco Bay. In 1909, a second railroad, the Western Pacific, utilized the same route through Stockton to reach the Bay area. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe Railroad constructed from Bakersfield and Fresno through Stockton north to reach Oakland. Smaller lines constructed at Stockton were the Tidewater Southern to Modesto and the Central California Traction to Sacramento.
Both started. These railroads encouraged the growth of farms and ranches in San Joaquin county and adjacent counties. On August 7, 1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Royster's Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd; the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a better way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out; the cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,426 square miles, of which 1,391 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water; the county has a low inland elevation and a flat drainage basin for the San Joaquin River and its numerous tributaries. With the resulting exceptionally high water table, the county is a marshy and swampy delta with a tendency to flood in the Spring melting snow runoff from the Sierra Mountains.
The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54'N 121°12'W. San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306; the racial makeup of San Joaquin County was 349,287 White, 51,744 African American, 7,196 Native American, 98,472 Asian, 3,758 Pacific Islander, 131,054 from other races, 43,795 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons; the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people, 181,629 households, 134,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at an average density of 135 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.1% White, 6.7% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 11.4% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 16.3% from other races, 6.1% from two or more races.
30.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.3% were of German, 5.3% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66.4% spoke English, 21.3% Spanish, 2.2% Tagalog, 1.8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian, 1.1% Vietnamese and 1.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 181,629 households out of which 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,282, the median income for a family was $46,919.
Males had a median income of $39,246 versus $27,507 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,365. About 13.5% of families and 17.7% of the population were below th
Sacramento County, California
Sacramento County is a county in the U. S. state of California, State of the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,418,788, its county seat is Sacramento, the state capital of California since 1854. Sacramento County is the central county of the Greater Sacramento metropolitan area; the county covers about 994 square miles in the northern portion of the Central Valley, on into Gold Country. Sacramento County extends from the low delta lands between the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, including Suisun Bay, north to about ten miles beyond the State Capitol and east into the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains; the southernmost portion of Sacramento County has direct access to San Francisco Bay. Sacramento County was one of the original counties of California, which were created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the county was named after the Sacramento River. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santisimo Sacramento, referring to the Catholic Eucharist.
Alexander Hamilton Willard, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, is buried in the old Franklin Cemetery. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 994 square miles, of which 965 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water. Most of the county is at an elevation close with some areas below sea level; the highest point in the county is Carpenter Hill at 828 feet, in the southeast part of Folsom. Major watercourses in the county include the American River, Sacramento River, Cosumnes River, a tributary of the Mokelumne River, Dry Creek, a tributary of the Sacramento River. Sutter County - northwest Placer County - north El Dorado County - northeast Amador County - east San Joaquin County - south Contra Costa County - southwest Solano County - west Yolo County - west Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge California National Historic Trail Pony Express National Historic Trail The 2010 United States Census reported that Sacramento County had a population of 1,418,788.
The racial makeup of Sacramento County was 815,151 White, 200,228 African American, 14,308 Native American, 203,211 Asian, 13,858 Pacific Islander, 131,691 from other races, 93,511 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 306,196 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,223,499 people, 453,602 households, 297,562 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,267 people per square mile. There were 474,814 housing units at an average density of 492/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 64.0% White, 10.6% Black or African American, 1.09% Native American, 13.5% Asian, 0.6% Pacific Islander, 7.5% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. 19.3 % of the population were Latino of any race. 10.2% were of German, 7.0% English, 6.7% Irish and 5.1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 75.7% spoke only English at home. There were 453,602 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families.
26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.24. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,816, the median income for a family was $50,717. Males had a median income of $39,482 versus $31,569 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,142. About 10.3% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.2% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. The Government of Sacramento County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Sacramento.
Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments such as the Government of Sacramento County, while municipalities such as the city of Sacramento and Folsom provide additional non-essential services. It is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor, numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Executive Officer. In addition, several entities of the government of California have jurisdiction conterminous with Sacramento County, such as the Sacramento County Superior Court. Under its foundational Charter, the five-member elected Sacramento County Board of Supervisors is the county legislature; the board operates in a legislative and quasi-judicial capacity. The current members are: Phil Serna, district 1 Patrick Kennedy, district 2 Susan Peters, district 3 Sue Frost, district 4 Don Nottoli, district 5The Sacramento County Code is the codified law of Sacramento County in the form of local ordinances passed by the Board of Supervisors.
The Sacramento County Sheriff provides court protection, jail management, coroner service for the entire county. It provides detective services for the unincorporated areas of the county. Incorporated municipalities within the county that have their own muni
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in the Miwok language. Anthropologists divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups; these distinctions were not used among the Miwok before European contact. Plains and Sierra Miwok: from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Coast Miwok: from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County Lake Miwok: from Clear Lake basin of Lake County Bay Miwok: from present-day location of Contra Costa County The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, they are as follows: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians California Valley Miwok Tribe known as the Sheep Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria known as the Federated Coast Miwok Ione Band of Miwok Indians, of Ione, California Jackson Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Middletown Rancheria Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, Shingle Springs Rancheria Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria United Auburn Indian Community of Auburn Rancheria Wilton Rancheria Indian Tribe Miwok Tribe of the El Dorado Rancheria Nashville-Eldorado Miwok Tribe Colfax-Todds Valley Consolidated Tribe of the Colfax Rancheria Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation Calaveras Band of Mi-Wuk Indians Miwok of Buena Vista Rancheria River Valley Miwok Indians, formally known as Historical Families of Wilton Rancheria The predominant theory regarding the settlement of the Americas date the original migrations from Asia to around 20,000 years ago across the Bering Strait land bridge, but one anthropologist claims that the Miwok and some other northern California tribes descend from Siberians who arrived in California by sea around 3,000 years ago.
The Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They were otherwise hunter-gatherers; the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the modern-day extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is due to cultivation by Miwok tribes, they burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine. Nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs and fungi. Animals were hunted depending on the species and the situation. Grasshoppers were a prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River; the Miwok ate meals according to appetite rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California. Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated with land and water.
These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, but rather as predecessors. Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with young women. To soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost; the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were only allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up and carry her towards his goal. In 1770, there were an estimated 500 Lake Miwok, 1,500 Coast Miwok, 9,000 Plains and Sierra Miwok, totaling about 11,000 people, according to historian Alfred L. Kroeber, although this may be a serious undercount; the 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, the 1930 Census, 491. See history of each Miwok group for more information. Today there are about 3,500 Miwok in total; the Star Wars films feature a fictional species of forest-dwelling creatures known as Ewoks, who are ostensibly named after the Miwok.
However, the historical Northern-California footprint of the Miwok people may have caused the Ewoks' name to be retconned to enhance the marketability of the 1983 film. The Miwok people are encountered in The Years of Rice and Salt. In an alternate history scenario depicted in the book they are the first group of Native Americans encountered by the first Chinese to discover the continent. Kule Loklo Saklan Lucy Telles Utian languages Access Genealogy: Indian Tribal records, Miwok Indian Tribe. Retrieved on 2006-08-01. Main source of "authenticated village" names and locations. Barrett, S. A. and Gifford, E. W. Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life of the Yosemite Region. Yosemite Association, Yosemite National Park, California, 1933. ISBN 0-939666-12-X Cook, Sherburne; the Conflict Between the California White Civilization. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0-520-03143-1. Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington, D. C: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78..
Silliman, Stephen. Lost Laborers in Colonial California, Native Americans and the Archaeology of Rancho Petaluma. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press