The DFV is an internal combustion engine, produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder, its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, it was used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing; the engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.90 mm producing over 400 bhp from the start reaching over 500 bhp by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90.00 x 58.83 mm giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf torque at 8,500 rpm. In 1965, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, that administered Formula One racing, agreed to raise the series' maximum engine capacity from 1.5 litres to 3.0 litres from 1966. Up until that point, Colin Chapman's successful Team Lotus cars had relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in regulations Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman approached Keith Duckworth a gearbox engineer at Lotus but now running his fledgling Cosworth company with Mike Costin, who commented that he could produce a competitive three-litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approached the Ford Motor Company and David Brown of Aston Martin for funding, each without initial success. Chapman approached Ford of Britain's public relations chief, former journalist Walter Hayes, with whom he had developed a close working relationship from the early 1960s. Since Hayes had joined Ford in 1962 the pair had collaborated in the production of the successful Lotus Cortina, introduced in 1963. Hayes arranged dinner for Chapman with Ford employee Harley Copp, a British-based American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two-part plan: Stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two Stage two would produce a V8 engine for Formula One, by May 1967 The project was revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, but the engine was not ready until the third race of the 1967 season, on the 4 June at Zandvoort.
Its debut proved successful. Graham Hill, in the team at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, put his DFV-powered Lotus 49 on pole position by half a second and led for the first 10 laps but was sidelined by a broken gear in the camshaft drive. Team-mate Jim Clark came home to win. However, this dominant performance belied a serious fault in the timing gear. Clark took three more wins that season, but reliability problems left him third in the Drivers' Championship, 10 points behind champion Denny Hulme; the progress of the engine was documented in a film produced by the Ford Motor Company's film section, entitled 9 Days in Summer. The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition: the Ferrari engine was underpowered. Only Brabham's Repco V8 engine provided a usable combination of power and reliability, but its age and design left little room for further improvement.
Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished if the Lotus were to continue winning against only lesser opposition, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. At the end of 1967, Copp and Hayes explained to Chapman that he would no longer have monopoly use of the DFV and in August 1967 it was announced that the power unit would be available for sale, via Cosworth Engineering, to racing teams throughout the world. Hayes released the DFV to French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. What followed was a golden age, where teams big or small could buy an engine, competitive, compact, easy to work with and cheap; the DFV replaced the Coventry Climax as the standard F1 powerplant for the private teams. Lotus, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Hesketh, Williams, Penske and Ligier are just some of the teams to have used the DFV. In 1969 and 1973 every World Championship race was won by DFV-powered cars, with the engine taking a total of 155 wins from 262 races between 1967 and 1985.
The advent of ground effect aerodynamics on the F1 scene in 1977 provided a new lease of life for the now decade-old engine. The principle relied on Venturi tunnels on the underside of the car to create low pressure regions and thus additional downforce. Teams running Ferrari and Alfa-Romeo flat-12 engines had enjoyed a handling advantage due to the low centre of gravity in such a configuration. However, for ground effect, the wide engine was the opposite of what was required as the cylinder heads protruded into the area where the Venturi tunnels should have been. In contrast, the V-configuration of the Cosworth engine angled the cylinders upwards and left am
The Fayetteville Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the US Office of Management and Budget, is an area consisting of two counties – Cumberland and Hoke – in eastern North Carolina, anchored by the city of Fayetteville. It is served by Interstate 95, Interstate 295, U. S. and state highways, Fayetteville Regional Airport, Greyhound and several railroad systems. As of the 2000 census, the MSA had a population of 336,609; as of the 2010 census the MSA had a population of 366,383. In 2011 the estimated population was 374,157 Cumberland Hoke Places with more than 100,000 inhabitants Fayetteville Places with 10,000 to 30,000 inhabitants Fort Bragg - In the 2000 Census, Fort Bragg was a “census designated place.” This means it was an unincorporated place that the Census Bureau recognized and designated as an identifiable community worthy of data tabulation. However, Fort Bragg was no longer designated as a “census designated place” in the 2010 Census, because the part of Fort Bragg in Cumberland County was annexed by Fayetteville and Spring Lake in 2008.
Hope Mills Spring Lake Places with 1,000 to 10,000 inhabitants Eastover Raeford Rockfish Vander Silver City Places with less than 1,000 inhabitants Ashley Heights Bowmore Dundarrach Falcon Five Points Godwin Linden Stedman Wade Interstate 95 Interstate 295 NC U. S. and state highways Fayetteville Regional Airport Amtrak Greyhound Megabus Several railroad systems According to the latest figures from the U. S. Census Bureau, there were 366,383 people, 143,306 households and 88,722 families residing within the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 54.09% White, 35.17% African American, 2.54% Native American, 1.77% Asian, 0.28% Pacific Islander, 3.14% from other races, 3.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.93% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $44,757, the median income for a family was $54,895. Males had a median income of $38,958 versus $32,078 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $22,856. North Carolina census statistical areas List of cities and villages in North Carolina List of unincorporated communities in North Carolina
Luigi Calabresi, was a police officer and Italian State Police official in Milan, Italy. His 1972 murder triggered a wave of political violence. Calabresi was born 14 November 1937 into a middle-class Roman family, his father was a oil merchant. He attended the classical secondary school San Leone Magno and graduated from university with a law degree in 1964 with a thesis on the Sicilian mafia, he chose to enter the police over a career as an attorney and was sent to Milan, where he was assigned to investigate anarchist groups. On 12 December 1969 a bomb exploded in the Milan office of the National Agricultural Bank in Piazza Fontana. 17 people died and 88 were wounded. Among those interrogated as suspects was anarchist railway worker Giuseppe Pinelli. On the night of 15 December, Pinelli died from a fall from a fourth floor window of police headquarters. Theories of what caused Pinelli's fall included murder, an accident due to loss of consciousness. On 3 July 1970 judicial authorities closed the case as an "accidental death".
A second inquiry in 1975 confirmed this by ruling Pinelli's death due to an "active illness". The 1975 tribunal further found. However, elements of the far left did not accept the determination. Despite being exonerated by the institutions of the Italian state, the far-left Lotta Continua accused Calabresi of being responsible for the death of Pinelli. For two years he was the focus of a media campaign, led in part by the weekly L'Espresso, that held him responsible for Pinelli's death. Calabresi was murdered in Milan on 17 May 1972 on his way to work, he was deputy leader of the political section of the Milan office of the Italian State Police when he was murdered. The judge of the first trial was the President of criminal court of Milano Carlo Biotti. Lotta Continua disbanded in 1976.. In 1988, a former member of Lotta Continua, Leonardo Marino, confessed to having participated in the murder of Calabresi. In May of'90 Adriano Sofri, leader of Lotta Continua, along with members Giorgio Pietrostefani and Ovidio Bompressi were convicted and sentenced to 22 years in prison.
Leonardo Marino was sentenced to 11 years. On 14 May 2004 the Italian President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi awarded the gold medal for civil merit to the memory of Luigi Calabresi. Calabresi is a servant of God as ordered by Pope Paul VI. Mario Calabresi, Spingendo la notte più in là - Storia della mia famiglia e di altre vittime del terrorismo, Milan 2007, ISBN 88-04-56842-9