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Cottingley Fairies

The Cottingley Fairies appear in a series of five photographs taken by Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths, two young cousins who lived in Cottingley, near Bradford in England. In 1917, when the first two photographs were taken, Elsie was 16 years old and Frances was 9; the pictures came to the attention of writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who used them to illustrate an article on fairies he had been commissioned to write for the Christmas 1920 edition of The Strand Magazine. Doyle, as a spiritualist, was enthusiastic about the photographs, interpreted them as clear and visible evidence of psychic phenomena. Public reaction was mixed. Interest in the Cottingley Fairies declined after 1921. Both girls married and lived abroad for a time after they grew up, yet the photographs continued to hold the public imagination. In 1966 a reporter from the Daily Express newspaper traced Elsie, who had by returned to the United Kingdom. Elsie left open the possibility that she believed she had photographed her thoughts, the media once again became interested in the story.

In the early 1980s Elsie and Frances admitted that the photographs were faked, using cardboard cutouts of fairies copied from a popular children's book of the time, but Frances maintained that the fifth and final photograph was genuine. The photographs and two of the cameras used are on display in the National Science and Media Museum in Bradford, England. In December 2019 the third camera used to take the images was acquired and is scheduled to complete the exhibition. In mid-1917 nine-year-old Frances Griffiths and her mother—both newly arrived in the UK from South Africa—were staying with Frances' aunt, Elsie Wright's mother, in the village of Cottingley in West Yorkshire; the two girls played together beside the beck at the bottom of the garden, much to their mothers' annoyance, because they came back with wet feet and clothes. Frances and Elsie said they only went to the beck to see the fairies, to prove it, Elsie borrowed her father's camera, a Midg quarter-plate; the girls returned about 30 minutes "triumphant".

Elsie's father, was a keen amateur photographer, had set up his own darkroom. The picture on the photographic plate he developed showed Frances behind a bush in the foreground, on which four fairies appeared to be dancing. Knowing his daughter's artistic ability, that she had spent some time working in a photographer's studio, he dismissed the figures as cardboard cutouts. Two months the girls borrowed his camera again, this time returned with a photograph of Elsie sitting on the lawn holding out her hand to a 1-foot-tall gnome. Exasperated by what he believed to be "nothing but a prank", convinced that the girls must have tampered with his camera in some way, Arthur Wright refused to lend it to them again, his wife Polly, believed the photographs to be authentic. Towards the end of 1918, Frances sent a letter to Johanna Parvin, a friend in Cape Town, South Africa, where Frances had lived for most of her life, enclosing the photograph of herself with the fairies. On the back she wrote "It is funny, I never used to see them in Africa.

It must be too hot for them there."The photographs became public in mid-1919, after Elsie's mother attended a meeting of the Theosophical Society in Bradford. The lecture that evening was on "fairy life", at the end of the meeting Polly Wright showed the two fairy photographs taken by her daughter and niece to the speaker; as a result, the photographs were displayed at the society's annual conference in Harrogate, held a few months later. There they came to the attention of a leading member of Edward Gardner. One of the central beliefs of theosophy is that humanity is undergoing a cycle of evolution, towards increasing "perfection", Gardner recognised the potential significance of the photographs for the movement: the fact that two young girls had not only been able to see fairies, which others had done, but had for the first time been able to materialise them at a density sufficient for their images to be recorded on a photographic plate, meant that it was possible that the next cycle of evolution was underway.

Gardner sent the prints along with the original glass-plate negatives to Harold Snelling, a photography expert. Snelling's opinion was that "the two negatives are genuine, unfaked photographs... no trace whatsoever of studio work involving card or paper models". He did not go so far as to say that the photographs showed fairies, stating only that "these are straight forward photographs of whatever was in front of the camera at the time". Gardner had the prints "clarified" by Snelling, new negatives produced, "more conducive to printing", for use in the illustrated lectures he gave around the UK. Snelling supplied the photographic prints. Author and prominent spiritualist Sir Arthur Conan Doyle learned of the photographs from the editor of the spiritualist publication Light. Doyle had been commissioned by The Strand Magazine to write an article on fairies for their Christmas issue, the fairy photographs "must have seemed like a godsend" according to broadcaster and historian Magnus Magnusson.

Doyle contacted Gardner in June 1920 to determine the background to the photographs, wrote to Elsie and her father to request permission from the latter to use the prints in his article. Arthur Wright was "obviously impressed" that Doyle was involved, gave his permission for publication, but he refused payment on the grounds that, if genuine, the images should not be "soiled" by money. Gardner and Doyle sought a second expert opini

Urban Renewal Authority

The Urban Renewal Authority is a quasi-governmental, profit-making statutory body in Hong Kong responsible for accelerating urban redevelopment. The authority's predecessor, the Land Development Corporation, was founded in 1988; the new Urban Renewal Authority was founded in 1999 with the aim of speeding up urban renewal. Difficulties reaching agreement on compensation packages for people affected by planned redevelopments delayed the actual commencement of the URA; the agency was established on 1 May 2001 and the LDC was dissolved the same day. A main difference between the former LDC and the URA is the URA's ability to directly resume land; the LDC was required to undertake lengthy negotiations with owners in order to acquire land, had to demonstrate that it had taken all steps to acquire land on a fair and reasonable basis before it could apply to the Secretary for Planning and Lands for compulsory land resumption. The difficulty in overriding dissenting property owners was the main reason the LDC was slow to undertake urban renewal.

Unlike the LDC, the URA is tax-exempt. At present, there are about 16,000 private buildings that are 30 or more years old within the metro area of Hong Kong Island, Tsuen Wan District and Kwai Tsing District. By 2030, the number of buildings over 30 years old will increase fourfold. Urban renewal in Hong Kong involves large-scale redevelopment of urban areas, rather than piecemeal rebuilding of individual buildings or the provision of specific facilities. Streets are closed, combining smaller urban blocks into larger superblocks; when urban renewal is announced for a specific area, a "freezing survey" is undertaken to identify the current inhabitants, with an aim to preventing opportunists from moving into urban renewal sites in order to receive compensation. The URA compensates owners and demolishes the district. URA redevelopments comprise luxury shopping centres and luxury residential developments. With the stated aim to address the problem of urban decay and improve the living conditions of residents in dilapidated areas, the Urban Renewal Authority Ordinance was enacted in July 2000.

The Ordinance provides a new institutional framework for carrying out urban renewal in locations that the private market finds unprofitable. The Hong Kong Government conducted a comprehensive review of "Urban Renewal Strategy" in 2008. After two years"community engagement', the new strategy was promulgated on 24 Feb 2011. Following this review, the stated strategy of the URA is that Hong Kong's urban renewal should follow three major principles: "Putting People first", their adherence to these tenets has been questioned by some, including legislator Kenneth Chan, who stated that "the URA always puts its interests first" in reference to the controversy surrounding the Graham Street market eviction, in reference to the "undemocratic" approach undertaken by the URA in demolishing Lee Tung Street. Redevelopment projects by the Urban Renewal Authority involve the wholesale demolition of urban districts and the consolidation of numerous city blocks to accommodate large-scale commercial development.

This approach is criticised for destroying cultural heritage, unique local character, touchstones of collective memory. Community and economic networks are dismantled as the compensation the URA offers to displaced residents and merchants is sufficient to permit them to return to the affected district; such grievances are leveled against most URA redevelopment projects, have escalated to community uprising and hunger strikes by those unwilling to be evicted. The authority has been said to view all older, low-rise districts as "vacant airspace with great development potential" rather than functioning communities, thus putting vast older areas of the city under threat of destruction. In addition to economic exclusivity and disregard for existing local communities, URA redevelopments have been criticised for poor urban design, such as long stretches of blank wall at ground level which kills the vibrant street life for which older districts are known. Lee Tung Street, better known by its local nickname "Wedding Card Street", was famous for its printing shops that sell custom-made wedding cards, coloured bright red for good luck.

Tens of thousands purchased their wedding cards in the area in the preceding decades, the district was the birthplace of the publishing business in Hong Kong. The URA announced in 2003 its intention to redevelop an area of 8,900 square metres centred on Lee Tung and McGregor streets. Fifty-four buildings housing 930 households were planned to be torn down to accommodate four residential towers and four shopping malls; the redevelopment was subject to a heavy backlash in the community. The decision to demolish was called "undemocratic" and contrary to the stated "people-centred" mandate of the URA; the wedding card printers and publishers were concerned about the loss of invaluable economic and social networks, having to leave the district due to high real estate prices, the loss of accessibility to suppliers and customers alike. Though the redevelopment includes a "Wedding City"-themed shopping mall, merchants complained they could not return to the area because most could not afford the increased rents.

Under the Land Resumption Ordinance, the URA was able to expropriate tenants and landowners regardless of their will, leading to accusations that URA activities run contrary to public interest and represent an infringement on property rights. The H15 Concern Group was formed to save the wedding card shops and produc

Gene structure

Gene structure is the organisation of specialised sequence elements within a gene. Genes contain the information necessary for living cells to reproduce. In most organisms, genes are made of DNA, where the particular DNA sequence determines the function of the gene. A gene is transcribed from DNA into RNA, which can either be non-coding with a direct function, or an intermediate messenger, translated into protein; each of these steps is controlled by regions, within the gene. Every gene, requires multiple sequence elements to be functional; this includes the sequence that encodes the functional protein or ncRNA, as well as multiple regulatory sequence regions. These regions may be as short as a few base pairs, up to many thousands of base pairs long. Much of gene structure is broadly similar between prokaryotes; these common elements result from the shared ancestry of cellular life in organisms over 2 billion years ago. Key differences in gene structure between eukaryotes and prokaryotes reflect their divergent transcription and translation machinery.

Understanding gene structure is the foundation of understanding gene annotation and function. The structures of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes involve several nested sequence elements; each element has a specific function in the multi-step process of gene expression. The sequences and lengths of these elements vary, but the same general functions are present in most genes. Although DNA is a double-stranded molecule only one of the strands encodes information that the RNA polymerase reads to produce protein-coding mRNA or non-coding RNA. This'sense' or'coding' strand, runs in the 5' to 3' direction where the numbers refer to the carbon atoms of the backbone's ribose sugar; the open reading frame of a gene is therefore represented as an arrow indicating the direction in which the sense strand is read. Regulatory sequences are located at the extremities of genes; these sequence regions can either separated by many kilobases. The promoter is located at the 5' end of the gene and is composed of a core promoter sequence and a proximal promoter sequence.

The core promoter marks the start site for transcription by binding RNA polymerase and other proteins necessary for copying DNA to RNA. The proximal promoter region binds transcription factors that modify the affinity of the core promoter for RNA polymerase. Genes may be regulated by multiple enhancer and silencer sequences that further modify the activity of promoters by binding activator or repressor proteins. Enhancers and silencers may be distantly located from many thousands of base pairs away; the binding of different transcription factors, regulates the rate of transcription initiation at different times and in different cells. Regulatory elements can overlap one another, with a section of DNA able to interact with many competing activators and repressors as well as RNA polymerase. For example, some repressor proteins can bind to the core promoter to prevent polymerase binding. For genes with multiple regulatory sequences, the rate of transcription is the product of all of the elements combined.

Binding of activators and repressors to multiple regulatory sequences has a cooperative effect on transcription initiation. Although all organisms use both transcriptional activators and repressors, eukaryotic genes are said to be'default off', whereas prokaryotic genes are'default on'; the core promoter of eukaryotic genes requires additional activation by promoter elements for expression to occur. The core promoter of prokaryotic genes, conversely, is sufficient for strong expression and is regulated by repressors. An additional layer of regulation occurs for protein coding genes after the mRNA has been processed to prepare it for translation to protein. Only the region between the start and stop codons encodes the final protein product; the flanking untranslated. The 3' UTR contains a terminator sequence, which marks the endpoint for transcription and releases the RNA polymerase; the 5’ UTR binds the ribosome, which translates the protein-coding region into a string of amino acids that fold to form the final protein product.

In the case of genes for non-coding RNAs the RNA is not translated but instead folds to be directly functional. The structure of eukaryotic genes includes. Most of these relate to post-transcriptional modification of pre-mRNAs to produce mature mRNA ready for translation into protein. Eukaryotic genes have more regulatory elements to control gene expression compared to prokaryotes; this is true in multicellular eukaryotes, humans for example, where gene expression varies among different tissues. A key feature of the structure of eukaryotic genes is that their transcripts are subdivided into exon and intron regions. Exon regions are retained in the final mature mRNA molecule, while intron regions are spliced out during post-transcriptional processing. Indeed, the intron regions of a gene can be longer than the exon regions. Once spliced together, the exons form a single continuous protein-coding regions, the splice boundaries are not detectable. Eukaryotic post-transcriptional processing adds a 5' cap to the start of the mRNA and a poly-adenosine tail to the end of the mRNA.

These additions stabilise the mRNA and direct its transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, although neither of these features are directly encoded in the structure of a gene. The overall organisation of prokaryotic genes is markedly different from that of the eukaryotes. The

2016–17 Top League

The 2016–17 Top League is the 14th season of Japan's domestic rugby union competition, the Top League. It kicked off on 26 August 2016 and the final round of league matches were played on 14 January 2017; the only change to the make-up of the league was the Challenge One winner Munakata Sanix Blues replacing NTT DoCoMo Red Hurricanes. The regular season saw all 16 teams competing in a round-robin style tournament where they played each team in the league once. Unlike previous seasons, there were no title-play-offs, the team on top of the league after the round-robin stages was crowned the champion; the top three teams progressed to the 54th All Japan Rugby Football Championship. Honda Heat were relegated to the new second-tier Top Challenge League; the following matches were played during the 2016–17 Top League competition: Hino Red Dolphins, Kyuden Voltex and Mitsubishi Sagamihara DynaBoars progressed to the promotion play-offs. At the end of the season, there were three promotion/relegation play-offs for three places in the 2017–18 Top League.

The teams ranked 13th, 14th and 15th in the Top League played off against the teams ranked 2nd, 3rd and 4th in the Top League Challenge 1. Coca-Cola Red Sparks, Kintetsu Liners and Toyota Industries Shuttles qualified from the Top League relegation play-off zone, while Hino Red Dolphins, Kyuden Voltex and Mitsubishi Sagamihara DynaBoars qualified from Challenge 1; the following matches were played in the series: Coca-Cola Red Sparks, Kintetsu Liners and Toyota Industries Shuttles remain in the Top League for the 2017–18 season. Hino Red Dolphins, Kyuden Voltex and Mitsubishi Sagamihara DynaBoars qualify to the second-tier Top Challenge League for the 2017–18 season

James Charlemagne Dormer

Lieutenant General The Honourable Sir James Charlemagne Dormer was a British Army officer. Dormer was the younger son of Joseph Thaddeus Dormer, 11th Baron Dormer, he became Chief of Staff of army of occupation in Egypt in 1882, Deputy Adjutant-General for auxiliary forces in 1885 and General Officer Commanding commanding Dublin District in 1886. He went to command the troops in Egypt in 1888 and become Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army and a Member of the Council of the Governor of Fort St George in 1891, he died after being mauled by a tiger while commanding the Madras Army. His eldest son Roland succeeded his uncle as Baron Dormer; the Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal: being a complete table of all the descendants now living of Edward III, King of England. The Anne of Exeter volume. Genealogical Pub. Co. 1994. P. 276. ISBN 0806314362, ISBN 978-0-8063-1436-5

Ella in London

Ella in London is a 1974 live album by Ella Fitzgerald, accompanied by a quartet led by the pianist Tommy Flanagan. It is significant as Fitzgerald's only live album recorded in England, although a decade earlier she had recorded four songs for her 1964 album Hello, Dolly! in London. This live date was recorded at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in Soho. "Sweet Georgia Brown" – 3:15 "They Can't Take That Away from Me" – 4:12 "Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye" – 2:57 "The Man I Love" – 8:10 "It Don't Mean a Thing" – 7:25 "You've Got a Friend" – 6:46 "Lemon Drop" – 3:48 "The Very Thought of You" – 4:13 "Happy Blues" – 6:00 Recorded April 11, 1974 at Ronnie Scott's, England: Ella Fitzgerald - vocals Tommy Flanagan Quartet: Tommy Flanagan - piano Joe Pass - guitar Keter Betts - double bass Bobby Durham - drums