click links in text for more info

Cotton gin

A cotton gin is a cotton gin. The fibers are processed into various cotton goods such as calico, while any undamaged cotton is used for textiles like clothing; the separated seeds may be used to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in the Indian subcontinent since at earliest AD 500 and in other regions; the Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented sometime around the 16th century, according to Lakwete, remained unchanged up to the present time. A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793 and patented in 1794. Whitney's gin used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams, it revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers increased. The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War.

Modern automated cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws, offer far higher productivity than their hand-powered precursors. Eli Whitney invented his cotton gin in 1793, he began to work on this project after moving to Georgia in search of work. Given that farmers were searching for a way to make cotton farming profitable, a woman named Catharine Greene provided Whitney with funding to create the first cotton gin. Whitney created two cotton gins: a small one that could be hand-cranked and a large one that could be driven by a horse or water power. A single-roller cotton gin came into use in India by the 5th century. An improvement invented in India was the two-roller gin, known as the "churka", "charki", or "wooden-worm-worked roller". Cotton fibers are produced in the seed pods of the cotton plant where the fibers in the bolls are interwoven with seeds. To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, a task, performed manually, with production of cotton requiring hours of labor for the separation.

Many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale. The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood and a flat piece of stone or wood; the earliest evidence of the cotton gin is found in the fifth century, in the form of Buddhist paintings depicting a single-roller gin in the Ajanta Caves in western India. These early gins required a great deal of skill. A narrow single roller was necessary to expel the seeds from the cotton without crushing the seeds; the design was similar to that of a mealing stone, used to grind grain. The early history of the cotton gin is ambiguous, because archeologists mistook the cotton gin's parts for other tools. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power.

The worm gear roller gin, invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th to 14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire sometime around the 16th century, is still used in the Indian subcontinent through to the present day. Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared sometime during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire; the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin led to expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce 250 pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as 750 people did formerly; the Indian roller cotton gin, known as the churka or charkha, was introduced to the United States in the mid-18th century, when it was adopted in the southern United States.

The device was adopted for cleaning long-staple cotton, but was not suitable for the short-staple cotton, more common in certain states such as Georgia. Several modifications were made to the Indian roller gin by Mr. Krebs in 1772 and Joseph Eve in 1788, but their uses remained limited to the long-staple variety, up until Eli Whitney's development of a short-staple cotton gin in 1793. Eli Whitney applied for a patent of his cotton gin on October 28, 1793. Whitney's patent was assigned patent number 72X. There is slight controversy over whether the idea of the modern cotton gin and its constituent elements are attributed to Eli Whitney; the popular image of Whitney inventing the cotton gin is attributed to an article on the subject written in the early 1870s and reprinted in 1910 in The Library of Southern Literature. In this article, the author claimed Catharine Littlefield Greene suggested to Whitney the use of a brush-like component instrumental in separating out the seeds and cotton. To date, Greene's role in the invention of the gin has not been verified independently.

Whitney's cotton gin model was capable of cleaning 50 pounds of lint per day. The model consisted of a wooden cylinder surrounded by rows of slender spikes, which pulled the lint through the bars of a comb-like grid; the grids were spaced, preventing the seeds from pa

Manulife Bank of Canada

Manulife Bank of Canada is a wholly owned subsidiary of Manulife. It offers high-interest chequing & savings accounts, credit cards, lines of credit and mortgages, including Manulife One. Since it was established in 1993, Manulife Bank has grown to more than $22 billion in assets and serves customers across Canada. Manulife Bank headquarters are in Ontario. Manulife Bank distributes its products and services through independent financial advisors, mortgage brokers and a Canada-wide network of more than 200 mortgage specialists. Manulife Bank does not have any physical branches. In addition, customers can make debit purchases using their access cards, write cheques and make surcharge-free Automated Banking Machine transactions at thousands of ABMs across Canada through The Exchange Network. Manulife Bank is a member of Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation. Manulife Bank is a Schedule I federally chartered bank, established on January 1, 1993, when Cabot Trust Company, Huronia Trust Company and the Regional Trust Company were merged by Manulife Financial.

Its branch network was sold to the Laurentian Bank of Canada in 1993 and it became Canada's first bank to sell its products through independent financial advisors. In 1999, Advantage Account was launched - a high-interest savings account. In 1999, Manulife One was launched - Canada’s first "all-in-one" account. Manulife One allowed Canadians to combine their mortgage and other debts with their chequing and savings accounts to simplify their banking and make their money work more efficiently. In 2001, telephone and internet banking were introduced to provide customers with 24-hour self-service. In 2003, Business Advantage Account was launched - a high-interest account for small business owners. In 2007, Manulife Bank opened an office in Nova Scotia. In 2009, Manulife Bank began offering Tax-Free Savings Accounts. In 2010, Manulife Bank established Manulife Trust Company - a federally chartered trust company licensed to do business in all Canadian provinces and territories. Manulife Trust is a wholly owned subsidiary of Manulife Bank.

Like its parent company, Manulife Bank, Manulife Trust is a member of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation. In 2015, Manulife Bank entered into a deal with Alimentation Couche-Tard to add ATM machines to 830 Mac's Convenience Stores, Circle K, Couche-Tard locations. In April 2016, Manulife was fined by the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada for "violations a technical nature". Manulife was levied a $1.5 million fine, subsequently reduced to $1.15 million. In 2017, Manulife Bank launched the ManulifeMONEY+TM Visa Infinite and ManulifeMONEY+TM Visa Platinum Cards. In 2019, Manulife Bank launched the All-In Banking Package, an integrated banking package and mobile app that rewards customers for saving money each month. List of banks in Canada Manulife Financial Manulife Bank

Sellappan Nirmala

Sellappan Nirmala is an Indian doctor who discovered the first case of HIV in India in 1986. In 1985, aged 32, she was working as a microbiology student in Chennai and for her dissertation, began collecting blood samples and having them tested for HIV. Nirmala was raised in a traditional Indian family and encouraged to go into medical research by her husband, she had the idea of researching the virus from her mentor, Professor Suniti Solomon, in response to formal tracking of HIV in the US, which began in 1982. At the time, HIV was still a taboo subject in the country. Blood samples had been collected from Pune without positive results; the research plan involved taking around 200 samples of blood from groups suspected to be at high risk, including 80 gathered by Nirmala. Because of a lack of testing facilities in Chennai, Solomon arranged for them to be investigated at the Christian Medical College & Hospital in Vellore, 200 kilometres away; the samples confirmed. The information was transferred to the Indian Council of Medical Research, which told the prime minister Rajiv Gandhi and Tamil Nadu health minister H. V. Hande.

HIV subsequently became an epidemic in the country. Nirmala submitted her dissertation, Surveillance for Aids in Tamil Nadu, in March 1987 and joined the King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research in Chennai, she retired in 2010

Coolah Tops National Park

Coolah Tops is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 258 kilometres northwest of Sydney, established on 5 July 1996. It is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, its World Conservation Union category is II. It is situated 30 kilometres east of Coolah on the Coolah Creek Road; the park features waterfalls. Giant grass trees and open forest with stands of snow gums shelter gliders, wallabies and owls. Camping and walking are the main recreational activities performed here. Views from the tops are possible over the Liverpool Plains; the sources of the Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River lie in the park. Protected areas of New South Wales

Hyundai Mighty II

The Hyundai Mighty II is a line of light truck commercial vehicles by Hyundai Motor Company. The range was available in Korea and some other Asian countries, although it was sold in the United States during the late 1990s and up current. Mighty II in manufactured from March 1998 with the first cars going to Korea, Manufacturing began in 1998 with Korea, Asia in Hyundai and United States in Bering. Other European and American countries which saw import or manufactures of the Mighty II included the Europe, Mid-east and North America. In many markets the Mighty II was expensive and was replaced by the Hyundai Truck when that model became available for worldwide market in the early 1998 and ended in 2004; the overseas was another important market for the Mighty II - to the extent that it was manufactured there from the 1990s using many local components. Most models of the truck are distinguishable by a front'Mighty II' and'Mighty II HSV' badge, but the common Hyundai badge is used on the rear. In United States, its principal competitors are Bering MS, Mitsubishi Fuso FE, Chevrolet W-Series, GMC W-Series, Isuzu N-Series and the UD 1200/1300/1400. and Japan competitors are Mitsubishi Fuso Canter, Isuzu Elf, UD Atlas, Toyota Dyna, Hino Dutro.

Hyundai Mighty II is a truck design by Hyundai Motor Company Jeonju Design Center, Rebadged in Bering MS, Manufacture period: Wide Cab - 1998-2004, Narrow Cab QT - 1998-current Current models for sale include the HD65, HD72 and the HD78. The digits give the maximum gross vehicle weight rating in hundreds of kilograms, so the HD65 has a GVWR of 6,500 kilograms, for instance. There is a choice of four cabs and two wheelbases, but not all combinations are available for each model. There are a choice of six engines available, all four-cylinder diesels from the Hyundai's D4 engine family. Wide CabGold Super DeluxeNarrow Cab QTSuper Hi-Super HD78 Wide Cab2.5t, 3.5tNarrow Cab QT3.5t, 5.2t Other special vehicle models in Hyundai commercial vehicles Standard Cab Low Long Cargo Standard Cab Shot Cargo Standard Cab Long Cargo Double Crew Cab Long Cargo Standard Cab Shot Dump

Palm Meadows

Palm Meadows International Baseball Facility is an Australian baseball field located on the Gold Coast, Queensland. It is leased through Gold Coast city council, it is home to the Major League Baseball Australian Academy Program. The stadium is regarded as one of Australia's premium baseball facilities and was used by the gold medal United States national baseball team for their successful pre-Olympic Games training in 2000, it has been home to the Gold Coast Clippers and Daikyo Dolphins when they played in the now defunct Australian Baseball League and International Baseball League of Australia. It has been a training facility for the Australia national baseball team, Canada national baseball team, Queensland Rams and various Korean and Japanese teams as well as being the host of the 2008 Olympic Games Qualification and Junior Oceanic Championships, Australian Baseball Federation Diamond Awards and several goodwill series as part of the MLBAAP program; the field features a premium major league standard clay infield with a laser levelled and lush Bermuda grass outfield.

The diamond is complemented by television quality floodlighting, grandstand seating to fit 2,500. Included as part of the facility is two JUGS pitching machines, a full batting cage and hitting screen facilities, a secondary practice diamond, full dressing room amenities and on-site team meeting rooms including a mess room. Sports on the Gold Coast, Queensland