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Cottonwood County, Minnesota

Cottonwood County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 11,687, its county seat is Windom. The county was created on May 1857, named for the river in Germantown Township. Minnesota Governor Horace Austin appointed three county commissioners when the county was established, they met at a home about six miles northwest of Windom on the Des Moines River at Big Bend. During this meeting, they designated the commissioners' districts and changed various county officers; the county organization was completed on July 29, 1870. The first general election was held in the county that November; the first deed of record was filed on January 10, 1870. The first land assessments were made in 1871, the first taxes were paid in 1872; the Cottonwood County Courthouse, an example of Neoclassical architecture, is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Mountain Park, southeast of Mountain Lake, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1973.

A 1976 archeological dig unearthed evidence of a Fox Indian habitation there circa 500 B. C. the oldest human habitation to be discovered in Minnesota. The Jeffers Petroglyphs, near Jeffers, contain pre-European Native American rock carvings. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the Heron Lake Outflow flows east through the lower part of Cottonwood County. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the east, with the northern portion sloping north and the lower portion sloping south. The highest point is on the midpoint of the west border, at 1,535' ASL; the county has a total area of 649 square miles, of which 639 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. The northeast part of the county drains north to the Minnesota River through numerous small creeks, the Cottonwood River and Watonwan River; the southwest part of the county drains south through the Des Moines River. These two watersheds come together at the Mississippi River near Iowa.

Most wetlands in the county have been drained for agricultural use. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,167 people, 4,917 households, 3,338 families in the county; the population density was 19.0/sqmi. There were 5,376 housing units at an average density of 8.41/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.23% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.63% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.35% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. 2.19 % of the population were Latino of any race. 50.2% were of German and 18.6% Norwegian ancestry. There were 4,917 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.10% were non-families. 28.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. The county population contained 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 22.10% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 94.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,943, the median income for a family was $40,237. Males had a median income of $28,993 versus $19,934 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,647. About 7.40% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.40% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. Cottonwood County voters are reliably Republican. In only one national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. Delft National Register of Historic Places listings in Cottonwood County, Minnesota John A. Brown, History of Cottonwood and Watonwan counties, Minnesota: Their People and Institutions: With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families. In Two Volumes. Indianapolis, IN: B. F. Bowen and Company, 1916.

Volume 1|Volume 2 Cottonwood County Minnesota Highway Map, Cottonwood County Highway Department, 2003. DeLorme's Gazetteer. Cottonwood County website

Carter Harrison Sr.

Carter Henry Harrison Sr. was an American politician who served as mayor of Chicago, from 1879 until 1887. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives. Harrison was the first cousin twice removed of President William Henry Harrison. Born near Lexington, Kentucky, to Carter Henry Harrison II and Caroline Russell, he was only a few months old when his father died, he was educated by private tutors and graduated from Yale College in 1845 as a member of Scroll and Key. Following graduation, he traveled and studied in Europe from 1851 to 1853 before entering Transylvania College in Lexington, where he earned a law degree in 1855. Harrison commenced practice in Chicago. Harrison ran an unsuccessful campaign in 1872 for election to the Forty-third U. S. Congress. Beginning in 1874, he served as a member of the board of commissioners of Cook County, he was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses, was a delegate to the 1880 and 1884 Democratic National Conventions.

Harrison was elected mayor of Chicago for four consecutive two-year terms and for a non-consecutive fifth term in 1893. He served as mayor during a period that witnessed many events which brought the city national and international attention; the night of the Haymarket Riot in 1886, sparked by a bomb that killed seven police officers, Harrison walked unmolested through the crowd of anarchists and advised the police to leave the demonstrators alone. A large reason for this was because while Harrison came from a Protestant background, he appealed to and worked for ethnic white Catholics and labor unions, his administration was more favorable to trade unions and strikes than those of previous Chicago mayors as well as other mayors of the time. After leaving office, Harrison was owner and editor of the Chicago Times from 1891 to 1893, where he continued to advocate for labor unions and the many Catholic and immigrant communities in Chicago, he was re-elected mayor in 1893, in time for the World's Columbian Exposition being held in the city.

His desire was to show the world the "true" Chicago, he appointed 1st Ward Alderman "Bathhouse" John Coughlin to sit on the reception committee. This appointment was a small part in Harrison's plan to create a centralized Democratic Party machine consisting of empowered Ward Committeemen and precinct captains that would answer to the local Democratic Party; the plan would not be accomplished until Anton Cermak came to power in Chicago politics in the 1920s. Harrison married Margarette E. Stearns in 1882, following the death of his first wife in 1876, she was the daughter of Chicago pioneer Marcus C. Stearns. In 1890, Harrison and his daughter took a vacation trip from Chicago to Yellowstone National Park and Alaska, his letters from the trip were first published in the Chicago Tribune and compiled into an 1891 book, A Summer's Outing and The Old Man's Story. On October 28, 1893, a few months into his fifth term and just two days before the close of the World's Columbian Exposition, Harrison was murdered in his home by Patrick Eugene Prendergast, a disgruntled office-seeker who had supported Harrison's re-election under the delusion that Harrison would reward him with an appointment to a post within his mayoral administration.

Harrison was buried in Chicago's Graceland Cemetery. A celebration planned for the close of the Exposition was cancelled and replaced by a large public memorial service for Harrison. Prendergast was sentenced to death for the crime and hanged on July 13, 1894. While Harrison died at a time when the elites and Republicans of all kinds disliked him, he never lost his core supporters of labor unions, Catholics and the working class, he was Chicago's first mayor to be elected five times. Harrison's career and assassination are connected with the World's Columbian Exposition, are discussed at some length as a subplot to the two main stories in Erik Larson's best-selling 2003 non-fiction book The Devil in the White City. List of assassinated American politicians Samuel Gompers 1879 Chicago mayoral election 1881 Chicago mayoral election 1883 Chicago mayoral election 1885 Chicago mayoral election 1891 Chicago mayoral election 1893 Chicago mayoral election Abbott, W. J.. Carter Henry Harrison: A Memoir.

New York. Johnson, Claudius. Carter Henry Harrison I: Political Leader. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website Works by Carter H. Harrison at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Carter Henry Harrison at Internet Archive United States Congress. "Carter Harrison Sr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Carter Harrison III

Asura (Buddhism)

An asura in Buddhism is a demigod or titan of the Kāmadhātu. They are described as having three heads with three faces each and either six arms; the Buddhist asuras are derived from the asuras of Hinduism, but have acquired a few distinctive myths which are only found in Buddhist texts. In its Buddhist context, the word is sometimes translated "titan, "demigod", or "antigod". Buddhaghosa explains that their name derives from the myth of their defeat at the hands of the god Śakra. According to the story, the asura were dispossessed of their state in Trāyastriṃśa because they became drunk and were thrown down Mount Sumeru. After this incident, they vowed never to drink sura again. While all the gods of the Kāmadhātu are subject to passions to some degree, the asuras above all are addicted to them wrath, envy, falseness and bellicosity; the Great Calm-Observation by Zhiyi says: Always desiring to be superior to others, having no patience for inferiors and belittling strangers. The asuras are said to experience a much more pleasurable life than humans, but they are plagued by envy for the devas, whom they can see just as animals perceive humans.

The asuras of some inferior realms however, can be referred to as demons. They are alternatively called rakshasas, they are sometimes referred to as pūrvadeva, meaning "ancient gods." The Asuras lived in the Trāyastriṃśa world on the peak of Sumeru with the other gods of that world. When Śakra became the ruler of that world, the asuras celebrated by drinking a lot of Gandapāna wine, a liquor so strong that Śakra forbade the other gods to drink it. Weakened by their drunkenness, the asuras could not resist when Śakra had the whole lot of them thrown over the edge of Trāyastriṃśa into what would become the Asura-world at the base of Sumeru. A tree grows, they now meditated on war. In armor and weapons, they climbed up the steep slopes of Sumeru "like ants." Śakra was forced to retreat because of their numbers. Passing through the forest where the garuḍas live on his flying chariot, Śakra saw that his passage was destroying the nests of the garuḍas and ordered his charioteer Mātali to turn back; when the pursuing asuras saw Śakra turn about, they felt certain that he must be coming back with an larger army, they fled, ceding all the ground they had gained.

Despite their many wars, there was a partial concord between the Trāyastriṃśa gods and the asuras. This came about because Śakra fell in love with daughter of the Asura chief Vemacitrin. Vemacitrin had given Sujā the right to choose her own husband at an assembly of the Asuras, she chose Śakra, who had attended disguised as an aged Asura. Vemacitrin thus became Śakra's father-in-law; the asura realm is one of the realms. Rebirth here is a result of experiencing the fruits of wholesome karma while engaging in unwholesome karma; the placement of the asura realm in Buddhist cosmology varies among traditions. Sometimes the asura realm is recognized as one of happiness, existing beneath the worlds of the devas and humans. In other schemes, it is viewed as a fourth addition to the usual three evil paths that make up the animal realm, ghost realm and hell realm. In schools that recognize the desire realm as consisting of five realms, the asura realm tends to be included among the deva realm. In Tibetan Buddhism, the addition of the asuras in the six-world bhavacakra was created in Tibet at the authority of Je Tsongkhapa.

The Ekottara Āgama and the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna Sūtra explain that asura are divided among the realms of ghosts and animals. In the former case, they are powerful. In the latter case, they are like fearsome beasts; the leaders of the asuras are called asurendra. There are several of these, as the Asuras are broken into different factions. Among them are the bow-wielding Dānaveghasa Asuras, the terrible-faced Kālakañjakas. In Pali texts, names that are found include Vepacitti, Rāhu, Pahārāda, Bali and Namucī. According to Buddhaghosa, the three primary leaders were Rāhu and Pahārāda. Mahayana literature tends to recognize four primary leaders, whose biographies are explained in detail in both the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna Sūtra and the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. According to this tradition, these asuras live 84,000 yojanas beneath the ocean floor on the northern side of Mount Sumeru, which are divided into four layers; the names of places below are derived from Japanese. Rāhu Abode: His body is large like Mount Sumeru and he resides in the "Kōmyō Castle", 8,000 yojanas in height and width.21,000 yojanas beneath the first layer of ocean floor.

Karma: In a past life, he was a brahmin who managed to save a stupa from being burned down and vowed that in a future life he would procure a higher status. However, he practiced killing and because he did not cultivate all wholesome karmas, his body was destroyed and he fell into the asura realm. Lifespan: 500 human years is equal to a day and night in Rāhu's realm, which lasts for 5,000 years. Bali or Baḍi Bio: His name is Sanskrit for

Cyril Jackson (astronomer)

Cyril V. Jackson was a South African astronomer, known for discovering 72 asteroids and a number of comets, he was born in Yorkshire in England. He earned his B. Sc. at the University of the Witwatersrand. He worked at Union Observatory in Johannesburg from 1928 to 1947, he served with South African forces in the Second World War, was mentioned in despatches. After the war he was director of the Yale-Columbia Southern Observatory station in Johannesburg, established by Yale University in the 1920s. Columbia University subsequently collaborated in that venture and the operation became known as the Yale-Columbia Southern Observatory. Due to light pollution that observatory had to be shut down in 1951 and he supervised the move of its instrument, a 26-inch refracting telescope, to Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia; this Yale-Columbia telescope was given to the Australian National University in July 1963, was destroyed in the 18 January 2003 firestorm that devastated Mount Stromlo. Jackson worked at Mount Stromlo from 1957 to 1963.

In 1963, Yale reopened its Columbia Southern Observatory at El Leoncito, he served as its director there until 1966, when he retired. He discovered a number of comets, including the periodic comets 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson and 58P/Jackson-Neujmin, he discovered 72 asteroids in the earlier part of his career at Union Observatory. JACKSON, Cyril Biography of Cyril Jackson at the S2A3 Biographical Database of Southern African Science

Manuel Golmayo Torriente

Manuel Golmayo y de la Torriente was a Cuban-Spanish chess master. Born into a'chess family', he was Spanish Champion on numerous occasions and Sub-Champion in 1929/30 (he lost the title in a match to Ramón Rey Ardid. In 1922, he lost a mini match to Alexander Alekhine in Madrid. In 1924, he took 8th in first unofficial Chess Olympiad at Paris 1924. In 1928, he took 4th in the Amateur World Championship in The Hague, he played for Spain in three official Chess Olympiads: In 1927, at first board in 1st Chess Olympiad in London. In tournaments, he took 6th at Barcelona 1929, took 7th at Sitges 1934, took 3rd at Madrid 1934, took 4th at Paris 1938, tied for 9-10th at Barcelona 1946, took 6th at Gijon 1948, tied for 8-9th at Almeria 1948, won both at Madrid 1947 and Linares 1951. In 1951, FIDE awarded Golmayo the title International Arbiter. Manuel Golmayo Torriente player profile and games at Morán, Campeones y Campeonatos de España de Ajedrez, pp. 11–14 Palacio, Carlos A. Ajedrez en Cuba, La Habana, p. 257


Fatsa is a town and a district of Ordu Province in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Population from Fatsa is more than 115,000; the oldest recorded name of the town is Polemonion, after Polemon I of Pontus. A derivative of Polemonion, i.e. Bolaman, is the modern name of the river passing through Fatsa; the present name, has been influenced by modern Greek Φάτσα or Φάτσα Πόντου, which translates as "face or housefront on the sea", but has in fact mutated from Fanizan, the name of the daughter of King Pharnaces II of Pontus, through Fanise, Phadsane Phatisanê Vadisani, Pytane, Fatsah into today's Fatsa. Apart from Polemonion, another Greek name of the town was Side; the history of Fatsa goes back to antiquity, when the coast was settled by Cimmerians, Pontic Greeks in the centuries BC. The ruins on Mount Çıngırt are from this period. Fatsa was first mentioned, in the era of the Kingdom of Pontus, as Polemonium, after King Polemon I, the Roman client king appointed by Mark Antony. Under Nero, the kingdom became a Roman province in AD 62.

In about 295, Diocletian divided the province into three smaller provinces, one of, Pontus Polemoniacus, called after Polemonium, its administrative capital. As the Roman Empire developed into the Byzantine Empire, the city lost some of its regional importance. Neocaesarea became the capital of the province, the Diocese of Polemonion was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Neocaesarea. Due to partition of the Byzantine Empire as a result of the Fourth Crusade, Fatsa became a part of the Empire of Trebizond in 1204. In the 13th and 14th centuries Genoese traders established trading posts on the Black Sea coast. Fatsa became one of the most important of these ports. There is a stone warehouse on the shore built in this period. Following the conquest of the Empire of Trebizond by the Ottomans in 1461, Fatsa become a part of Rûm Eyalet and a part of Trebizond Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire and remained within the Sanjak of Janik until the collapse of the Empire in 1921. Fatsa became a district of Ordu Province, following the formation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.

Following the Turkish conquest of Anatolia by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and by the Ottomans, Muslims settler arrived at Fatsa in the middle of the 14th Century. The early Muslim Turkish settlers included Turkomens, whose descendants make up the majority of Fatsa's current Alevi Muslim community. In 1999, a religious worship complex that serves to both Alevis and Sunni Muslims was opened in Fatsa, unprecedented in Turkey. In the second half of the 19th century, Fatsa's Sunni population increased as some of Chveneburi from Batumi and Kobuleti, who fought in the Ottoman army against the Russian forces in Russo-Turkish War under Ali Pasha of Çürüksu and some of the Abazins and Circassians, who were forced to leave their ancestral land in North Caucasus after the end of the Caucasian War in 1864, were settled in Fatsa and in the surrounding villages; the Circassian immigrants had an immediate impact on the local economy by introducing silk production to the area. In 1868, 3 million piastres worth of silk was sold in Fatsa.

During the Byzantine period, as early as the 9th century, an Orthodox diocese was located in Fatsa. Fatsa's Christian population during the Ottoman era was made up by Pontic Greeks and Armenians, who thrived as craftsmen and bureaucrats. According to the last Ottoman census carried out in 1914, the Christians made up 12% of Fatsa's total population of 40,339. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Fatsa's Christian population diminished; the last Pontic Greek community left Fatsa in 1923 as a part of the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, when 770 Muslim families from Thessaloniki, Greece were settled in Fatsa and the indigenous Pontic Greek population of Fatsa were settled in Katerini and in the village of Trilofos Himachal, both in the Pieria, region of Greece. Two members of Fatsa's Pontic Greek community, after the population exchange in 1923, became politicians in Greece; the book titled Literary Publications and Narratives in Pieria includes chronicles of some of Fatsa's Pontic Greeks on their exodus from Fatsa to Katerini, including an anecdotal account by Chalkidis Ef.

Theophilus. In 1919, in Fatsa, there were 8 churches served by 9 priests. After the departure of the last Christian community in 1923, the churches were closed and demolished; the last remaining church in Fatsa was in town's Kurtuluş District and was demolished in the late 1980s. During the social unrest in Turkey in the 1970s, a major international incident in the area was the kidnapping of three NATO engineers from the Ünye radar station in 1972 by the members of People's Liberation Army of Turkey, which had a support base in Fatsa. In 1976, Nazmiye Komitoğlu was elected as the mayor of Fatsa, the first female mayor elected in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Following her death in office, Fikri Sönmez, a local Chveneburi, was elected as the mayor on 14 October 1979. Sönmez and his Marxist–Leninist organisation People