A cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, is defined as "the embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first to appear from a germinating seed." The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants. Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous. Plants with two embryonic leaves are termed dicotyledonous. In the case of dicot seedlings whose cotyledons are photosynthetic, the cotyledons are functionally similar to leaves. However, true leaves and cotyledons are developmentally distinct. Cotyledons are formed during embryogenesis, along with the root and shoot meristems, are therefore present in the seed prior to germination. True leaves, are formed post-embryonically from the shoot apical meristem, responsible for generating subsequent aerial portions of the plant; the cotyledon of grasses and many other monocotyledons is a modified leaf composed of a scutellum and a coleoptile.
The scutellum is a tissue within the seed, specialized to absorb stored food from the adjacent endosperm. The coleoptile is a protective cap. Gymnosperm seedlings have cotyledons, these are variable in number, with from 2 to 24 cotyledons forming a whorl at the top of the hypocotyl surrounding the plumule. Within each species, there is still some variation in cotyledon numbers, e.g. Monterey pine seedlings have 5–9, Jeffrey pine 7–13, but other species are more fixed, with e.g. Mediterranean cypress always having just two cotyledons; the highest number reported is for big-cone pinyon, with 24. The cotyledons may be ephemeral, lasting only days after emergence, or persistent, enduring at least a year on the plant; the cotyledons contain the stored food reserves of the seed. As these reserves are used up, the cotyledons may turn green and begin photosynthesis, or may wither as the first true leaves take over food production for the seedling. Cotyledons may be either epigeal, expanding on the germination of the seed, throwing off the seed shell, rising above the ground, becoming photosynthetic.
The latter is the case where the cotyledons act as a storage organ, as in many nuts and acorns. Hypogeal plants have larger seeds than epigeal ones, they are capable of surviving if the seedling is clipped off, as meristem buds remain underground. The tradeoff is whether the plant should produce a large number of small seeds, or a smaller number of seeds which are more to survive; the ultimate development of the epigeal habit is represented by a few plants in the family Gesneriaceae in which the cotyledon persists for a lifetime. Such a plant is Streptocarpus wendlandii of South Africa in which one cotyledon grows to be up to 75 centimeters in length and up to 61 cm in width. Adventitious flower clusters form along the midrib of the cotyledon; the second cotyledon is ephemeral. Related plants may show a mixture of hypogeal and epigeal development within the same plant family. Groups which contain both hypogeal and epigeal species include, for example, the Southern Hemisphere conifer family Araucariaceae, the pea family and the genus Lilium.
The garden grown common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is epigeal, while the related runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus, is hypogeal. The term cotyledon was coined by Marcello Malpighi. John Ray was the first botanist to recognize that some plants have two and others only one, the first to recognize the immense importance of this fact to systematics, in Methodus plantarum. Theophrastus and Albertus Magnus may have recognized the distinction between the dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Tiscali.reference - Cotyledon
Ágúst Guðmundsson is an Icelandic film director and screenwriter. He studied Icelandic in Reykjavík and filmmaking at the National Film School in London, he has made many popular Icelandic films that have been translated into other languages. His 1998 film The Dance was entered into the 21st Moscow International Film Festival where he won the Silver St. George for Best Director, he is director of BÍL, The Federation of Icelandic Artists. Land and Sons Outlaw: The Saga of Gisli On Top Golden Sands Nonni und Manni The Dance The Seagull's Laughter Ahead of Time Spooks and Spirits Ágúst Guðmundsson in the IMDB BÍL
State Route 541 is a 52.28-mile-long state highway in central Ohio. The route's western terminus is US 62 in Martinsburg and its eastern terminus is at exit 54 of I-77 in Liberty Township. SR 541 came about due to the renumbering of what was State Route 271. In 1962, the Ohio Department of Transportation renumbered state highways that shared numbers with proposed Interstate Highways in the state. SR 271 was first designated in 1932 on a route between Coshocton and North Salem at US 21, a route occupied by SR 95. By 1935, SR 271 took over the entire alignment of what was SR 309 between Coshocton and Tunnel Hill, local roads, SR 206 between Martinsburg and New Guilford. In 1937, the route was extended east to the community of Birmingham. Between 1967 and 1969, with the completion of I-77, the eastern terminus of what was now the renumbered SR 541 was moved back to the North Salem area, but this time at an interchange with the newly built I-77
Arab Telemedia Group is an independent commercial media enterprise, founded by Adnan Al Awamleh in 1983. Arab Telemedia creates and produces quality multiplatform content and since its establishment has been evolving to become on the forefront of TV productions in the middle east, in addition, Arab Telemedia distributes its own content in different formats assuring highest qualities. Apart from producing and distributing, Arab Telemedia is the foremost entity that provides Production facilities and services ready to support film makers and production houses from different scopes to different drives. Over the past 30 years, it became one of the leading production companies in the Arab world, Arab Telemedia Group produced more than 5000 hours of drama programming aired on major TV broadcasters across the region achieving top viewership ratings. In the year 2000, Talal Al Awamleh became the CEO for Arab Telemedia, accomplishing a great growth successes in the years after, crowned with an Emmy award in 2008 for its socio-political series Al Ijteyah "The Invasion" as best international telenovela.
Arab Telemedia Group has produced a significant number of popular Arabic TV Titles, below are some of these titles
Live'84 is an album released by Black Flag in 1984 on SST Records. It is a live recording of a show played in 1984 and features tracks from My War and Slip It In; the album was recorded at the Stone nightclub in San Francisco, CA. A live video was shot and was available through SST; the album was issued as a cassette-only release simultaneously with Slip It In. In 1998, Greg Ginn remixed the album for CD reissue. "The Process of Weeding Out" – 8:31 "Nervous Breakdown" – 2:06 "Can't Decide" – 5:01 "Slip It In" – 5:54 "My Ghetto" – 1:14 "Black Coffee" – 4:53 "I Won't Stick Any of You Unless and Until I Can Stick All of You!" – 4:53 "Forever Time" – 2:20 "Fix Me" – 0:53 "Six Pack" – 2:26 "My War" – 3:34 "Jealous Again" – 1:59 "I Love You" – 3:19 "Swinging Man" – 3:10 "Three Nights" – 6:10 "Nothing Left Inside" – 6:25 "Wound Up" – 4:00 "Rat's Eyes" – 4:21 "The Bars" – 4:38 Henry Rollins – vocals Greg Ginn – guitar Kira Roessler – bass Bill Stevenson – drums Tom Troccoli – backing vocals
The Sainbari incident occurred in 1970 in Sainbari in Bardhaman in West Bengal in India, where several people were killed by members of the CPI. A newspaper report puts the date of the incident as 17 March 1970; the Sain brothers were members of a family with strong allegiance towards the Indian National Congress. Indira Gandhi Prime Minister of India, had visited the house in the heart of Bardhaman town to console the bereaved, they were killed. Two brothers, Pranab Sain and Moloy Sain were murdered and their mother Mriganayani was forced to eat rice, stained with her sons' blood. A tutor Jiten Ray, present there at the time was killed. Nabakumar Sain the eldest son of the family had his eyes gouged out and acid poured in his eyes in the attack, he was killed a year by beheading, it was alleged that the man who led the attack was Nirupam Sen, who has subsequently been a member of the CPI's central committee. Swarnalata Jash, a sister of the Sains, has described the incident: "...flaming arrows were shot from all directions into our house… Then the attackers rushed into the burning house and speared Moloy and Pranab and set them on fire… Even my elder brother was beheaded."Documents of the case went missing from the high court.
Nirupam Sen has died in the meantime