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Council of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451, at Chalcedon, a town of Bithynia in Asia Minor. The Council was called by Emperor Marcian to set aside the 449 Second Council of Ephesus, its principal purpose was to assert the orthodox catholic doctrine against the heresy of Eutyches. The council is numbered as the fourth ecumenical council by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, most Protestants. Oriental Orthodox Churches do not agree with the conduct and the proceedings of the Council calling it "Chalcedon, the Ominous"; this disagreement led the Oriental Orthodox Churches to separate from the rest of Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon. Followers of the Council believe its most important achievement was to issue the Chalcedonian Definition, stating that Jesus is "perfect both in deity and in humanness; the council's judgments and definitions regarding the divine marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates. In 325, the first ecumenical council determined that Jesus Christ was God, "consubstantial" with the Father, rejected the Arian contention that Jesus was a created being.

This was reaffirmed at the Council of Ephesus. About two years after Cyril of Alexandria's death in 444, an aged monk from Constantinople named Eutyches began teaching a subtle variation on the traditional Christology in an attempt to stop what he saw as a new outbreak of Nestorianism, he claimed to be a faithful follower of Cyril's teaching, declared orthodox in the Union of 433. Cyril had taught that "There is only one physis, since it is the Incarnation, of God the Word." Cyril thought that the Greek word physis meant what the Latin word persona means, while most Greek theologians would have interpreted that word to mean natura. The energy and imprudence with which Eutyches asserted his opinions led to his being misunderstood. Thus, many believed that Eutyches was advocating Docetism, a sort of reversal of Arianism — where Arius had denied the consubstantial divinity of Jesus, Eutyches seemed to be denying that Jesus was human. Pope Leo I wrote. Eutyches had been accusing various personages of covert Nestorianism.

In November 448, Bishop of Constantinople held a local synod regarding a point of discipline connected with the province of Sardis. At the end of the session of this synod one of those inculpated, Bishop of Dorylaeum, brought a counter charge of heresy against the archimandrite. Eusebius demanded. Flavian preferred that the bishop and the archimandrite sort out their differences, but as his suggestion went unheeded, Eutyches was summoned to clarify his position regarding the nature of Christ. Eutyches reluctantly appeared, but his position was considered to be theologically unsophisticated, the synod finding his answers unresponsive condemned and exiled him. Flavian sent a full account to Pope Leo I. Although it had been accidentally delayed, Leo wrote a compendious explanation of the whole doctrine involved, sent it to Flavian as a formal and authoritative decision of the question. Eutyches appealed against the decision, labeling Flavian a Nestorian, received the support of Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria.

John Anthony McGuckin sees an "innate rivalry" between the Sees of Constantinople. Dioscurus, imitating his predecessors in assuming a primacy over Constantinople, held his own synod which annulled the sentence of Flavian, absolved Eutyches. Through the influence of the court official Chrysaphius, godson of Eutyches, in 449, the competing claims between the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Alexandria led Emperor Theodosius II to call a council, held in Ephesus in 449, with Dioscorus presiding. Pope Leo sent four legates to represent him and expressed his regret that the shortness of the notice must prevent the presence of any other bishop of the West, he provided his legates, one of whom died en route, with a letter addressed to Flavian explaining Rome's position in the controversy. Leo's letter, now known as Leo's Tome, confessed that Christ had two natures, was not of or from two natures. On August 8, 449 the Second Council of Ephesus began its first session; the Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, are thus preserved.

The remainder of the Acts are known through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, written in the year 535 and published from a manuscript in the British Museum. Nonetheless, there are somewhat different interpretations as to what transpired; the question before the council by order of the emperor was whether Flavian, in a synod held by him at Constantinople in November, 448, had justly deposed and excommunicated the Archimandrite Eutyches for refusing to admit two natures in Christ. Dioscorus began the council by banning all members of the November 448 synod which had deposed Eutyches from sitting as judges, he introduced Eutyches who publicly professed that while Christ had two natures before the incarnation, the two natures had merged to form a single nature after the incarnation. Of the 130 assembled bishops, 111 voted to rehabilitate Eutyches. Throughout these proceedings, Hilary called for the reading of Leo's Tome, but was ignored; the Eastern Orthodox Church has ver

Tair Kaminer

Tair Kaminer is a 20-year-old Israeli who refused to pass the military service, when she went with her parents to military base for registration. When Tair went with her parents to register for military service, she refused. So she became a prisoner for 28 days, she objected to the occupation of Palestine and the town construction, saying, “I'm not going to break... I hope they understand that - I won't break.” She added “I saw the effect of war on children and adults,” she said, describing the injuries caused by rocket attacks from Gaza and the evolving “generations of hate” on both sides. As Independent News mentioned, she stated because of her voluntary contributions to children who were injured in the Israel-Gaza conflict, she cannot perform this kind of service at military, but she agreed to perform an alternative service. Tair Kaminer was not the only person. Tanya Golan is another 19-year-old girl who refused to pass military service in the Israeli military. On Sunday, 31 January Tair Kaminer was reverted to training military centre in Tel-Hashomer.

According to the Independent News, the goal of Tair Kaminer for refusal is the reformation of laws punishing conscientious objectors, but she has been known as a traitor. The ordered demonstrations have been held out of her prison and the training bases for soldiers by objectors; the Green Party MP stated to Brighton Pavilion: “With tensions high in Israel, this is a difficult time to be a conscientious objector … on the Government to request the Israeli authorities to accept the conscientious objection of Israeli citizens who do not wish to bear arms against a civilian population under military occupation.” When this statement was mentioned at the Houses of Parliament,Amnesty International Israel controverted it. Some parties confirmed this statement like Labour, Scottish National Party, the Conservatives and Plaid Cymru for the legal impunity for demurrer of Israeli's military service such as Tair Kaminer. Israeli–Palestinian conflict The letter of Tair Kaminer, January 2016

Law & Order: Criminal Intent (season 10)

The tenth and final season of Law & Order: Criminal Intent premiered Sunday, May 1, 2011, on USA Network. The timeslot was moved to Sunday nights at 9 p.m. from Tuesday nights at 10:00 pm Eastern/9:00 pm Central. This marks the first and only season since the show's debut that did not air with the original Law & Order still on the air, due to the latter's cancellation by NBC in May 2010. Episodes from this season repeated on NBC on Mondays starting May 30, 2011, at 9 p.m. leading into new episodes of Law & Order: LA, placed on hiatus from January to early April 2011, causing its own new episodes to air through July 2011. Law & Order: Criminal Intent finished its ten season run on June 26, 2011, it was confirmed by USA Network co-president Jeff Wachtel on July 15, 2011. Wachtel cited reasons for not renewing being monetary issues; the episodes in the tenth season averaged 4.43 million total viewers and 1.67 million in the age 18-49 demographic. In August 2010, Jeff Goldblum announced his departure from the series after switching agencies and being unsure of the series's future.

The options for renewal of Goldblum, Saffron Burrows, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio's contracts formally expired on July 31, 2010, after being extended by a month on June 30 when they were up. The series at the time was in limbo. Over a month it was confirmed that Criminal Intent was returning for a tenth and final season consisting of eight episodes, with star Vincent D'Onofrio who portrays Detective Robert Goren; the news of Law & Order: CI getting a proper closure was in stark contrast with the abrupt cancellation of the original mothership series by NBC in May 2010. Weeks it was announced that Kathryn Erbe would be returning as her character Detective Alex Eames confirming that ninth season cast member Saffron Burrows had departed; this meant a return to the single, original pair of Detectives Eames and Goren that featured in the first four seasons of the series. In February 2011, Jay O. Sanders joined the cast as Captain Joseph Hannah, replacing Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio. Sanders has appeared in episodes of both L&O: Criminal Intent.

Chris Brancato replaced Walon Green as show runner/executive producer. Green was show runner/EP throughout seasons 8 and 9. Former show runner/executive producer Warren Leight wrote the episode "Trophy Wine", along with all the scenes with D'Onofrio and Julia Ormond, the final scenes in the finale, "To the Boy In the Blue Knit Cap". Co-creator and former show runner/EP René Balcer re-wrote the finale as well, but went uncredited. Brancato suggested that the show could be picked up for an 11th season if the intended final episodes garner sufficient ratings. Returning star Vincent D'Onofrio felt. Although the show suffered a sharp ratings decline in the ninth season. Kathryn Erbe said to TV Guide if Law & Order: CI was renewed. I'm positive that Vincent feels the same way. Everyone was hoping that, in the 11th hour, we'd get some word. Whether the fans are able to muscle us back or not, who knows, they have amazing power." Season ten returns to the single pairing of Detectives Robert Goren and Alexandra Eames at the Major Case Squad.

Terminated for insubordination a year ago, Detective Goren has been reunited with his long-time partner Alex Eames at the behest of the new Major Case Captain. However, in addition to solving cases, Goren has mandatory sessions with brilliant police psychologist Dr. Paula Gyson; this final eight episode arc focussed on Goren's tortured past and charting a course for a successful future. Storylines for this season included a beautiful female banker whose sole client was the Catholic Church; the episode "Icarus" explored a scenario inspired by many of the cast incidents in the Broadway play Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. This version features characters ranging from a high-strung director to a secretly bisexual rock-star composer. Vincent D'Onofrio as Detective Robert Goren Kathryn Erbe as Detective Alexandra Eames Jay O. Sanders as Captain Joseph Hannah Julia Ormond as Dr. Paula Gyson Leslie Hendrix as Chief Medical Examiner Elizabeth Rodgers Julia Ormond guest starred in all eight episodes as police psychologist Dr. Paula Gyson, a brilliant psychologist charged with conducting mandatory sessions with Detective Goren to unravel his tortured past, chart a course for mental stability for him.

Appearing in the episode, titled "Rispetto", Jay Mohr guest-starred as a famous and successful Charlie Sheen-type bad boy. Mohr’s character, Nyle Brite, hails from a different area of the arts: He is a "rock star" fashion designer whose every creation turns to gold, and his reputation for cocaine benders and call girl-populated parties only skyrockets his career and mints him as the "lovable rogue." The plot of the episode includes the murder of a guest at one of Brite’s parties. Noelle Beck guest starred in the episode as Debra, Nyle’s long-suffering but brilliant wife who has man