Council of Clermont

The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, called by Pope Urban II and held from 18 to 28 November 1095 at Clermont, Auvergne, at the time part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Pope Urban's speech on November 27 included the call to arms that would result in the First Crusade, the capture of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In this, Urban reacted to the request by Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus who had sent envoys to the Council of Piacenza requesting military assistance against the Seljuk Turks. Several accounts of the speech survive. Urban discussed Cluniac reforms of the Church, extended the excommunication of Philip I of France for his adulterous remarriage to Bertrade of Montfort; the council declared a renewal of the Truce of God, an attempt on the part of the church to reduce feuding among Frankish nobles. The council was attended by about 300 clerics. No official list of the participants or of the signatories to the decrees of the Council survives.

A partial list of some of the attendees can nonetheless be constructed. There are six main sources of information about this portion of the council: a letter, written by Urban himself in December 1095 referring to the council the anonymous Gesta Francorum, Fulcher of Chartres, present at the council, in his Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium; the five versions of the speech vary in their details, those of Baldric and Guibert, both of whom were not present at the council, are colored by events. The account by Fulcher, known to have been present at the council, is considered the most reliable version. Urban's own letter, written in December 1095 and addressed to the faithful "waiting in Flanders," does lament that "a barbaric fury has deplorably afflicted and laid waste the churches of God in the regions of the Orient". Urban does allude to Jerusalem, saying that this barbaric fury has "even grasped in intolerable servitude its churches and the Holy City of Christ, glorified by His passion and resurrection".

He calls upon the princes to "free the churches of the East", appointing Adhemar of Le Puy as the leader of the expedition, to set out on the day of the Assumption of Mary. The Gesta Francorum does not give an account of the speech at any length, it mentions that Urban called upon all to "take up the way of the Lord" and be prepared to suffer much, assured of their reward in heaven, it goes on to emphasize how news of Urban's call to arms spread by word of mouth "through all the regions and countries of Gaul, the Franks, upon hearing such reports, forthwith caused crosses to be sewed on their right shoulders, saying that they followed with one accord the footsteps of Christ, by which they had been redeemed from the hand of hell." Fulcher of Chartres was present at the speech, recorded it in Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium. He was writing from memory a few years later, he asserts, in his prologue, that he is recording only such events as he had seen with his own eyes, his record is phrased in a way consistent with the style of oration known from papal speeches in the 11th century.

In Fulcher's text, Urban begins by reminding the clergy present that they are shepherds, that they must be vigilant and avoid carelessness and corruption. He reminds them to adhere to the laws of the church. Urban complains about the lack of justice and public order in the Frankish provinces and calls for the re-establishment of the truce protecting clergy from violence. In the Historiography of the Crusades, there is a long-standing argument as to how much the pacification of the Frankish realm was designed to go hand in hand with the "export of violence" to the enemy in the east. Fulcher reports that everyone present agreed to the pope's propositions and promised to adhere to the church's decrees. After this and other matters had been attended to, Urban spoke about the suffering of Christianity in another part of the world. In this second part of his speech, Urban urges the Frankish Christians that once they have re-established peace and righteousness in their own land, they should turn their attention to the East and bring aid to the Christians there, as the Turks had attacked them and had conquered the territory of Romania as far west as the Mediterranean, the part known as the "Arm of Saint George", killing and capturing many Christians and destroying churches and devastating the kingdom of God.

In order to avoid further loss of territory and more widespread attacks on Christians, Urban calls on the clergy present to publish his call to arms everywhere, persuade all people of whatever rank, both nobles and commoners, to go to the aid of the Christians under attack. Concluding his call to arms with "Christ commands it", Urban defines the crusade both as a defensive just war and as a religious holy war. Urban goes on to promise immediate absolution to all who die either on the way or in battle against the infidels, he connects his call to arms with his previous call for peace in Gaul: "Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long ti

Clark Ervin

Clark Kent Ervin the head of Homeland Security Program at the Aspen Institute, was the first Inspector General of the United States Department of Homeland Security. He was appointed on December 2003, in a recess appointment by President George W. Bush. Prior to appointment, he had served as the acting inspector general since January 10, 2003. During his tenure, Ervin issued a number of reports critical of mismanagement and security flaws at the newly formed Department. In December 2004, his recess appointment expired, the White House declined to nominate him for confirmation by the United States Senate; the end of his term was controversial. Critics viewed the lack of White House support as retribution for Ervin's aggressive efforts to root out waste and incompetence. For example, "I think this was a voice, a little too critical and made the administration a little too uncomfortable," said the executive director of the Project on Government Oversight; the White House disagreed with that perspective, saying "His term expired and that's that."

In May 2006, Ervin published a book -- Open Target: Where America is Vulnerable to Attack—that gives details of his tenure at the DHS as well as his views on the current lack of preparedness for new terrorist attacks. Prior to his service at DHS, Ervin served as the Inspector General of the United States Department of State and the Broadcasting Board of Governors. Before his work for the Bush administration, Ervin served in Texas state government: From 1995 until 1999, he served as the Assistant Secretary of State of Texas. Ervin served in the first Bush White House from 1989 to 1991 as the Associate Director of Policy in the Office of National Service, he returned to his native Houston in 1991 to run for the 29th Congressional district seat, winning the Republican nomination but losing the general election. He served as the co-chairman for Barack Obama's transition team for DHS in 2008, he served as one of the eight members of the bi-partisan Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Ervin has practiced law in the private sector in Houston twice, first with Vinson & Elkins from 1985 to 1989, with Locke, Liddell & Sapp from 1993-1995. Ervin is a partner in the Washington, DC law firm Squire Patton Boggs. Ervin graduated from The Kinkaid School in 1977, Harvard College in 1980, Harvard Law School in 1985, all with honors. Between college and law school, Ervin studied Philosophy and Economics at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, earning a master's degree in 1982. Mr. Ervin is married to Carolyn A. Harris. Ervin gets the name "Clark Kent Ervin" from his brother, after the Superman alter-ego; the brother suggested the name on his day of birth after noting the fact that he was born a month premature and his desire to survive amidst all odds. Clark Kent Ervin. Open Target: Where America is Vulnerable to Attack. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-7288-5; this article contains public domain text produced by the U. S. government. Interview on Open Target at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library Appearances on C-SPAN


Møntergade is a street in the Old Town of Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from Pilestræde in the west to Gothersgade in the east. Møntergade has existed since the Middle Ages but the first reference to the street is from 1528 when it is referred to as "the city's street which runs to the rampart, a reference to the city's East Rampart which followed the course of present-day Gothersgade; the current name of the street is firs recorded in 1623. It refers to the Royal Mint which took over St. Clare's Monastery after it was confiscated by the crown during the Reformation. In 15659, most of the residents in the street were craftsmen such as timbers, weaversn coopers, wood carvers, glove makers and basket makers. Poul Fechtel, Royal Mint Master from 1536 until 1565, created a charitable housing development on a lot granted by the king in 1570, it became known as Poul Fechtels Hospital and was destroyed along with the rest of the street in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728 but rebuilt in 1732. Poul Fechtels Hospital moved to a new building on Frederikssundsvej in 1908 and its old buildings were demolished the following year when the street Christian IX2 Gade was created.

The so-called Brøndstræde Quarter, a run-down and crowded area between Møntergade and Landemærket to the north, was demolished in 1910 in the first public urban regeneration programme of its kind in the city. The numbered house row at No. 4–16 date from the 1730s and the houses are all listed. The houses were examples of the so-called "fire houses" that were built in large numbers after the Fire of 1728. Most of the houses have been altered with the addition of extra floors and changes to the facades but the building on the corner of Gammel Mønt shows the original design; the red-brick building on the corner with Pilestræde is from the 1880s. The Danish fashion brand Rabens Saloner opened a flagship store over three storeys in No. 10 in 2015. Egmont Group's Guttenberghus Complex occupies the entire block on the other side of the street between Pilestræde and Vognmagergade; the wing on Møntergade was designed by Preben Hansen Poul Andreasen. A colonnade runs along the full length of the block. Møntergården, a monumental office block located on the other side of the Vognmagergade, was built in 1915–16 to design by H. P. Jacobsen for A. C.

Illum. Jacobsen worked for Illum on the expansion of the Illum department store; the furniture and design brand GUBI has a flagship store in the ground floor at No. 19. The triangular block on the other side of Møntergade, opposite Møntergården, is from 1909 and was designed by Eugen Jørgensen. Møntergade at