The doctrine had the most significance in the relationship between the church and the temporal state, in matters such as ecclesiastic privileges, the actions of monarchs and even successions. For flesh and blood hast not revealed this to thee, and I say to thee, thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it. I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Some scholars as well as believe that there was no single “bishop” of Rome until well after the year 150 AD. But he believes it likely that very quickly emerged a presider or ‘first among equals. Catholics have countered this argument by the fact that in the first three centuries of Christianity the church in Rome intervened in other communities to resolve conflicts. Pope Clement I did so in Corinth in the end of the first century, in the complex development of papal supremacy, two broad phases may be noted.
Cited evidence about the supremacy of the pope in the earliest days of the church is a matter of dispute, most scholars recognize that he was given unique esteem as the successor to St. Peter. The Roman Catholic Church claims a Papal succession which runs back to Peter who it claims was invested with the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Irenaeus of Lyons believed in the century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop. Saint Innocent I, who served in the papacy from 401 to 417, Saint Gelasius I, who served from 492 to 496, in a controversy with Anastasius, the Byzantine emperor, likewise fought to maintain the doctrine of papal supremacy. This dispute was an incipient point of conflict between the Holy See and the Empire, from the late 6th to the late 8th centuries there was a turning of the papacy to the West and its escape from subordination to the authority of the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople. This phase has sometimes incorrectly credited to Pope Gregory I.
Unlike some of those predecessors, Gregory was compelled to face the collapse of authority in northern Italy. Another part of this occurred in the 8th century, after the rise of the new religion of Islam had weakened the Byzantine Empire. The popes finally sought support from the Frankish rulers of the West, with Pope Leo IIIs coronation of Charlemagne, first of the Carolingian emperors, the papacy gained his protection. The second great phase in the process of papal supremacys rise to prominence began, both these efforts, although ultimately unsuccessful, greatly enhanced papal prestige in the 12th and 13th centuries. Early in this phase, defense of Papal supremacy was voiced by the likes of St. Anselm of Canterbury, St. Anselm testified to the supremacy of the Roman Pontiff in his writings and by his acts
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Churchs most important ecumenical councils. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation. Four hundred years later, when Pope John XXIII initiated preparations for the Second Vatican Council, he affirmed the decrees it had issued, What was, still is. These addressed a range of subjects, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563, all in Trento, apart from the ninth to eleventh sessions held in Bologna during 1547, the consequences of the Council were significant as regards the Churchs liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s.
These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, more than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869. A few months later, on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his 95 Theses in Wittenberg, after the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luthers theses as heresy, German opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences. German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters. Under Pope Clement VII, troops of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, killing, stealing, saint Peters Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses. This, together with the Pontiffs ambivalence between France and Germany, led to his hesitation, Charles V strongly favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants, faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent.
In reply to the Papal bull Exsurge Domine of Pope Leo X, Martin Luther burned the document, in 1522 German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles V seconding and pressing for a council as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII was vehemently against the idea of a council, after Pope Pius II, in his bull Execrabilis and his reply to the University of Cologne, set aside the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance. Pope Paul III, seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, yet when he proposed the idea to his cardinals, it was almost unanimously opposed. Nonetheless, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to propose the idea, Paul III issued a decree for a general council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to begin on 23 May 1537. Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the general council, the Smalcald Articles were designed to sharply define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise.
The council was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 May 1537 and it failed to convene after another war broke out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown, Clement declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years. The absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy, a total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all were French, and they increasingly fell under the influence of the French Crown. Finally, on September 13,1376, Gregory XI abandoned Avignon and moved his court to Rome, officially ending the Avignon Papacy. Despite this return, following Gregorys death on March 27,1378 and this started a second line of Avignon popes, now regarded as illegitimate and known as antipopes. The second and final Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France, following five years of siege by the French, he fled to Perpignan on March 11,1403.
The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the Papacy in Rome. Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance finally resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until the French Revolution. The Papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries, one exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II ignored this and was successful in the Holy Land.
This state of affairs culminated in the declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff. This was directed primarily to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, in 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, and depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence, nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD325. Constantine I organized the Council along the lines of the Roman Senate and presided over it and this ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Hosius of Cordoba, who was one of the Papal legates. The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church, St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position, the popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arianism comes, took the second. The council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly, through it a precedent was set for subsequent general councils to adopt creeds and canons. This council is considered the beginning of the period of the First seven Ecumenical Councils in the History of Christianity. The First Council of Nicaea was convened by Emperor Constantine the Great upon the recommendations of a synod led by Hosius of Córdoba in the Eastertide of 325 and this synod had been charged with investigation of the trouble brought about by the Arian controversy in the Greek-speaking east.
To most bishops, the teachings of Arius were heretical and dangerous to the salvation of souls and this was the first general council in the history of the Church summoned by emperor Constantine I. In the Council of Nicaea, The Church had taken her first great step to define revealed doctrine more precisely in response to a challenge from a heretical theology. Constantine had invited all 1,800 bishops of the Christian church within the Roman Empire, Eusebius of Caesarea counted more than 250, Athanasius of Alexandria counted 318, and Eustathius of Antioch estimated about 270. Later, Socrates Scholasticus recorded more than 300, and Evagrius, Hilary of Poitiers, Dionysius Exiguus and this number 318 is preserved in the liturgies of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Delegates came from every region of the Roman Empire, including Britain, the participating bishops were given free travel to and from their episcopal sees to the council, as well as lodging.
These bishops did not travel alone, each one had permission to bring him two priests and three deacons, so the total number of attendees could have been above 1,800. Eusebius speaks of an almost innumerable host of accompanying priests, the Eastern bishops formed the great majority. Of these, the first rank was held by the three patriarchs, Alexander of Alexandria, Eustathius of Antioch, and Macarius of Jerusalem and this position is supported by patristic scholar Timothy Barnes in his book Constantine and Eusebius. Historically, the influence of these marred confessors has been seen as substantial, Athanasius of Alexandria, a young deacon and companion of Bishop Alexander of Alexandria, was among the assistants. Athanasius eventually spent most of his life battling against Arianism, Alexander of Constantinople, a presbyter, was present as representative of his aged bishop. The supporters of Arius included Secundus of Ptolemais, Theonus of Marmarica, other supporters included Eusebius of Nicomedia, Paulinus of Tyrus, Actius of Lydda, Menophantus of Ephesus, and Theognus of Nicaea
The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church which lasted from 1378 to 1417. Three men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance. For a time these claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office. This reputation can be attributed to perceptions of predominant French influence and to the papal efforts to extend its powers of patronage. After Pope Gregory XI died in 1378, the Romans rioted to ensure the election of a Roman for pope, on April 8,1378 the cardinals elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidates presented themselves. Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, the Archbishop of Bari, was elected, urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious and prone to violent outbursts of temper. Robert took the name Clement VII and reestablished a papal court in Avignon, the second election threw the Church into turmoil.
The conflicts quickly escalated from a problem to a diplomatic crisis that divided Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula there were the Fernandine Wars and the 1383–1385 Crisis in Portugal, efforts were made to end the Schism through force or diplomacy. The French crown even tried to coerce antipope Benedict XIII, whom it nominally supported, the suggestion that a church council should resolve the Schism, first made in 1378, was not adopted at first because canon law required that a pope call a council. Eventually the cardinals of both factions secured an agreement that Benedict and Pope Gregory XII would meet at Savona and they balked at the last moment, and both groups of cardinals abandoned their preferred leaders. A church council was held at Pisa in 1409 under the auspices of the cardinals to try solving the dispute, at the fifteenth session,5 June 1409, the Council of Pisa attempted to depose both Pope and antipope as schismatical, heretical and scandalous. But it added to the problem by electing a second antipope and he reigned briefly from June 26,1409, to his death in 1410, when he was succeeded by antipope John XXIII, who won some but not universal support.
Finally, a council was convened by Pisan antipope John XXIII in 1414 at Constance to resolve the issue and this was endorsed by Pope Gregory XII, Innocent VIIs successor in Rome, thus ensuring the legitimacy of any election. The Council elected Pope Martin V in 1417, essentially ending the schism, the Crown of Aragon did not recognize Pope Martin V and continued to recognize Benedict XIII. Archbishops loyal to Benedict XIII subsequently elected Antipope Benedict XIV and three followers simultaneously elected Antipope Clement VIII, but the Western Schism was by practically over, Clement VIII resigned in 1429 and apparently recognized Martin V. The line of Roman popes is now recognized as the legitimate line, Pope Pius II decreed that no appeal could be made from pope to council, to avoid any future attempts to undo a papal election by anyone but the elected pope. No such crisis has arisen since the 15th century, and so there has no need to revisit this decision
Second Council of Nicaea
The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by both West and East. Orthodox and Old Catholics unanimously recognize it, Protestant opinions on it are varied and it met in AD787 in Nicaea to restore the use and veneration of icons, which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Leo III. His son, Constantine V, had held the Council of Hieria to make the suppression official, the veneration of icons had been banned by Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and supported by his Council of Hieria, which had described itself as the seventh ecumenical council. The emperors vigorous enforcement of the ban included persecution of those who venerated icons, Constantines iconoclastic tendencies were shared by Constantines son, Leo IV. After the latters death, his widow, Irene of Athens, as regent for her son, began its restoration, moved thereto by personal inclination. However, a council, claiming to be ecumenical, had abolished the veneration of icons, Pope Adrian I was invited to participate, and gladly accepted.
However, the intended for the oriental patriarchs could not even be delivered to them. The Roman legates were an archbishop and an abbot, both named Peter, in 786, the council met in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. However, soldiers in collusion with the opposition entered the church, as a result, the government resorted to a stratagem. Under the pretext of a campaign, the bodyguard was sent away from the capital — disarmed and disbanded. The council was summoned to meet, this time in Nicaea. The council assembled on September 24,787 at the church of Hagia Sophia and it numbered about 350 members,308 bishops or their representatives signed. Tarasius presided, and seven sessions were held in Nicaea, first Session — Three bishops, Basilius of Ancyra, Theodore of Myra and Theodosius of Amorium begged for pardon for the heresy of iconoclasm. Second Session — Papal legates read the letters of Pope Hadrian I asking for agreement with veneration of images, third Session — Other bishops having made their abjuration, were received into the council.
Fourth Session — Proof of the lawfulness of the veneration of icons was drawn from Exodus 25,19 sqq, ezekiel 41,18, and Genesis 31,34, but especially from a series of passages of the Church Fathers, the authority of the latter was decisive. Fifth Session — It was claimed that the iconoclast heresy came originally from Jews, sixth Session — The definition of the pseudo-Seventh council was read and condemned. Seventh Session — The council issued a declaration of faith concerning the veneration of holy images, and exhibited on the walls of churches, in the homes, and in all conspicuous places, by the roadside and everywhere, to be revered by all who might see them. For the more they are contemplated, the more they move to fervent memory of their prototypes, eighth Session — The last session was held in Constantinople at the Magnaura Palace
Catholic ecumenical councils
Catholic Ecumenical Councils include 21 councils over a period of 1700 years. The purpose of a council is to define doctrine, reaffirm truths of the Faith. Council decisions, to be valid, are approved by the popes, participation is limited to these persons, who cannot delegate their voting rights. Ecumenical councils are different from provincial councils, where bishops of a Church province or region meet, Episcopal conferences and plenary councils are other bodies, meetings of bishops of one country, nation, or region, such as the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. This article does not include councils of an order or regional councils. Ecumenical in the Catholic view does not mean that all bishops attended the councils, nor does ecumenical imply the participation of or acceptance by all Christian communities and Churches. Ecumenical refers to a solemn congregations of the Catholic bishops of the world at the invitation of the Pope to decide on matters of the Church with him, the ecumenical character of the councils of the first millennium was not determined by the intention of those who issued the invitations.
The papal approval of the early councils did not have a formal character, the Catholic Church did not officially declare these Councils to be ecumenical. Different evaluations existed between and within Christian communities, not all of the twenty-one councils were always accepted as ecumenical within the Catholic Church. For example, the inclusion of the First Lateran Council and the Council of Basel were disputed, a 1539 book on ecumenical councils by Cardinal Dominicus Jacobazzi excluded them as did other scholars. The first few centuries did not know large-scale ecumenical meetings, they were only feasible after the Church had gained freedom from persecution through Emperor Constantine. These comprised the hierarchs of the undivided Church, excepting the Fourth Council of Constantinople are recognised as Ecumenical Councils by the modern Eastern Orthodox Church, the First Council of Nicaea formulated the original Nicene Creed. Most importantly, the council defined the equality of God the Father and Christ and it taught that Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father and not just merely similar.
By defining the nature of the divinity of Jesus, the council did not solely rely on the Bible, the First Council of Nicaea issued 20 canons and repudiated Arianism. The First Council of Constantinople defined in four canons the Nicene Creed, most importantly, it defined the divinity of the Holy Spirit, which is derived but not defined in the Bible. Thus the Council built on the Apostolic Tradition, the council met from May until July 381 during the pontificate of Pope Damasus I and issued four canons. The Council of Ephesus proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos, the Council met in seven sessions during the pontificate of Pope Celestine I from June 22 until July 17,431. The Council of Chalcedon defined the two natures of Jesus Christ, “We teach unanimously that the one son, our lord Jesus Christ to be fully God and fully human
Second Vatican Council
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council and informally known as Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. It was the twenty-first and most recent ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. At the same time, the worlds bishops faced challenges driven by political, economic, some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges. The First Vatican Council had been nearly a century before but had been cut short when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959 and this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. In various discussions before the Council actually convened, John XXIII often said that it was time to open the windows and he invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council.
Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIIIs announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as an even to the cardinals present. The Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peters square, after which, he instructed the people to go back home and give their children a kiss of goodnight, from the Pope himself. He had tested the idea only ten days before one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea. They were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had already in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
These groups, composed mostly of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers, more than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, and the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session, what is needed is that this certain and immutable doctrine, to which the faithful owe obedience, be studied afresh and reformulated in contemporary terms. For this deposit of faith, or truths which are contained in our time-honored teaching is one thing, Angelo Giuseppe, Opening address, Rome, IT.13 October 1962 marked the initial working session of the Council.
That days agenda included the election for members of the ten conciliar commissions, each would have sixteen elected and eight appointed members, and were expected to do most of the work of the Council
Council of Jerusalem
The Council of Jerusalem or Apostolic Council was held in Jerusalem around 50 AD. The council decided that Gentile converts to Christianity were not obligated to keep most of the Law of Moses, accounts of the council are found in Acts of the Apostles chapter 15 and possibly in Pauls letter to the Galatians chapter 2. Some scholars dispute that Galatians 2 is about the Council of Jerusalem while other scholars dispute the reliability of the Acts of the Apostles. The Council of Jerusalem is generally dated to 48 AD, roughly twenty five years after the crucifixion of Jesus, at the time, most followers of Jesus were Jewish by birth and even converts would have considered the early Christians as a part of Judaism. According to Alister McGrath, the Jewish Christians affirmed every aspect of contemporary Second Temple Judaism with the addition of the belief that Jesus was the Messiah, unless males were circumcised, they could not be Gods People. Circumcision as a mandate was associated with Abraham, but it is cited as the custom of Moses because Moses is considered the giver of the Law as a whole.
The circumcision mandate was made official and binding in the Mosaic Law Covenant. In John 7,22 the words of Jesus are reported to be that Moses gave the people circumcision, Some of the Pharisees who had become believers insisted that it was needful to circumcise them, and to command to keep the law of Moses. The primary issue which was addressed related to the requirement of circumcision, as the author of Acts relates, the rules of traditional Judaism, and Paul the Apostle, who believed there was no such necessity. At the Council, following advice offered by Simon Peter and Paul gave an account of their ministry among the gentiles, and the apostle James quoted from the words of the prophet Amos. Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood. For the law of Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath, Acts 15, 23–29 sets out the content of the letter written in accordance with James proposal.
The Western version of Acts adds the form of the Golden Rule. This determined questions wider than that of circumcision, particularly dietary questions, but fornication and idolatry and blood, if you carefully keep yourselves from these things, you will prosper. And this Apostolic Decree was considered binding on all the other local Christian congregations in other regions, see Biblical law directed at non-Jews, Seven Laws of Noah, Biblical law in Christianity, and the Ten Commandments in Christianity. On the following day Paul went in with us to James, the description of the Apostolic Council in Acts 15, generally considered the same event described in Galatians 2, is considered by some scholars to be contradictory to the Galatians account. The historicity of Lukes account has been challenged, and was rejected completely by some scholars in the mid to late 20th century, more recent scholarship inclines towards treating the Jerusalem Council and its rulings as a historical event, though this is sometimes expressed with caution.
An extensive literature exists on the text and exegesis of the Apostolic Decree, the Council did retain the prohibitions against Gentile converts eating meat containing blood, or meat of animals not properly slain
Pope John XXIII
Pope Saint John XXIII reigned as Pope from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy. He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, including papal nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice, Roncalli was elected pope on 28 October 1958 at age 76 after 11 ballots. His selection was unexpected, and Roncalli himself had come to Rome with a train ticket to Venice. Pope John XXIII surprised those who expected him to be a caretaker pope by calling the historic Second Vatican Council and his passionate views on equality were summed up in his famous statement, We were all made in Gods image, and thus, we are all Godly alike. Pope John XXIII did not live to see the Vatican Council to completion and he died of stomach cancer on 3 June 1963, four and a half years after his election and two months after the completion of his final and famed encyclical, Pacem in terris.
In addition to being named Venerable on 20 December 1999, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 by Pope John Paul II alongside Pope Pius IX and three others. Following his beatification, his body was moved on 3 June 2001 from its place to the altar of Saint Jerome where it could be seen by the faithful. He was canonised alongside Pope Saint John Paul II on 27 April 2014, John XXIII today is affectionately known as the Good Pope and in Italian, il Papa buono. This is understandable, since the Council was his idea and it was he that had convened it, on Thursday,11 September 2014, Pope Francis added his optional memorial to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints feast days, in response to global requests. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was born on 25 November 1881 in Sotto il Monte and he was the eldest son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli and his wife Marianna Giulia Mazzolla, and fourth in a family of 13. Roncallli was nonetheless a descendant of an Italian noble family, albeit from a secondary, in 1889, Roncalli received both his First Communion and Confirmation at the age of 8.
On 1 March 1896, Luigi Isacchi, the director of his seminary. He professed his vows as a member of that order on 23 May 1897, in 1904, Roncalli completed his doctorate in theology and was ordained a priest in the Catholic Church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo in Piazza del Popolo in Rome on 10 August. Shortly after that, while still in Rome, Roncalli was taken to Saint Peters Basilica to meet Pope Pius X, after this, he would return to his town to celebrate mass for the Assumption. In 1905, Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, the new Bishop of Bergamo, Roncalli worked for Radini-Tedeschi until the bishops death on 22 August 1914, two days after the death of Pope Pius X. Radini-Tedeschis last words to Roncalli were Angelo, pray for peace. The death of Radini-Tedeschi had an effect on Roncalli
Antipope Alexander V
Alexander V was antipope during the Western Schism. He reigned from June 26,1409, to his death in 1410 and is regarded by the Roman Catholic Church as an antipope. Alexander V was born in Crete in 1339 of Greek descent and he was born Petros Philargos, but is often known by the Italian version of this name, Pietro di Candia. He soon entered the Franciscan order, and his abilities were such that he was sent to study at the universities of Oxford, while he was in Paris the Western Schism occurred, Philarges supported Pope Urban VI. He settled in Lombardy, thanks to the favour of Giangaleazzo Visconti, the Duke of Milan, he became bishop, first of Piacenza, of Vicenza, of Novara, and finally Archbishop of Milan. On being created cardinal by Pope Innocent VII in 1405, he devoted all his energies to the reunion of the Church, at the Council of Pisa, the assembled cardinals chose Philarges as the new prelate for a chair they presumed was vacant. He was crowned on June 26,1409, as Alexander V and he gave out papal favours with a lavish hand, from which the mendicant orders benefitted especially.
Alexander V suddenly died while he was with Cardinal Baldassare Cossa at Bologna and his remains were placed in the church of St. Francis at Bologna. A rumour, though now considered false, spread that he had been poisoned by Cossa, the Popes drinking society at Greyfriars, Oxford, is traditionally held to have been founded by Philarges during his time at the university. Because of this Rodrigo Borgia took the name Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Alexander s. v. Herbermann, Charles, ed. Pope Alexander V
Antipope Benedict XIII
Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor, known as el Papa Luna in Spanish, was an Aragonese nobleman and Avignon Pope during the Western Schism. He is considered by the Catholic Church to be an antipope, Pedro Martínez de Luna was born at Illueca, Kingdom of Aragon in 1328. He belonged to the de Luna family, who were part of the Aragonese nobility and he studied law at the University of Montpellier, where he obtained his doctorate and taught Canon law. In 1377 Pedro de Luna and the other returned to Rome with Pope Gregory. After Gregorys death on 27 March 1378, the people of Rome feared that the cardinals would elect a French Pope, they rioted and laid siege to the cardinals, insisting on an Italian Pope. The conclave duly elected Bartolomeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari, as Urban VI on 9 April, some of them reconvened at Fondi in September 1378, declared the earlier election invalid and elected Robert of Geneva as their new Pope, initiating the Western Schism. Robert assumed the name Clement VII and moved back to Avignon, Clement VII sent him as legate to Spain for the Kingdoms of Castile, Aragon and Portugal, in order to win them over to the obedience of the Avignon pope.
Owing to his relations, his influence in the Province of Aragon was very great. In 1393 Clement VII appointed him legate to France, Flanders, England, as such he stayed principally in Paris, but he did not confine his activities to those countries that belonged to the Avignon obedience. Following Clements death on 16 September 1394, the cardinals met at Avignon, the conclave consisted of 11 French cardinals, eight Italians, four Spaniards, and one from Savoy, all proclaiming the ardent wish to reunite the church. On the death of Urban VI in 1389 the Roman College of Cardinals had chosen Boniface IX, at the start of his term of office, de Luna was recognised as Pope by France, Sicily, Aragon and Portugal. In 1396 Benedict sent Sanchez Muñoz, one of the most loyal members of the Avignon curia, in 1398 the Kingdom of France withdrew its recognition of the Avignon papacy. Benedict was abandoned by 17 of his cardinals, with five remaining faithful to him. Benedicts rationale for continuing the rivalry lay in the fact that he was the last living cardinal created by Gregory XI, the last undoubted Supreme Pontiff.
As the only unquestioned cardinal, Benedict argued, he was, by right and by canon law, following the Council of Constance Benedicts logic was completely disregarded. When these talks ended in stalemate in 1408, the French king, Charles VI, Charles helped to organise the Council of Pisa in 1409. This council was supposed to arrange for both Gregory and Benedict to resign, so that a new universally recognised Pope could be elected, to oppose this, Benedict convoked the Council of Perpignan but with little success. The Bishop of St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw, successfully petitioned Benedict to grant the university status by issuing a series of papal bulls