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Council of Ephesus

The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II. This third ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, confirmed the original Nicene Creed, condemned the teachings of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who held that the Virgin Mary may be called the Christotokos, "Birth Giver of Christ" but not the Theotokos, "Birth Giver of God", it met in July 431 at the Church of Mary in Ephesus in Anatolia. Nestorius' doctrine, which emphasized the distinction between Christ's human and divine natures and argued that Mary should be called Christotokos but not Theotokos, had brought him into conflict with other church leaders, most notably Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria. Nestorius himself had requested the Emperor to convene the council, hoping that it would prove his orthodoxy; the council declared Mary as Theotokos. Nestorius' dispute with Cyril had led the latter to seek validation from Pope Celestine I, who authorized Cyril to request that Nestorius recant his position or face excommunication.

Nestorius pleaded with the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II to call a council in which all grievances could be aired, hoping that he would be vindicated and Cyril condemned. 250 bishops were present. The proceedings were conducted in a heated atmosphere of confrontation and recriminations and created severe tensions between Cyril and Theodosius II. Nestorius was decisively outplayed by Cyril and removed from his see, his teachings were anathematized; this precipitated the Nestorian Schism, by which churches supportive of Nestorius in the Persian Empire of the Sassanids, were severed from the rest of Christendom and became known as Nestorian Christianity, or the Church of the East, whose present-day representatives are the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Chaldean Syrian Church, the Chaldean Catholic Church. Nestorius himself retired to a monastery recanting his Nestorian position. McGuckin cites the "innate rivalry" between Alexandria and Constantinople as an important factor in the controversy between Cyril of Alexandria and Nestorius.

However, he emphasizes that, as much as political competition contributed to an "overall climate of dissent", the controversy cannot be reduced to the level of "personality clashes" or "political antagonisms". According to McGuckin, Cyril viewed the "elevated intellectual argument about christology" as one and the same as the "validity and security of the simple Christian life". Within Constantinople, some supported the Roman-Alexandrian and others supported the Nestorian factions. For example, Pulcheria supported the Roman-Alexandrian popes while the emperor and his wife supported Nestorius. Contention over Nestorius' teachings, which he developed during his studies at the School of Antioch revolved around his rejection of the long-used title Theotokos for the Virgin Mary. Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. McGuckin ascribes Nestorius' importance to his being the representative of the Antiochene tradition and characterizes him as a "consistent, if none too clear, exponent of the longstanding Antiochene dogmatic tradition."

Nestorius was surprised that what he had always taught in Antioch without any controversy whatsoever should prove to be so objectionable to the Christians of Constantinople. Nestorius emphasized the dual natures of Christ, trying to find a middle ground between those who emphasized the fact that in Christ God had been born as a man, insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos, those that rejected that title because God as an eternal being could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos, but this proposal did not gain acceptance on either side. Nestorius tried to answer a question considered unsolved: "How can Jesus Christ, being part man, not be a sinner as well, since man is by definition a sinner since the Fall?" To solve that he taught that Mary, the mother of Jesus gave birth to the incarnate Christ, not the divine Logos who existed before Mary and indeed before time itself. The Logos occupied the part of the human soul, but wouldn't the absence of a human soul make Jesus less human?

Nestorius rejected this proposition, answering that, because the human soul was based on the archetype of the Logos, only to become polluted by the Fall, Jesus was "more" human for having the Logos and not "less". Nestorius argued that the Virgin Mary should be called Christotokos, Greek for "Birth Giver of Christ", not Theotokos, Greek for "Birth Giver of God". Nestorius believed that no union between the divine was possible. If such a union of human and divine occurred, Nestorius believed that Christ could not be con-substantial with God and con-substantial with us because he would grow, mature and die and would possess the power of God that would separate him from being equal to humans. According to McGuckin, several mid-twentieth-century accounts have tended to "romanticise" Nestorius. Nestorius's opponents charged him with detaching Chr

Perfect Teeth

Perfect Teeth is the seventh and final studio album by Washington, D. C. Indie band Unrest, released on August 9, 1993 through 4AD; the album was recorded at Pachyderm Studios. Unrest joked with their management about having Simon Le Bon of Duran Duran produce the album, which led to him coming into the studio, but not being involved with production. Perfect Teeth was Unrest's highest selling album, was released as a box set of 7" vinyl records before being released in other formats such as compact disc and cassette; the album received positive reviews from Select and the Chicago Tribune but was dismissed by Entertainment Weekly who found that the music lacked depth. Retrospective reviews in AllMusic referred to the album as Unrest's peak while Spin echoed Entertainment Weekly's opinion. Perfect Teeth was recorded at Pachyderm Studios in Minneapolis. Simon Le Bon, the lead vocalist of Duran Duran is credited as the producer of Perfect Teeth. Robinson stated that they joked about getting him to produce the album, but the label 4AD contacted Le Bon.

This did not produce the album in any form. Perfect Teeth was released on August 1993 as a box set of 7" vinyl records, it was released on compact disc, 12" vinyl and cassette on August 24, 1993. In 2010, Billboard stated that the group's albums "never managed to sell big" and that Perfect Teeth was their best selling album which sold about 15,000 copies according to Nielsen SoundScan. Following the release of Perfect Teeth, Unrest embarked on a tour. Perfect Teeth was re-issued by Teen Beat Records in 2012; the reissue was similar to the original vinyl release of the album as it was issued in a 7" vinyl box set with six colored records and six additional non-album tracks. It included a 24-page booklet photographs taken by Mark Robinson during the recording of Perfect Teeth. From a contemporary review, Erik Davis praised the songwriting and opined the group could not "resist drawing out the pretty parts of its songs" Select noted the album's "great songs that were hinted at on last year's overrated Imperial ffrr" and while disliking a track described as "a token wine-glass drone type track", it was "soon forgotten in the midst of such potent realised music."

The Chicago Tribune noted that Unrest "employs guitars that jangle engagingly and fresh voices that recall a more innocent age, intoxicated by possibility" and that "there's an undercurrent of melancholy to "Perfect Teeth" that makes these deceptively modest tunes resonate." Chuck Eddy spoke negatively about the album, finding that the guitar playing "so lethargic it’s not there" and that the album only contained "some vaguely pretty moments" on the song "Make Out Club". From retrospective reviews, Heather Phares gave the album four and a half stars out of five, finding that the group's tendencies of both pop and experimental music "come together with terrific success on Perfect Teeth" and declared it the high point of the group's career; the Spin Alternative Record Guide described the album as "edgy but restful" but found the songs did not take time to assert themselves, noting that Robinsons' songs "had become a series of pretty cloud-puffs. They went poof too soon if you thought about them too much."

All lyrics are written by Mark Robinson, except "Light Command" and "Stylized Ampersand" by Bridget Cross and "West Coast Love Affair" by Phil Krauth. Adapted from the Perfect Teeth liner notes

The Tide of Death

The Tide of Death is a 1912 Australian silent film directed by Raymond Longford based on an original story by Longford. This was rare at the time because most Australian silent films were based on novels, it is considered a lost film. The film is set in Australia's past, it opens with Philip Maxwell, blowing up a rock at a mining site. He rides on horseback to the bank to get wages for his crew. "The Lizard", a camp loafer, learns about this and informs Black Dan Bryce, who decides to rob Philip with his gang. This is overheard by Dan's step daughter Sylvia; the saddle bag containing the money is secured by one of Dan's gang, overpowered by Philip. He refuses to say where it is; the gang knock her down. Dan tries to get Philip to talk by tying him to a stake in the middle of a rising tidal creek, while Sylvia manages to alert Philip's mining crew; the water is rising to Philip's chin when Sylvia arrives on horseback, dashes into the creek, stems the tide and cuts Philip free. Two years Philip and Sylvia are married and have a baby, when Philip gets an urgent telegram from home.

While he is away, their house is burgled by Dan and his old gang, who recognise Sylvia and kidnap her to get revenge. They make her their servant. Unable to find any trace of his wife, Philip thinks she has left him, so he sells his property and goes abroad with Edna. Black Dan's gang argue amongst themselves, enabling Sylvia to escape; when she returns home, she finds Philip and her child gone. She goes to a convent, she becomes an assistant teacher at Spencerville Private School. Three years Philip and Edna return to Australia. Edna loses a trinket, which one of the school children return to Sylvia, she advertises it and Edna's nurse draws Philip's attention to it. He and Edna visit the school and are reunited with Sylvia Lottie Lyell as Sylvia Grey Augustus Neville as Philip Maxwell Frank Harcourt as Black Dan Bryce Bert Harvey as Dan gang member DL Dalziel as Dan gang member D Sweeney as Dan gang member G Flinn as bushman Fred Twitcham as bushman Arthur Steel as bushman Joe Hamilton as Mat Davis Lois Cumming as Jenny Little Annie Gentile as Little Edna Arno the horse The film was shot in and around Sydney using many of the cast who had appeared in Longford's earlier movies.

Advertising said the film was "an original picture suggested and worked on by one of Spencer's staff, played by artists of their own selection, photographed by their own operators, who have acquired a reputation for turning out the best cinematograph work in the commonwealth." The film was well received by critics and the public, screening throughout Australia and attracting good crowds. The Bulletin film critic said: The scenes are local and recognisable, the plot is spread over a good deal of ground, including a good picture of the departure of an Orient boat from the Quay... The acting and mountings show an improvement on the previous pictures; the Sydney Morning Herald said the film was "not wanting in either dramatic strength or love interest. The principal sensations are the blasting explosion, the hero being drowned by the rising tide, a big fire scene. Many beautiful Australian scenic settings have been introduced."The Perth Daily News said it was "worthy to rank with the best productions of the leading American or European firms."However the critic from the Perth Sunday Times thought the movie should have ended where the hero was rescued from the flood: Instead of which having a lot more inoffensive celluloid left, Spencer extended the drama to maudlin limits and spoiled the story.

The photography in the latter part was of decidedly an amateurish calibre, out of harmony with the first portion. It seems to this print as if the original photographer had grown weary of his work and had gone home and left his understudy to do the fag end of the fake; the Tide of Death on IMDb The Tide of Death at National Film and Sound Archive The Tide of Death at AustLit