SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Council of Trent

The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation; the Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, issued key statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, the veneration of saints. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563. Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions, while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions by Pope Pius IV; the consequences of the Council were significant with regard to the Church's liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s.

In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed and his successor Pius V issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church's primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years. More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869. On 15 March 1517, the Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of reform proposals but not on the major problems that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe. A few months on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his 95 Theses in Wittenberg. Luther's position on ecumenical councils shifted over time, but in 1520 he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a council in Germany and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther's theses as heresy, German opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences.

German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters. It took a generation for the council to materialise because of papal reluctance, given that a Lutheran demand was the exclusion of the papacy from the Council, because of ongoing political rivalries between France and Germany and the Turkish dangers in the Mediterranean. Under Pope Clement VII, troops of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, "raping, burning, the like had not been seen since the Vandals". Saint Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses. This, together with the Pontiff's ambivalence between Germany, led to his hesitation. Charles V favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I opposed a general council due to partial support of the Protestant cause within France. In 1532 he agreed to the Nuremberg Religious Peace granting religious liberty to the Protestants, in 1533 he further complicated matters when suggesting a general council to include both Catholic and Protestant rulers of Europe that would devise a compromise between the two theological systems.

This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and elevated the secular Princes of Europe above the clergy on church matters. Faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent. In reply to the Papal bull Exsurge Domine of Pope Leo X, Martin Luther burned the document and appealed for a general council. In 1522 German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles V seconding and pressing for a council as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII was vehemently against the idea of a council, agreeing with Francis I of France, after Pope Pius II, in his bull Execrabilis and his reply to the University of Cologne, set aside the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance. Pope Paul III, seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, but had won over various princes in Germany, to its ideas, desired a council.

Yet when he proposed the idea to his cardinals, it was unanimously opposed. Nonetheless, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to propose the idea. Paul III issued a decree for a general council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to begin on 23 May 1537. Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the general council; the Smalcald Articles were designed to define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise. The council was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 May 1537, it failed to convene after another war broke out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates. Protestants refused to attend as well. Financial difficulties in Mantua led the Pope in the autumn of 1537 to move the council to Vicenza, where participation was poor; the Council was postponed indefinitely on 21 May 1539. Pope Paul III initiated several internal Church reforms while Emperor Charles V convened with Protestants and Cardinal Gasparo Contarini at the Diet of Regensburg, to reconcile differ

Ice yachting

Ice yachting is the sport of sailing and racing iceboats called ice yachts. Ice yachting is practiced in Austria, Great Britain, Poland and Sweden, to some extent, is popular in the Netherlands and on the Gulf of Finland, but its highest development is in the United States and Canada; the Dutch ice yacht is a flat-bottomed boat resting crosswise upon a planking about three feet wide and sixteen long, to which are affixed four steel runners, one each at bow and each end of the planking. The rudder is a fifth runner fixed to a tiller. Heavy mainsails and jibs are used and the boat is built more for safety than for speed; the iceboat of the Gulf of Finland is a V-shaped frame with a heavy plank running from bow to stern, in which the mast is stepped. The stern or steering runner is worked by a wheel; the sail is a large lug and the boom and gaff are attached to the mast by travelers. The passengers sit upon planks or rope netting; the Russian boats were faster than the Dutch-built ice yachts. Ice Yachting was born in Europe, but by 1790 the sport was in vogue on the Hudson River, its headquarters being in Poughkeepsie, New York.

The boat was a square box on three runners, the two forward runners being nailed to the box and the third acting as a rudder operated by a tiller. This type of boat was first built in 1790 by Oliver Booth of Poughkeepsie. At this time, during the early days of the sport, it was an activity for the masses and not only for the wealthy; the above primitive style was in general use until 1853, when triangular frames with boxes for the crew aft and jib and mainsail rig were introduced. At this time, the 1850s, ice yacht clubs were formed in Newburgh, New Hamburg and Hyde Park. Members of the various clubs competed to win races such as the Ice yacht Challnge Pennant of America and the Captain William Drake Flag, they raced against the newly introduced trains that began running along the Hudson River. A heavy, hard-riding type soon developed, with short gaffs, low sails, large jibs and booms extending far over the stern, it was over-canvassed and the mast was stepped directly over the runner plank, bringing the centre of sail-balance so far aft that the boats were apt to run away, the over-canvassing caused the windward runner to swing up into the air to a dangerous height.

The largest and fastest example of this type, which prevailed until 1879, was Commodore John. E. Roosevelt's first Icicle, which measured 69 carried 1,070 sq ft of canvas; the Icicle once beat the Chicago Express on its run from Poughkeepsie to Ossining. J. E. Roosevelt founded the Hudson River Ice Yacht Club in 1869. A 46-foot version of the Icicle recorded a speed of over 100 miles per hour. In 1879, H. Relyea built the Robert Scott, which had a single backbone and guy wires, it became the model for all Hudson River ice yachts. Masts were now stepped farther forward, jibs were shortened, booms were cut down, the center of sail-balance was brought more inboard and higher up, causing the centers of effort and resistance to come more in harmony; the shallow steering-box became elliptical. The first race for the American Challenge Pennant occurred in 1881, which represents the championship of the Hudson River; the clubs that competed included the Hudson River, North Shrewsbury, Orange Lake and Carthage Ice Yacht Clubs.

The races are sailed five times round a triangle of which each leg measures one mile, at least two of the legs being to windward. In 1911 modern ice yachts were made of a single-piece backbone the entire length of the boat, a runner-plank upon which it rests at right angles, the two forming a kite-shaped frame; the best woods for these pieces are basswood and pine. They are cut from the log in such a way that the heart of the timber expands, giving the planks a permanent curve, which, in the finished boat, is turned upward; the two forward runners made of soft cast iron and about 2.7 ft. long and 24 inches high, are set into oak frames a little over 5 feet long and 5 inches high. The runners have a cutting edge of 90%, though a V-shaped edge is preferred for racing; the rudder is a runner about 3.7 ft. long, worked by a tiller, sometimes made long, 7½ feet not being uncommon. This enables the helmsman to lie in the box at full length and steer with his feet, leaving his hands free to tend the sheet.

Masts and spars are made hollow for racing-yachts and the rigging is pliable steel wire. The sails are of 10-ounce duck for a boat carrying 400 sq ft of canvas, they have high peaks, short hoists and long booms. The mainsail and jib rig is general; the foremost ice-yacht builder of America was G. E. Buckhout of Poughkeepsie. An ice yacht is about 40 ft in length and can carry six or seven passengers or crew, who are distributed in such a manner as to preserve the balance of the boat. In a good breeze the crew lie out on the windward side of the runner-plank to balance the boat, reduce the pressure on the leeward runner. A course of 20 miles with many turns has been sailed on the Hudson in less than 48 minutes, the record for a measured mile with flying start being at the rate of about 72 miles an hour. In a high wind, ice yachts move at the rate of 85 and 90 miles an hour. On the bays near New York, a peculiar kind of iceboat has developed, called scooter, which may be described as a toboggan with a sail.

A typical scooter is about 15 ft long with an extreme beam of 5 ft oval in form and flat. It has mainsail and jib carried on a mast 9 or 10 feet long and set well aft, is provided with two long parallel metal runners. There i

SSVg Velbert

SSVg Velbert is a German association football club located in Velbert, North Rhine-Westphalia. The club was founded in 1902 as Velberter FC 02 and marks itself as the third oldest football club in the region. Several other predecessor sides figure in the club's history. In 1907 Ballspiel-Verein 07 Velbert was formed and this team enjoyed early success advancing through the ranks of the local football leagues. In 1914 it was joined by BV Olympia 06 Velbert; the gymnastics club Turner Velberter Turnvereins 1864 formed its own football department in 1912 and in 1919 VFC joined that group to form VFC 02, Spielabteilung des Velberter Turnvereins 1864 in a short-lived union that only lasted two years. The football department of 1864 itself became independent in 1921 to play as SSV Velbert 1912. In 1933 VFC and BV 07 fused to form Verein für Bewegungspiele 02/07 Velbert and played in colours of green and white; the following season they finished second in their second tier league, the next year continued their strong play, winning sixteen consecutive matches.

The onset of World War II led to a shortage of players and in 1941 the club was merged with SV Borussia Velbert 06 to form a wartime side that shortly suspended play as the conflict overtook the region. SSV and VfB both enjoyed a lively crosstown rivalry. Over time SSV emerged as the stronger side and by 1961 were playing third division football in the Amateurliga Niederrhein. Just three years in 1964, SSV and VfB agreed to a merger to form the present day club SSVg Velbert 02, playing in blue and white, with the goal of advancing to second division play, they met their objective in 1969 when they were promoted to the Regionalliga West, but fell away again to third division play after a 17th-place finish in their only season in tier II. A mid-1970s proposal to re-unite with wartime partner Borussia Velbert was abandoned. SSVg found they could not support their ambition financially and began a steady descent to fifth and sixth division football in the 1990s. Since 2000 the club has played in the Oberliga Nordrhein.

They topped the standings in the 2003–04 season but were denied a license for Regionalliga play as not solid enough financially. In 2003 the club qualified for the German Cup and defeated 1. FSV Mainz 05 on penalties in the first round, but succumbed to Jahn Regensburg in the second round. In recent seasons, the team has continued to earn good results with consistent top-three finishes in their division, they have qualified for 2006–07 DFB-Pokal play and played SpVgg Unterhaching in the first round. The club earned promotion to the tier four Regionalliga West in 2012 and played there for two seasons before being relegated to the Oberliga Niederrhein in 2014. After a single season in the Oberliga in 2014–15 the club returned to the Regionalliga after winning a league championship. Velbert finished 15th in the Regionalliga in 2015–16 and was relegated back to the Oberliga once more; the club's honours: Lower Rhine Cup Winners: 2003, 2006 Oberliga Nordrhein Champions: 2004 Oberliga Niederrhein Champions: 2015 Verbandsliga Niederrhein Champions: 1969, 2000 Landesliga Niederrhein 1 Champions: 1999 As of 28 January 2016Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The SSVg plays its games in the Stadion Sonnenblume Official team site Abseits Guide to German Soccer