Berlin wool work
Berlin wool work is a style of embroidery similar to today's needlepoint. It was executed with wool yarn on canvas, it is worked in a single stitch, such as cross stitch or tent stitch although Beeton's book of Needlework describes 15 different stitches for use in Berlin work. It was traditionally stitched in many colours and hues, producing intricate three-dimensional looks by careful shading; the design of such embroidery was made possible by the great progresses made in dyeing in the 1830s by the discovery of aniline dyes which produced bright colors. This kind of work created durable and long-lived pieces of embroidery that could be used as furniture covers, bags, or on clothing. Berlin wool work patterns were first published in Berlin, early in the 19th century; the first Berlin wool patterns were printed in black and white on grid paper and hand-coloured. The stitcher was expected to draw the outlines on the canvas and stitch following the colours on the pattern. Counted stitch patterns on charted paper, similar to modern cross-stitch patterns, made it easier to execute the designs, because there was no need for translating the patterns into actual wool colours by the stitchers themselves.
They were published as single sheets which made them affordable to middle-class women. Soon they were exported to the United States, where "Berlin work" became all the rage. Indeed, Berlin work became synonymous with canvas work. In Britain, Berlin work received a further boost through the Great Exhibition of 1851, by the advent of ladies' magazines such as The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine; the popularity of Berlin work was due to the fact that, for the first time in history, a large number of women had leisure time to devote to needlework. Subjects to be embroidered were influenced by Victorian Romanticism and included floral designs, Victorian paintings, biblical or allegorical motifs. Berlin work patterns could be applied to various kinds of clothing and home furnishings or could be made as stand-alone artworks, in the style of needlepaintings, which are works that copy well-known master paintings in thread. In the late 1880s, the demand for Berlin wool work decreased largely because the tastes had changed, but Berlin work publishers failed to accommodate new tastes.
Other, less opulent styles of embroidery became more popular, such as the art needlework advocated by William Morris and his Arts and Crafts movement. Original charted. Berlin wool work designs are still popular in trammed needlepoint canvases, printed canvas needlepoint kits and can be found as digitized charts on needlework enthusiasts' websites. Desnoyers, Rosika. Pictorial Embroidery in England: A Critical History of Needlepainting and Berlin Work. London: Bloomsbury, 2019. Edwards, Joan. Berlin Work. Dorking, England: Bayford Books, 1980. Levey, Santina M. Discovering Embroidery of the 19th Century. England: Shire Publications, Ltd. 1977. Markrich and Heinz Edgar Kiewe. Victorian Fancywork: Nineteenth-Century Needlepoint Patterns and Designs. Chicago: Regnery, 1974. Procter, Molly G. Victorian Canvas Work: Berlin Wool Work, B T Batsford Ltd, 1986. Serena, Raffaella. Animal Embroideries & Patterns: From 19th Century Vienna, Antique Collectors Club Dist, 2006. Serena, Raffaella. Berlin Work, Samplers & Embroidery of the Nineteenth Century, Lacis, 1996.
Serena, Raffaella. Embroideries & Patterns from 19th Century Vienna, Antique Collectors Club Dist, 2006. Stepanova, Irina. Berlin Work: An Exuberance of Color, PieceWork magazine, March–April, 2011, pp. 41–46. Stepanova, Irina. Berlin Wool: Fine Fiber from an Innovative Age, PieceWork magazine, November–December, 2011, pp. 12–17. Berlin Work by Pat Berman, a technical history at the American Needlepoint Guild site
Candlewicking, or Candlewick is a form of whitework embroidery that traditionally uses an unbleached cotton thread on a piece of unbleached muslin. It gets its name from the nature of the soft spun cotton thread, braided used to form the wick for candles. Motifs are created using a variety of traditional embroidery stitches as well as a tufted stitch. Subject matter is taken from nature - flowers, pine trees, so on, Other traditional motifs resemble Pennsylvania Dutch or Colonial American designs. Modern designs include colored floss embroidery with the traditional white on white stitching. Loom-woven or machine-made candlewicks of the early 19th century are white bedcovers with designs created during the weaving process by raising loops over a small twig or tool. Contemporary candlewicking is most used as a cushion cover. Weissman, Judith Reiter and Wendy Lavitt: Labors of Love: America's Textiles and Needlework, 1650-1930, New York, Wings Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-10136-X
Buttonhole stitch and the related blanket stitch are hand-sewing stitches used in tailoring and needle lace-making. Buttonhole stitches catch a loop of the thread on the surface of the fabric and needle is returned to the back of the fabric at a right angle to the original start of the thread; the finished stitch in some ways resembles a letter "L" depending on the spacing of the stitches. For buttonholes the stitches are packed together and for blanket edges they are more spaced out; the properties of this stitch make it ideal for preventing raveling of woven fabric. Buttonhole stitches are structurally similar to featherstitches. In addition to reinforcing buttonholes and preventing cut fabric from raveling, buttonhole stitches are used to make stems in crewel embroidery, to make sewn eyelets, to attach applique to ground fabric, as couching stitches. Buttonhole stitch scallops raised or padded by rows of straight or chain stitches, were a popular edging in the 19th century. Buttonhole stitches are used in cutwork, including Broderie Anglaise, form the basis for many forms of needlelace.
Examples of buttonhole or blanket stitches include: Blanket stitch Buttonhole stitch Closed buttonhole stitch, in which the tops of the stitch touch to form triangles Embroidery stitch Virginia Churchill Bath, Needlework in America, Viking Press, 1979 ISBN 0-670-50575-7 S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Mrs. Archibald Christie. Samplers and Stitches, a handbook of the embroiderer's art, London 1920, 1989 facsimile: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-4796-6. Media related to Embroidery stitches at Wikimedia Commons
Broderie anglaise is a whitework needlework technique incorporating features of embroidery and needle lace that became associated with England, due to its popularity there in the 19th century. Broderie anglaise is characterized by patterns composed of round or oval holes, called eyelets, which are cut out of the fabric bound with overcast or buttonhole stitches; the patterns depicting flowers, vines, or stems, are further delineated by simple embroidery stitches made on the surrounding material. Broderie anglaise featured small patterns worked in satin stitch; the technique originated in 16th century eastern Europe—probably in what is now the Czech Republic—but remains associated with England because of its popularity there during the 19th century. In the Victorian era, broderie anglaise had open areas in many sizes. Transfers were used first to lay out the design on the material. In some cases, the holes were punched out with an embroidery stiletto before finishing the edge. Beginning in the 1870s, the designs and techniques of broderie anglaise could be copied by the Swiss hand-embroidery machine.
Today, most broderie anglaise is created by machine. Madeira work is a popular form of broderie anglaise associated with artisans on the island of Madeira, a Portuguese territory off the coast of Africa. Broderie anglaise was popular in England between 1840 and 1880 for women's underclothing and children's wear; the 1950s saw a resurgence in popularity, when it was used to trim dresses and underwear. In 1959, Brigitte Bardot wore a dress of gingham and broderie anglaise for her wedding to Jacques Charrier. In contemporary western fashion, it has been featured on a wide variety of modern garments such as shorts and t-shirts, it has been characterized as "lace, but scaled-up" making it more robust and suited to daytime wear, less associated with the fine, lacy look of lingerie. S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Broderie anglaise in TRC Needles Photo of an 1865 Broderie Anglaise corset cover, 19th century English bonnet: decoration with broderie anglaise, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Machine embroidery is an embroidery process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. It is used commercially in product branding, corporate advertising, uniform adornment, it is used in the fashion industry to decorate garments and apparel. Machine embroidery is used by hobbyists and crafters to decorate gifts and home decor. Examples include designs on quilts and wall hangings. There are multiple types of machine embroidery. Free-motion sewing machine embroidery uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. Designs are done manually. Most commercial embroidery is done with link stitch embroidery. In link stitch embroidery, patterns may automatically controlled. Link Stitch embroidery is known as chenille embroidery, was patented by Pulse Microsystems in 1994. More modern computerized machine embroidery uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine, controlled with a computer that embroiders stored patterns; these machines may have multiple threads. In free-motion machine embroidery, embroidered designs are created by using a basic zigzag sewing machine.
As this type of machine is used for tailoring, it lacks the automated features of a specialized machine. To create free-motion machine embroidery, the embroiderer runs the machine and skillfully moves hooped fabric under the needle to create a design; the "feed dogs" or machine teeth are lowered or covered, the embroiderer moves the fabric manually. The embroiderer develops the embroidery manually, using the machine's settings for running stitch and fancier built-in stitches. In this way, the stitches form an image on a piece of fabric. An embroiderer can produce a filled-in effect by sewing many parallel rows of straight stitching. A machine's zigzag stitch can be used to create a border. Many quilters and fabric artists use a process called thread drawing to create embellishments on their projects or to create textile art. Free-motion machine embroidery can be time-consuming. Since a standard sewing machine has only one needle, the operator must pause to re-thread the machine manually for each subsequent color in a multi-color design.
He or she must manually trim and clean up loose or connecting threads after the design is completed. As this is a manual process rather than a digital reproduction, any pattern created using free-motion machine embroidery is unique and cannot be reproduced, unlike with computerized embroidery. With the advent of computerized machine embroidery, the main use of manual machine embroidery is in fiber art and quilting projects. Though some manufacturers still use manual embroidery to embellish garments, many prefer computerized embroidery's ease and reduced costs. Most modern embroidery machines are computer controlled and engineered for embroidery. Industrial and commercial embroidery machines and combination sewing-embroidery machines have a hooping or framing system that holds the framed area of fabric taut under the sewing needle and moves it automatically to create a design from a pre-programmed digital embroidery pattern. Depending on its capabilities, the machine will require varying degrees of user input to read and sew embroidery designs.
Sewing-embroidery machines have only one needle and require the user to change thread colors during the embroidery process. Multi-needle industrial machines are threaded prior to running the design and do not require re-threading; these machines require the user to input the correct color change sequence before beginning to embroider. Some can change colors automatically. A multi-needle machine may consist of multiple sewing heads, each of which can sew the same design onto a separate garment concurrently; such a machine might have 20 or more heads, each consisting of 15 or more needles. A head is capable of producing many special fabric effects, including satin stitch embroidery, chain stitch embroidery, appliqué, cutwork. Before computers were affordable, most machine embroidery was completed by punching designs on paper tape that ran through an embroidery machine. One error could ruin an entire design. Machine embroidery dates back to 1964, when Tajima started to manufacture and sell TAJIMA Multi-head Automatic Embroidery machines.
In 1973 Tajima introduced the TMB Series 6-needle full-automatic color-change embroidery machine. A few years in 1978, Tajima started manufacturing the TMBE Series Bridge Type Automatic Embroidery machines; these machines introduced electronic 6-needle automatic color change technology. In 1980 the first computerized embroidery machines were introduced to the home market. Wilcom introduced the first computer graphics embroidery design system to run on a minicomputer. Melco, an international distribution network formed by Randal Melton and Bill Childs, created the first embroidery sample head for use with large Schiffli looms; these produced lace patches and large embroidery patterns. The sample head allowed embroiderers to avoid manually sewing the design sample and saved production time. Subsequently, it became the first computerized embroidery machine marketed to home sewers; the economic conditions of the Reagan years, coupled with tax incentives for home businesses, helped propel Melco to the top of the market.
At the Show of the Americas in 1980, Melco unveiled the Digitrac, a digitizing system for embroidery machines. The digitized design was composed at six times the size of the embroidered final product; the Digitrac consisted of a small computer, similar in size to a BlackBerry, mounted on an X and Y axis on a large white board. It sold for $30,000. Th
Even-weave fabric or canvas is any woven textile where the warp and weft threads are of the same size. Even-weave fabrics include even-weave aida cloth and needlepoint canvas; these fabrics are required as foundations for counted-thread embroidery styles such as blackwork, cross-stitch, needlepoint, so that a stitch of the same "count" will be the same length whether it crosses warp or weft threads. Bath, Virginia Churchill. Needlework in America. Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-50575-7. Caulfield, Sophia Frances Anne & Saward, Blanche C.. The Dictionary of Needlework. Complete Guide to Needlework. Readers Digest Association. 1979. ISBN 0-89577-059-8. "Embroidery fabric for counted thread projects". Needlework Tips and Techniques
Chain stitch is a sewing and embroidery technique in which a series of looped stitches form a chain-like pattern. Chain stitch is an ancient craft – examples of surviving Chinese chain stitch embroidery worked in silk thread have been dated to the Warring States period. Handmade chain stitch embroidery does not require that the needle pass through more than one layer of fabric. For this reason the stitch is an effective surface embellishment near seams on finished fabric; because chain stitches can form flowing, curved lines, they are used in many surface embroidery styles that mimic "drawing" in thread. Chain stitches are used in making tambour lace, macramé and crochet; the earliest archaeological evidence of chain stitch embroidery dates from 1100 BC in China. Excavated from royal tombs, the embroidery was made using threads of silk. Chain stitch embroidery has been found dating to the Warring States period. Chain stitch designs spread to Iran through the Silk Road. Chain stitch and its variations are fundamental to embroidery traditions of many cultures, including Kashmiri numdahs, Iranian Resht work, Central Asian suzani, Hungarian Kalotaszeg "written embroidery", Jacobean embroidery, crewelwork.
Chain stitch was the stitch used by early sewing machines. This ease of unraveling of the single-thread chain stitch, more known as ISO 4915:1991 stitch 101, continues to be exploited for industrial purposes in the closure of bags for bulk products. Machine embroidery in chain stitch in traditional hand-worked crewel designs, is found on curtains, bed linens, upholstery fabrics. Variations of the basic chain stitch include: Back-stitched chain stitch Braided stitching Cable chain stitch Knotted chain stitch Open chain stitch Petal chain stitch Rosette chain stitch Singalese chain stitch Twisted chain stitch Wheat-ear stitch Zig-zag chain stitch The Basic Chain stitch is made by first sending the needle down through the material; as the needle rises upward, the friction of the thread against the fabric is sufficient to form a small loop on the underside of the material. That loop is caught by a circular needle, beneath the work; the machine moves the material forward projecting the loop on the underside from the previous stitch.
The next drop of the needle goes through the previous loop. The circular needle releases the first loop and picks up the new loop and the process repeats; the Double chain stitch uses two threads. It is used in today's machines except for ornamental purposes because it uses a lot of thread, it is found in bulk material packaging. In this case it is useful to allow an easy opening of the bag. Union Special Portable Chain Stitch machine internal mechanism 2200 Portable bag closing machines List of knots Virginia Churchill Bath, Needlework in America, Viking Press, 1979 ISBN 0-670-50575-7 S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Mrs. Archibald Christie. Samplers and Stitches, a handbook of the embroiderer's art, London 1920, 1989 facsimile: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-4796-6, or online at Project Gutenberg John Gillow and Bryan Sentance: World Textiles, Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown, 1999, ISBN 0-8212-2621-5 Reader's Digest Complete Guide to Needlework; the Reader's Inc.. March 1992, ISBN 0-89577-059-8 Kalotaszeg embroidery at MagyarMuseum.org