A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ from those of mainstream society in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a specific population during a well-defined era; when oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes. Prominent examples of Late Modern countercultures in the Western world include Romanticism, the "Jazz Age" of the Roaring Twenties, the Non-conformists of the 1930s, the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation, followed by the globalized counterculture of the 1960s associated with the hippie subculture as well as the diversified punk subculture of the 1970s and 1980s. John Milton Yinger originated the term "contraculture" in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Yinger suggested the use of the term contraculture "wherever the normative system of a group contains, as a primary element, a theme of conflict with the values of the total society, where personality variables are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the group's values, wherever its norms can be understood only by reference to the relationships of the group to a surrounding dominant culture."Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture.

It became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to "counterculture". "Mainstream" culture is of course difficult to define, in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose middle-class culture and values. Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values. Counterculture may not be explicitly political, it involves criticism or rejection of powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on authoritarianism. Cultural development can be affected by way of counterculture. Scholars such as Joanne Martin and Caren Siehl, deem counterculture and cultural development as "a balancing act, some core values of a counterculture should present a direct challenge to the core values of a dominant culture".

Therefore, a prevalent culture and a counterculture should coexist in an uneasy symbiosis, holding opposite positions on valuable issues that are important to each of them. According to this theory, a counterculture can contribute a plethora of useful functions for the prevalent culture, such as "articulating the foundations between appropriate and inappropriate behavior and providing a safe haven for the development of innovative ideas". A "fringe culture" expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak go into decline, leaving a lasting impact on mainstream cultural values, their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance and absorption into the mainstream. During the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States; the "cultural shadows" left by the Romantics, Bohemians and Hippies remain visible in contemporary Western culture. According to Sheila Whiteley, "recent developments in sociological theory complicate and problematize theories developed in the 1960s, with digital technology, for example, providing an impetus for new understandings of counterculture".

Andy Bennett writes that "despite the theoretical arguments that can be raised against the sociological value of counterculture as a meaningful term for categorising social action, like subculture, the term lives on as a concept in social and cultural theory… become part of a received, mediated memory". However, "this involved not the utopian but the dystopian and that while festivals such as those held at Monterey and Woodstock might appear to embrace the former, the deaths of such iconic figures as Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin, the nihilistic mayhem at Altamont, the shadowy figure of Charles Manson cast a darker light on its underlying agenda, one that reminds us that ‘pathological issues still much at large in today's world"; the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, includes Mr. Natural.

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, these comics and magazines were available for purchase in head shops along with items like beads, cigarette papers, tie-dye clothing, Day-Glo posters, etc. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, some of these shops selling hippie items became cafés where hippies could hang out, smoke marijuana, read books, etc. e.g. Gandalf's Garden in the King's Road, which published a magazine of the same name. Another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham; some genres tend to challenge societies with their content, meant to outright question the norms within cultures and even

Murders of Karlie Pearce-Stevenson and Khandalyce Pearce

The murders of Karlie Pearce-Stevenson and Khandalyce Pearce were treated as unrelated. The skeletal remains of Pearce-Stevenson were found in Belanglo State Forest, New South Wales, Australia in 2010, her daughter Khandalyce Pearce's remains were found near Wynarka, South Australia in July 2015. The two cases were not linked until positive identification was confirmed by DNA testing in October 2015; the mother and daughter were last seen by family in 2008 in Alice Springs, Northern Territory and reported missing in 2009. It was discovered Pearce-Stevenson's mobile phone was used for years following her death to send false "proof of life" messages to family and friends; the mother and child's identities were exploited by third parties to commit social security and other types of identity fraud. On 28 October 2015, Daniel James Holdom, reported to be Pearce-Stevenson's former partner, was arrested in Cessnock, New South Wales, charged with her murder. On 15 December, he was charged with the murder of her daughter.

On 30 November 2018, he was sentenced to two life sentences for the murders. On 29 August 2010, trail bike riders discovered skeletal human remains in the Belanglo State Forest in New South Wales. Media reports at first linked the killing to serial killer Ivan Milat and the backpacker murders, but forensic examination found the remains had been left there many years after Milat was jailed in 1996 for the seven murders in the forest. In a 2010 appeal for information, police called the woman "Angel" after the motif on a T-shirt she was wearing. On 21 October 2015, the bones were identified as the body of Pearce-Stevenson, aged 20, from Alice Springs. On 15 July 2015, the remains of a young child surrounded by girl's clothing were discovered by a passing motorist who examined an abandoned suitcase at the side of the Karoonda Highway near Wynarka in the Murray Mallee region of South Australia. From the beginning, investigators believed the child had suffered a violent death several years before the remains had been dumped in the suitcase.

It was not until October 2015 that the victim was identified as Pearce, aged two, with her mother, had been reported missing from Alice Springs more than five years earlier, in 2009. Soon after the discovery of the child's remains, police made a public appeal for information that could help identify her, based on items that were found with the suitcase including children's clothing and a distinctive hand-made quilt. After more than 1,200 calls to Crime Stoppers, one caller was able to identify the quilt as one made by the child's grandmother, who had died in 2012 believing her daughter and granddaughter were living interstate. Positive identification was achieved by comparing DNA extracted from the child's skeletal remains with DNA retained from a neonatal heel prick test. A national DNA search linked the child's remains with the profile of her mother, the unidentified remains found in the Belanglo State Forest; the last confirmed sightings of the mother and daughter before their deaths were on 8 November 2008, when they were stopped by police on the Stuart Highway near Coober Pedy in the far north of South Australia, in Charnwood, a suburb of Canberra, in December 2008.

NSW and SA police conducted a joint investigation, including collaboration with NT police. Karlie Jade Pearce-Stevenson was born in 1988 in Alice Springs and attended Braitling Primary School and Alice Springs High School, she was a keen netballer. Her mother died in 2012. Pearce-Stevenson's step-father and step-brother still live in Alice Springs. Khandalyce Kiara Pearce was Pearce-Stevenson's daughter, she was born in 2006 in Alice Springs. Pearce-Stevenson is believed to have left Alice Springs with Pearce in 2008 to look for work. Police believe they travelled to Darwin, the Murray and Riverland districts and Canberra, appealed to owners of motels and caravan parks to check their records in case the pair had stayed at their premises. A missing person report was raised with the Northern Territory Police by Pearce-Stevenson's mother on 4 September 2009; the report was closed on 9 October 2009 after "she was reassured Pearce-Stevenson was safe and well, but did not want family contact at that time."

Police believe Pearce-Stevenson was killed in Belanglo Forest on 14 or 15 December 2008, her daughter was killed sometime in a different location. Investigators have not revealed details of injuries; the remains of the two victims were returned to Alice Springs and a funeral service and burial was held in December 2015 with the assistance of funds raised from the public and local government. Pearce-Stevenson's mobile phone was used until mid-2011, communicating via text messages to give her family and friends the impression she was alive and well, to appeal for money, her bank account was accessed until at least 2012 at locations in territories. Over $90,000 was stolen through the account, including Centrelink family payments and other proceeds of fraud. A woman in a wheelchair, accompanied by a man, impersonated Pearce-Stevenson to staff at a credit union in June 2010 using her identity documents. Another woman impersonated her at a Centrelink office in South Australia the same year, using identity documents for Pearce-Stevenson and her daughter.

The woman had her leg amputated as a result of a car rollover in 2008 in which Holdom was driving on the Stuart Highway north of Marla. Two of her children were killed in the crash, she reached an out-of-court settlement in May 2016. Within days of releasing the identities of the victims, police reported they had several suspects, includ


Toile is a fabric, from the French word meaning "linen cloth" or "canvas" cloth or canvas for painting on. The word "toile" can refer to the fabric itself, a test garment sewn from the same material, or a type of repeated surface decoration printed on the same fabric; the term entered the English language around the 12th century. Middle English toile, from French toile, from Old French teile, from Latin tela, from Proto-Indo-European *teg. In Australian and British terminology, a "toile" is a version of a garment made by a fashion designer or dressmaker to test a pattern, they are made in cheap material, as multiple toiles may be made in the process of perfecting a design. Toiles are sometimes referred to as "muslins" in the United States, named for the cheap, unbleached cotton fabric available in different weights. "Toile de Jouy", sometimes abbreviated to "toile", is a type of decorating pattern consisting of a white or off-white background on which a repeated pattern depicting a complex scene of a pastoral theme such as a couple having a picnic by a lake or an arrangement of flowers.

The pattern portion consists of a single color, most black, dark red, or blue. Greens and magenta toile patterns are less common, but not unheard of. Toile is most associated with fabrics, though toile wallpaper is popular. Toile can be used on teapots, clothing, etc. In upper-class society, toile is seen on dresses or aprons used at such events as country-themed garden parties or tea parties. Toiles were produced in Ireland in the mid-18th Century and became popular in Britain and France; the term "Toile de Jouy" originated in France in the late 18th century. In the French language, the phrase means "cloth from Jouy-en-Josas", a town in the south-west suburbs of Paris. Although it has been continuously produced since it experienced a marked upsurge in popularity around the year 2000. Only a decorating design, designers have been experimenting with toile-patterned apparel as well, although toile-patterned shirts were worn in the 1970s. Toiles were popular during the Colonial Era in the United States and are associated with preservationist towns and historical areas such as Colonial Williamsburg.

When Williamsburg saw a repopularization in the 1930s, so did toiles, as they did again in the 1970s in celebration of the United States Bicentennial. Since many other companies have subverted to using toile in their designs an example being Timorous Beasties; the dictionary definition of toile at Wiktionary