A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with seaport for ships or airport for aircraft. The word spaceport, and even more so cosmodrome, has traditionally used for sites that are capable of launching spacecraft into orbit around Earth or on interplanetary trajectories. Space stations and proposed future bases on the moon are sometimes called spaceports, the term rocket launch site is used for any facility from which rockets are launched. It may contain one or more launch pads or suitable sites to mount a transportable launch pad and it is typically surrounded by a large safety area, often called a rocket range or missile range. The range includes the area over which launched rockets are expected to fly, tracking stations are sometimes located in the range to assess the progress of the launches. Major spaceports often include more than one launch complex, which can be rocket launch sites adapted for different types of launch vehicles, for launch vehicles with liquid propellant, suitable storage facilities and, in some cases, production facilities are necessary.
On-site processing facilities for solid propellants are common, a spaceport may include runways for takeoff and landing of aircraft to support spaceport operations, or to enable support of HTHL or HTVL winged launch vehicles. The first rockets to reach space were V-2 rockets launched from Peenemünde, after the war,70 complete V-2 rockets were brought to White Sands for test launches, with 47 of them reaching altitudes between 100 km and 213 km. The worlds first spaceport for orbital and human launches, the Baikonur Cosmodrome in southern Kazakhstan and it achieved the first orbital flight in October 1957. The exact location of the cosmodrome was initially held secret, guesses to its location were misdirected by a name in common with a mining town 320 km away. The Baikonur Cosmodrome achieved the first launch of a human into space in 1961, the launch complex used, Site 1, has reached a special symbolic significance and is commonly called Gagarins Start. Baikonur was the primary Soviet cosmodrome, and is widely used by Russia under a lease arrangement with Kazakhstan.
In response to the early Soviet successes, the United States built up a major complex at Cape Canaveral in Florida. A large number of unmanned flights, as well as the early flights, were carried out at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. For the Apollo programme, an adjacent spaceport, Kennedy Space Center, was constructed and it has been the base for all Space Shuttle launches and most of their runway landings. For details on the complexes of the two spaceports, see List of Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island launch sites. The Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, is the major European spaceport, in October 2003 the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center achieved the first Chinese human spaceflight. The spacecraft, SpaceShipOne, was launched by an airplane taking off horizontally
Land is the term given to non-liquid planetary surfaces. The term landing is used to describe the collision of an object with a surface and is usually at a velocity in which the object can remain intact. In differentiated bodies, the surface is where the crust meets the boundary layer. Anything below this is regarded as being sub-surface or sub-marine, most bodies more massive than Super-Earths, including stars and gas giants, as well as smaller gas dwarfs, transition contiguously between phases including gas and solids. As such they are regarded as lacking surfaces. Planetary surfaces and surface life are of particular interest to humans as it the primary habitat of the species, human space exploration and space colonization therefore focuses heavily on them. Humans have only directly explored the surface of the Earth and Moon, the vast distances of space and the complexities of makes direct exploration of even Near-Earth objects dangerous and expensive. As such, all other exploration has been indirect via Space probes, indirect observations by flyby or orbit currently provide insufficient information to confirm the composition and properties of planetary surfaces.
Much of what is known is from the use of such as astronomical spectroscopy. Lander spacecraft have explored the surfaces of planets Mars and Venus, Mars is the only other planet to have had its surface explored by a mobile surface probe. Titan is the only object of planetary mass to have been explored by lander. Landers have explored several smaller bodies including 433 Eros,25143 Itokawa, Tempel 1, surface conditions and terrain vary significantly due to a number of factors including Albedo often generated by the surfaces itself. Measures of surface conditions include surface area, surface gravity, surface temperature, surface stability may be affected by erosion through Aeolian processes, subduction, sediment or seismic activity. Some surfaces are dynamic while others remain unchanged for millions of years, gravity, atmospheric conditions and unknown factors make exploration is both costly and risky. This necessitates the space probes for early exploration of planetary surfaces, many probes are stationary have a limited study range and generally survive on extraterrestrial surfaces for a short period, however mobile probes have surveyed larger surface areas.
The first extraterrestrial planetary surface to be explored was the surface by Luna 2 in 1959. Venera 7 was the first landing of a probe on another planet on December 15,1970, NEAR Shoemaker was the first to soft land on an asteroid -433 Eros in February 2001 while Hayabusa was the first to return samples from 25143 Itokawa on 13 June 2010. Huygens soft landed and returned data from Titan on January 14,2005, there have been many failed attempts, more recently Fobos-Grunt, a sample return mission aimed at exploring the surface of Phobos
Outer space or just space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including Earth. The baseline temperature, as set by the radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins. In most galaxies, observations provide evidence that 90% of the mass is in a form, called dark matter. Data indicates that the majority of the mass-energy in the universe is a poorly understood vacuum energy of space which astronomers label dark energy. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the Universe, there is no firm boundary where outer space starts. However the Kármán line, at an altitude of 100 km above sea level, is used as the start of outer space in space treaties. The framework for international law was established by the Outer Space Treaty. This treaty precludes any claims of sovereignty and permits all states to freely explore outer space. Despite the drafting of UN resolutions for the uses of outer space. Humans began the exploration of space during the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights.
Earth orbit was first achieved by Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union in 1961, due to the high cost of getting into space, manned spaceflight has been limited to low Earth orbit and the Moon. Outer space represents an environment for human exploration because of the dual hazards of vacuum. Microgravity has an effect on human physiology that causes both muscle atrophy and bone loss. In addition to health and environmental issues, the economic cost of putting objects, including humans. In 350 BCE, Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that nature abhors a vacuum and this concept built upon a 5th-century BCE ontological argument by the Greek philosopher Parmenides, who denied the possible existence of a void in space. Based on this idea that a vacuum could not exist, in the West it was held for many centuries that space could not be empty. As late as the 17th century, the French philosopher René Descartes argued that the entirety of space must be filled, in ancient China, there were various schools of thought concerning the nature of the heavens, some of which bear a resemblance to the modern understanding.
In the 2nd century, astronomer Zhang Heng became convinced that space must be infinite, extending well beyond the mechanism that supported the Sun, the surviving books of the Hsüan Yeh school said that the heavens were boundless and void of substance
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current.
The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
His motor set a record which was improved only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The larger ones have been called planetoids and these terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not show the disc of a planet and was not observed to have the characteristics of an active comet. As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered and found to have volatile-based surfaces that resemble those of comets, in this article, the term asteroid refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar System including those co-orbital with Jupiter. There are millions of asteroids, many thought to be the remnants of planetesimals. The large majority of known asteroids orbit in the belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, or are co-orbital with Jupiter. However, other orbital families exist with significant populations, including the near-Earth objects, individual asteroids are classified by their characteristic spectra, with the majority falling into three main groups, C-type, M-type, and S-type.
These were named after and are identified with carbon-rich, metallic. The size of asteroids varies greatly, some reaching as much as 1000 km across, asteroids are differentiated from comets and meteoroids. In the case of comets, the difference is one of composition, while asteroids are composed of mineral and rock, comets are composed of dust. In addition, asteroids formed closer to the sun, preventing the development of the aforementioned cometary ice, the difference between asteroids and meteoroids is mainly one of size, meteoroids have a diameter of less than one meter, whereas asteroids have a diameter of greater than one meter. Finally, meteoroids can be composed of either cometary or asteroidal materials, only one asteroid,4 Vesta, which has a relatively reflective surface, is normally visible to the naked eye, and this only in very dark skies when it is favorably positioned. Rarely, small asteroids passing close to Earth may be visible to the eye for a short time. As of March 2016, the Minor Planet Center had data on more than 1.3 million objects in the inner and outer Solar System, the United Nations declared June 30 as International Asteroid Day to educate the public about asteroids.
The date of International Asteroid Day commemorates the anniversary of the Tunguska asteroid impact over Siberia, the first asteroid to be discovered, was found in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi, and was originally considered to be a new planet. In the early half of the nineteenth century, the terms asteroid. Asteroid discovery methods have improved over the past two centuries. This task required that hand-drawn sky charts be prepared for all stars in the band down to an agreed-upon limit of faintness. On subsequent nights, the sky would be charted again and any moving object would, the expected motion of the missing planet was about 30 seconds of arc per hour, readily discernible by observers
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating reference frame. When they are analyzed in a coordinate system. The term has been used for the force that is a reaction to a centripetal force. The centrifugal force is an outward force apparent in a reference frame. All measurements of position and velocity must be relative to some frame of reference. An inertial frame of reference is one that is not accelerating, the use of an inertial frame of reference, which will be the case for all elementary calculations, is often not explicitly stated but may generally be assumed unless stated otherwise. In terms of a frame of reference, the centrifugal force does not exist. All calculations can be performed using only Newtons laws of motion, in its current usage the term centrifugal force has no meaning in an inertial frame. In an inertial frame, an object that has no acting on it travels in a straight line.
When measurements are made with respect to a reference frame, however. If it is desired to apply Newtons laws in the frame, it is necessary to introduce new, fictitious. Consider a stone being whirled round on a string, in a horizontal plane, the only real force acting on the stone in the horizontal plane is the tension in the string. There are no forces acting on the stone so there is a net force on the stone in the horizontal plane. In an inertial frame of reference, were it not for this net force acting on the stone, in order to keep the stone moving in a circular path, this force, known as the centripetal force, must be continuously applied to the stone. As soon as it is removed the stone moves in a straight line, in this inertial frame, the concept of centrifugal force is not required as all motion can be properly described using only real forces and Newtons laws of motion. In a frame of reference rotating with the stone around the axis as the stone. However, the tension in the string is still acting on the stone, if Newtons laws were applied in their usual form, the stone would accelerate in the direction of the net applied force, towards the axis of rotation, which it does not do.
With this new the net force on the stone is zero, with the addition of this extra inertial or fictitious force Newtons laws can be applied in the rotating frame as if it were an inertial frame
Momentum exchange tether
A momentum exchange tether is a kind of space tether that can be used as a launch system, or to change spacecraft orbits. Momentum exchange tethers create a force on the end-masses of the system due to the psudo-force known as centrifugal force. Momentum exchange occurs when an end body is released during the rotation, the transfer of momentum to the released object will cause the rotating tether to lose energy, and thus lose velocity and altitude. However, using electrodynamic tether thrusting, or ion propulsion the system can re-boost itself with little or no expenditure of consumable reaction mass. A non-rotating tether is a tether that rotates exactly once per orbit so that it always has a vertical orientation relative to the parent body. This type of attitude control tether has a mass on one end. Tidal forces stretch the tether between the two masses, there are two ways of explaining tidal forces. In one, the upper end mass of the system is moving faster than orbital velocity for its altitude, so centrifugal force makes it want to move further away from the planet it is orbiting.
At the same time, the lower end mass of the system is moving at less than orbital speed for its altitude, the end result is that the tether is under constant tension and wants to hang in a vertical orientation. The other way to explain tidal force is that the top of an object weighs less than the bottom. The extra pull on the bottom of the object stretches it out, on Earth, these are small effects, but in space, nothing opposes them. Either way, the end result is that the tidal forces stabilize the satellite so that its long dimension points towards the planet it is orbiting, simple satellites have often been stabilized this way, either with tethers, or with how the mass is distributed within the satellite. As with any freely hanging object, it can be disturbed, a skyhook is a theoretical class of orbiting tether propulsion intended to lift payloads to high altitudes and speeds. Proposals for skyhooks include designs that employ tethers spinning at hypersonic speed for catching high speed payloads or high altitude aircraft, in a strong planetary magnetic field such as around the Earth, a conducting tether can be configured as an electrodynamic tether.
Thus the tether can be used to accelerate or to slow an orbiting spacecraft without using any rocket propellant. Whether slowing or accelerating the satellite, the electrodynamic tether pushes against the magnetic field. A Bolo, or rotating tether, is a tether that rotates more than once per orbit, the maximum speed of the endpoints is limited by the strength of the cable material and the safety factor it is designed for. The purpose of the Bolo is to speed up, or slow down
Depending on the mission objectives and altitude, spaceflight using this form of spacecraft propulsion may be significantly less expensive than spaceflight using rocket engines. Tether satellites can be used for various purposes, including research into tether propulsion, tidal stabilization, four main techniques for employing space tethers are in development, Electrodynamic tethers Electrodynamic tethers are primarily used for propulsion. These are conducting tethers that carry a current that can generate either thrust or drag from a magnetic field. Momentum exchange tethers can be used for maneuvering, or as part of a planetary-surface-to-orbit / orbit-to-escape-velocity space transportation system. Tethered formation flying This is typically a non-conductive tether that accurately maintains a set distance between multiple space vehicles flying in formation, electric sail A form of solar wind sail with electrically charged tethers that will be pushed by the momentum of solar wind ions. Universal Orbital Support System A concept for suspending an object from a tether orbiting in space, many uses for space tethers have been proposed, including deployment as space elevators, as skyhooks, and for doing propellant-free orbital transfers.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky once proposed a tower so tall that it reached into space, however, at the time, there was no realistic way to build it. This is the space elevator idea, a type of synchronous tether that would rotate with the earth, given the materials technology of the time, this too was impractical on Earth. In 1977, Hans Moravec and Robert L, in 1979, NASA examined the feasibility of the idea and gave direction to the study of tethered systems, especially tethered satellites. In this concept a suborbital vehicle would fly to the bottom end of a Skyhook, while spacecraft bound for higher orbit, or returning from higher orbit. In 2000, NASA and Boeing considered a HASTOL concept, where a rotating tether would take payloads from an aircraft to orbit. A tether satellite is a satellite connected to another by a space tether, a number of satellites have been launched test tether technologies, with varying degrees of success. There are many different types of tether, momentum Exchange Tethers are one of many applications for space tethers.
Momentum Exchange Tethers come in two types and non-rotating, a rotating tether will create a controlled force on the end-masses of the system due to centrifugal acceleration. Momentum exchange occurs when an end body is released during the rotation, the transfer of momentum to the released object will cause the rotating tether to lose energy, and thus lose velocity and altitude. However, using electrodynamic tether thrusting, or ion propulsion the system can re-boost itself with little or no expenditure of consumable reaction mass, a skyhook is a theoretical class of orbiting tether propulsion intended to lift payloads to high altitudes and speeds. Proposals for skyhooks include designs that employ tethers spinning at hypersonic speed for catching high speed payloads or high altitude aircraft, electric potential is generated across a conductive tether by its motion through the earths magnetic field. The choice of the conductor to be used in an electrodynamic tether is determined by a variety of factors
Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics and other fields of materials science and technology. Owing to the exceptional strength and stiffness, nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000,1. In addition, owing to their thermal conductivity, mechanical. For instance, nanotubes form a portion of the material in some baseball bats, golf clubs. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family and their name is derived from their long, hollow structure with the walls formed by one-atom-thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes and multi-walled nanotubes, individual nanotubes naturally align themselves into ropes held together by van der Waals forces, more specifically, pi-stacking. Applied quantum chemistry, orbital hybridization best describes chemical bonding in nanotubes, the chemical bonding of nanotubes is composed entirely of sp2 bonds, similar to those of graphite.
These bonds, which are stronger than the sp3 bonds found in alkanes and diamond, most single-walled nanotubes have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer, and can be many millions of times longer. The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder, the way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices. The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the crystal lattice of graphene. If m =0, the nanotubes are called zigzag nanotubes, and if n = m, the diameter of an ideal nanotube can be calculated from its indices as follows d = a π =78.3 p m, where a =0.246 nm. SWNTs are an important variety of carbon nanotube because most of their properties change significantly with the values, in particular, their band gap can vary from zero to about 2 eV and their electrical conductivity can show metallic or semiconducting behavior. Single-walled nanotubes are likely candidates for miniaturizing electronics, the most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire, and SWNTs with diameters of an order of a nanometer can be excellent conductors.
One useful application of SWNTs is in the development of the first intermolecular field-effect transistors, the first intermolecular logic gate using SWCNT FETs was made in 2001. A logic gate requires both a p-FET and an n-FET, because SWNTs are p-FETs when exposed to oxygen and n-FETs otherwise, it is possible to expose half of an SWNT to oxygen and protect the other half from it. The resulting SWNT acts as a not logic gate with both p and n-type FETs in the same molecule, prices for single-walled nanotubes declined from around $1500 per gram as of 2000 to retail prices of around $50 per gram of as-produced 40–60% by weight SWNTs as of March 2010. As of 2016 the retail price of as-produced 75% by weight SWNTs were $2 per gram, SWNTs are forecast to make a large impact in electronics applications by 2020 according to the The Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes report
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places, the device uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. The first known construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were powered by men or beasts of burden and these cranes were used for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were developed, employing the use of human treadwheels, in the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction – some were built into stone towers for extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes were constructed from wood, but cast iron, for many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power.
The first mechanical power was provided by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms – each tailored to a specific use. Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, mini-cranes are used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to oil rigs. Some lifting machines do not strictly fit the definition of a crane. The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the Ancient Greeks in the late 6th century BC, the archaeological record shows that no than c.515 BC distinctive cuttings for both lifting tongs and lewis irons begin to appear on stone blocks of Greek temples. The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon lead to a replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion. Also, the practice of erecting large monolithic columns was abandoned in favour of using several column drums.
The first unequivocal evidence for the existence of the compound pulley system appears in the Mechanical Problems attributed to Aristotle. The heyday of the crane in ancient times came during the Roman Empire, the Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. We are relatively well informed about their techniques, thanks to rather lengthy accounts by the engineers Vitruvius. There are two surviving reliefs of Roman treadwheel cranes, with the Haterii tombstone from the late first century AD being particularly detailed, the simplest Roman crane, the trispastos, consisted of a single-beam jib, a winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Heavier crane types featured five pulleys or, in case of the largest one, the polyspastos, when worked by four men at both sides of the winch, could readily lift 3,000 kg. At the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, for instance, the blocks weigh up to 60 tons each
Earth, otherwise known as the World, or the Globe, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets, according to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earths gravity interacts with objects in space, especially the Sun. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis over 365 times, Earths axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planets surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earths orientation on its axis, Earths lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earths surface is covered with water, mostly by its oceans, the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earths polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet, Earths interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earths magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earths history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earths atmosphere and surface, some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earths distance from the Sun, physical properties, in the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely, over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures, the world has about 200 sovereign states, the modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe.
It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō, earth was written in lowercase, and from early Middle English, its definite sense as the globe was expressed as the earth. By early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the became the Earth. More recently, the name is simply given as Earth. House styles now vary, Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, another convention capitalizes Earth when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as what on earth are you doing, the oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. 5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4. 54±0.04 Gya the primordial Earth had formed, the formation and evolution of Solar System bodies occurred along with the Sun