Princess Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was a princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, the sister of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and King Leopold I of Belgium, aunt of Queen Victoria. By marriage, she was a Countess of Mensdorff-Pouilly, she was born in Coburg, the eldest child of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf. Sophie had a close relationship with her sister Antoinette and both attended the Schloss Fantaisie, a sanctuary of French emigrants, it was there where she met Emmanuel von Mensdorff-Pouilly. They married on 23 February 1804 in Coburg, her husband was elevated to count in 1818. In 1806, her husband was in a secondary residence of the Coburg court. Therefore, it was possible for him to have participated in the Battle of Saalfeld, he retrieved the remains of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia from the battlefield and protected the residence of Sophie's father and family against the arrogance of the victorious French troops. From 1824 to 1834 Sophie lived in Mainz.
She was active as a writer and in 1830 published her romantic collection of fairy tales, Mährchen und Erzählungen. She received the Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Catherine. Sophie died in Bohemia, she was buried in the park of Schloss Preitenstein, the family residence of the Mensdorff-Pouilly family. Emmanuel and Sophie had six sons: Hugo Ferdinand von Mensdorff-Pouilly Alphons, Count von Mensdorff-Pouilly.
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, was a German princess and the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. As the widow of Charles, Prince of Leiningen, from 1814 she served as regent of the Principality during the minority of her son from her first marriage, until her second wedding in 1818 to Prince Edward, son of King George III of the United Kingdom. Victoria was born in Coburg on 17 August 1786 in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, she was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf. One of her brothers was Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, another brother, Leopold future king of the Belgians, married, in 1816, Princess Charlotte of Wales, the only legitimate daughter of the future King George IV, heiress presumptive to the British throne. On 21 December 1803 at Coburg, a young Victoria married Charles, Prince of Leiningen, whose first wife, Henrietta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, had been her aunt.
The couple had two children, Prince Carl, born on 12 September 1804, Princess Feodora of Leiningen, born on 7 December 1807. Through her first marriage, she is a direct matrilineal ancestor to various members of royalty in Europe, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece. After the death of her first spouse, she served as regent of the Principality of Leiningen during the minority of their son, Carl; the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte of Wales, the wife of Victoria's brother Leopold, prompted a succession crisis. With Parliament offering them a financial incentive, three of Charlotte's uncles, sons of George III, were prepared to marry. One of them, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn proposed to Victoria and she accepted; the couple were married on 29 May 1818 at Amorbach and on 11 July 1818 at Kew, a joint ceremony at which Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence King William IV, married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. Shortly after their marriage, the Kents moved to Germany.
Soon after, Victoria became pregnant, the Duke and Duchess, determined to have their child born in England, raced back. Arriving at Dover on 23 April 1819, they moved into Kensington Palace, where Victoria gave birth to a daughter on 24 May 1819, Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent Queen Victoria. An efficient organiser, Sir John Conroy's planning ensured the Kents' speedy return to England in time for the birth of their first child; the Duke of Kent died of pneumonia in January 1820, six days before his father, King George III. His widow the Duchess had little cause to remain in the United Kingdom, since she did not speak the language and had a palace at home in Coburg where she could live cheaply on the revenues of her first husband. However, the British succession at this time was far from assured – of the three brothers older than Edward, the new king, George IV, the Duke of York were both estranged from their wives, who were in any case past childbearing age; the third brother, the Duke of Clarence, had yet to produce any surviving children with his wife.
The Duchess of Kent decided that she would do better by gambling on her daughter's accession than by living in Coburg and, having inherited her second husband's debts, sought support from the British government. After the death of Edward and his father, the young Princess Victoria was still only third in line for the throne, Parliament was not inclined to support yet more impoverished royalty; the provision made for the Duchess of Kent was mean: she resided in a suite of rooms in the dilapidated Kensington Palace, along with several other impoverished members of the royal family, received little financial support from the Civil List, since Parliament had vivid memories of the late Duke's extravagance. In practice, a main source of support for her was her brother, Leopold; the latter had a huge income of fifty thousand pounds per annum for life, representing an annuity allotted to him by the British Parliament on his marriage to Princess Charlotte, which had made him seem to become in due course the consort of the monarch.
After Charlotte's death, Leopold's annuity was not revoked by Parliament. In 1831, with George IV dead and the new king, William IV, over 60 and still without legitimate issue, the young princess's status as heir presumptive and the Duchess's prospective place as regent led to major increases in British state income for the Kents. A contributing factor was Leopold's designation as King of the Belgians, upon which he surrendered his British income. Together in a hostile environment, John Conroy's relationship with the Duchess was close, with him serving as her comptroller and private secretary for the next nineteen years, as well as holding the unofficial roles of public relations officer, counsellor and political agent. While it is not clear which of the two was more responsible for devising the Kensington System, it was created to govern young Victoria's upbringing; the intention was for the Duchess to be appointed regent upon Victoria's ascension and for Conroy to be created Victoria's private secretary and given a peerage.
The Duchess and Conroy continued to be unpopular with the royal family and, in 1829, the Duke of Cumberland spread rumours that they were lovers in an attempt to discredit them. The Duke of Clarence referred to Conroy as "King John", while the Duchess of Clarence wrote to the Duchess of Kent to advise that she was isolating herself from the royal family and that she must not grant Conroy too much power; the Duchess of Kent was protective, raised Victoria la
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'; the ROC, as well as the primate thereof ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019; the Christianization of Kievan Rus' seen as the birth of the ROC, is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate until 1686.
The ROC claims its exclusive jurisdiction over the Orthodox Christians, irrespective of their ethnic background, who reside in the former member republics of the Soviet Union, excluding Georgia and Armenia, although this claim is disputed in such countries as Estonia and Ukraine and parallel canonical Orthodox jurisdictions exist in those: the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, the Metropolis of Bessarabia, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, respectively. It exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the autonomous Church of Japan and the Orthodox Christians resident in the People's Republic of China; the ROC branches in Belarus, Latvia and Ukraine since the 1990s enjoy various degrees of self-government, albeit short of the status of formal ecclesiastical autonomy. The ROC should not be confused with the Orthodox Church in America, another autocephalous Orthodox church, that traces its existence in North America to the time of the Russian missionaries in Alaska in the late 18th century; the ROC should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, headquartered in the United States.
The ROCOR was instituted in the 1920s by Russian communities outside Communist Russia, which refused to recognize the authority of the Moscow Patriarchate de facto headed by Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky. The two churches reconciled on May 17, 2007; the Christian community that developed into what is now known as the Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city; the spot where he erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 863–69, the Byzantine monks Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, both from the region of Macedonia in the Eastern Roman Empire translated parts of the Bible into the Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs and Slavicized peoples of Eastern Europe, the Balkans and Southern Russia.
There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, c. 866–867. By the mid-10th century, there was a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Bulgarian and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′, born a Christian, her grandson, Vladimir of Kiev, made Rus' a Christian state. The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' is believed to have occurred in 988 AD, when Prince Vladimir was baptised himself and ordered his people to be baptised by the priests from the Eastern Roman Empire; the Kievan church was a junior metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Ecumenical Patriarch appointed the metropolitan, a Greek, who governed the Church of Rus'. The Kiev Metropolitan's residence was located in Kiev itself, the capital of the medieval Rus' state; as Kiev was losing its political and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in 1299.
Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were tolerant and granted tax exemption to the church; such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Mongol rule, to expand both economically and spiritually. The Trinity monastery founded by Sergius of Radonezh became the setting for the flourishing of spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others; the followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus extending the geographical extent of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1439, at t
Emmanuel von Mensdorff-Pouilly
Emmanuel, count of Mensdorff-Pouilly was an army officer in the Imperial and Royal Army of the Austrian Empire, vice-governor of Mainz. The Mensdorff-Pouilly family originated from the barony of Pouilly in Stenay on the river Meuse in Lorraine. Albert-Louis, Baron de Pouilly et de Chaffour, Comte de Roussy and his wife Marie Antoinette emigrated together with their children during the French revolution, their sons and Emmanuel, took the name Mensdorff from a community in the county of Roussy, Luxembourg. The brothers entered military service against revolutionary and Napoleonic France, Albert was killed in battle. At the start of the War of the Fifth Coalition Emmanuel held the rank of major. On 13 April 1809 he was wounded while leading a company of the 8th Jäger in action near Amberg. By 23 April he had recovered enough to partake in the cavalry battles at the start of the Battle of Ratisbon, he was decorated with the Military Order of Maria Theresa for his services in the war. In 1810 he was given command of the Galician regiment of ulans „Erzherzog Carl“ Nr. 3.
Serving as a commander of a cavalry brigade in Bohemia, Mensdorff-Pouilly became commander of the Fortress of Mainz. From 1829 to 1834 Mensdorff-Pouilly served as vice-governor of Mainz. After again having served in Bohemia, in 1840 Mensdorff-Pouilly became vice-president of the Hofkriegsrat. In 1848 he retired from the army with the rank of feldmarschallleutnant. During the Revolution of 1848 Mensdorff-Pouilly was sent as a commissioner to Prague, where he tried in vain to impress on the Prince of Windisch-Grätz the necessity to avoid bloodshed. Emmanuel von Mensdorff-Pouilly married Princess Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, the daughter of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, on 22 February 1804 at Coburg. Through this marriage he was the brother-in-law of King Leopold I of Belgium and the uncle of both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of the United Kingdom, of King Ferdinand II of Portugal. Emmanuel and Sophie had six sons: Hugo Ferdinand Alphons, Count von Mensdorff-Pouilly, ∞ 1. 1843 Countess Therese von Dietrichstein-Proskau-Leslie, ∞ 2.
1862 Countess Maria Thersia von Lamberg. Alfred Carl. Alexander, Fürst von Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg 1868, was Austrian Foreign Minister and Prime Minister of Austria in the 1860s, ∞ 1857 Countess Alexandrine Maria von Dietrichstein-Proskau-Leslie Leopold Emanuel Arthur August, ∞ 1. 1853, Div. 1882 Magdalene Kremzow, ∞ 2. 1902 Countess Bianca Albertina von Wickenburg Emmanuel was created Count of Mensdorff-Pouilly in Vienna on 29 November 1818. In 1838, Emmanuel purchased Schloss Preitenstein in the Plzeň Region of Bohemia, which remained the property of the Mensdorff-Pouilly family until 1945. Eddie de Tassigny: Les Mensdorff-Pouilly. Le destin d'une famille émigrée en 1790. Paris: Le Bois d’Hélène, 1998
Artemisia II of Caria
Artemisia II of Caria was a naval strategist and the sister and the successor of Mausolus, ruler of Caria. Mausolus was a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire, yet enjoyed the status of king or dynast of the Hecatomnid dynasty. After the death of her brother/husband, Artemisia reigned for two years, from 353 to 351 BC, her ascension to the throne prompted a revolt in some of the island and coastal cities under her command due to their objection to a female ruler. Her administration was conducted on the same principles as that of her husband; because of Artemisia's grief for her brother-husband, the extravagant and bizarre forms it took, she became to ages "a lasting example of chaste widowhood and of the purest and rarest kind of love", in the words of Giovanni Boccaccio. In art, she was shown in the process of consuming his ashes, mixed in a drink. Another Artemisia is well-known, Artemisia I of Caria, satrap of Caria and ally of Xerxes I about 150 years earlier in the early 5th century BCE. Artemisia is renowned in history for her extraordinary grief at the death of her husband Mausolus.
She is said to have mixed his ashes in her daily drink, to have pined away during the two years that she survived him. She induced the most eminent Greek rhetoricians to proclaim his praise in their oratory. Artemisia is known for commanding a fleet and played a role in the military-political affairs of the Aegean after the decline in the Athenian naval superiority; the island republic of Rhodes objected to the fact. Rhodes sent a fleet against Artemisia without knowing that her deceased husband had built a secret harbour. Artemisia hid ships rowers, marines and allowed the Rhodians to enter the main harbour. Artemisia and her citizens invited them into the city; when the Rhodians began exiting their ships, Artemisia sailed her fleet through an outlet in the sea and into the main harbour. She captured empty Rhodian ships, the Rhodian men who disembarked were killed in the marketplace. Artemisia put her men on the Rhodian ships and had them sail back to Rhodes; the men were welcomed in the Rhodian harbour and they took over Rhodes.
Polyaenus, in the eighth book of his work Stratagems, mentions that when Artemisia wanted to conquer Latmus, she placed soldiers in ambush near the city and she, with women and musicians, celebrated a sacrifice at the grove of the Mother of the Gods, about seven stades distant from the city. When the inhabitants of Latmus came out to see the magnificent procession, the soldiers entered the city and took possession of it. Another celebrated monument was erected by Artemisia in Rhodes to commemorate her conquest of the island; the Rhodians, after regaining their liberty, made it inaccessible, whence it was called in times the Abaton. Artemisia drinking her husband's ashes was a subject in painting from the Renaissance onwards enjoying a vogue in Dutch Golden Age painting around the middle of the 17th century, being painted by Rembrandt among others; this was stimulated by the publication in 1614 of a Dutch translation of the collection of anecdotes of Valerius Maximus, active in the reign of Tiberius.
Rembrandt for one can be shown to have used this book. Artemisia is always shown with a cup or urn, either alone or with a group of attendants offering or helping to mix the drink; the subject is therefore similar to Sophonisba taking poison, the Rembrandt, a Donato Creti in the National Gallery, are examples of works where the intended subject remains uncertain between the two. Artemisia received a full and friendly biography in the De mulieribus claris, a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccaccio, written by 1374. Boccaccio omits reference to her husband being her brother, praised her: "to posterity she is a lasting example of chaste widowhood and of the purest and rarest kind of love". According to Pliny, the plant genus Artemisia was named after Queen Artemisia II of Caria, a botanist and medical researcher; the anti-malarial drug Artemisinin, extracted from the plant variety Artemisia annua, is derived from the name of Queen Artemisia II of Caria.
Mulieres quoque hanc gloriam adfectavere, in quibus Artemisia uxor Mausoli adoptata herba, quae antea parthenis vocabatur. "Women too have been ambitious to gain this distinction, among them Artemisia, the wife of Mausolus, who gave her name to a plant which before was called parthenis." Smith, William. "Artemisia II". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Artemisia by Jona Lendering
Perpetual Diet of Regensburg
The Perpetual Diet of Regensburg or the Eternal Diet of Regensburg was a session of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire that sat continuously from 1663 to 1806 in Regensburg in present-day Germany. The Diet had convened in different cities but, beginning in 1594, it met only in the town hall in Regensburg. On 20 January 1663, the Diet convened to deal with threats from the Ottoman Empire. Since the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the Holy Roman Emperor had been formally bound to accept all decisions made by the Diet. Hence, out of fear that the Emperor would disregard the Diet's role by not calling sessions, it never dissolved and became a perpetual diet. Therefore, no final report of its decisions, known as a Recess, could be issued, that of the preceding diet, issued in 1654, was dubbed the Youngest Recess. From 1663 until the 1684 Truce of Ratisbon, the diet developed into a permanent body. In addition to envoys who represented the Imperial Estates in the Diet, Regensburg had around 70 representatives from foreign states.
The Emperor was represented by a Principal Commissioner, a position that accrued to the Thurn und Taxis family from 1748. In its early years, the Perpetual Diet was a tool for consolidation of Habsburg power in the empire. However, by the middle of the 18th century, it was "dysfunctional" and a "mere congress of diplomats" that produced "no important legislation in political and constitutional matters"; the weak institution has been called "a bladeless knife without a handle", during the Diet's existence, the Empire became nothing more than a collection of independent states. The last action of the Diet, on 25 March 1803, was the passage of the German Mediatisation, which reorganized and secularized the Empire. Following the approval of that final constitutional document, the Diet never met again and its existence ended with the fall of the Empire in 1806. List of Reichstag participants Aschoff, Hans-Georg. "Der "Immerwährender Reichstag"". Includes pictures and diagrams of the Perpetual Diet