A country dance is any of a large number of social dances of a type that originated in the British Isles. The figures involve interaction with your partner and/or with other dancers with a progression so that you dance with everyone in your set, it is common in modern times to have a "caller" who teaches the dance and calls the figures as you dance. Country dances are done in many different styles; as a musical form written in 2/4 or 6/8 time, the contredanse was used by Mozart. Introduced to South America by French immigrants, Country Dance had great influence upon Latin American music as contradanza; the Anglais or Angloise is another term for the English country dance. A Scottish country dance may be termed an Ecossaise. Irish set dance is related. A set is a formation of dancers; the most common formations are longways for as many as will, i.e. couples in long lines, squares, consisting of four couples. The longways formation occurs in over 12,000 modern contra dances. In 2003, Burleson's Square Dancer's Encyclopedia listed 5125 figures.
Circles and fixed-length longways sets are very common, but the possible formations are limited only by the imagination of the choreographer. Thomas Wilson, in 1808, wrote, "A Country Dance is composed of an indefinite number of persons, not less than six, but as many more as chuse, but six are sufficient to perform any figure in the treatise." Wilson was writing about his own period. In fact, there are numerous dances for two couples, quite a few for three or five dancers. A figure is a pattern that the dancers trace along the floor, simple ones such as Circle Left are intuitive and can be danced with no prior knowledge, while complex moves such as Strip the willow need to be taught; the stepping and style of dancing varies by period. Wilson, in 1820, wrote, "Country Dance Figures are certain Movements or Directions formed in Circular, Half Circular, Angular, Straight Lines, etc. etc. drawn out into different Lengths, adapted to the various Strains of Country Dance Music.". Again, the possible figures are limited only by the imagination of the choreographer.
Examples of some of the figures are provided in the Glossary of country dance terms. The music most associated with country dancing is folk/country/traditional/historical music, however modern bands are experimenting with countless other genres. While some dances may have originated on village greens, the vast majority were, still are, written by Dancing Masters and choreographers; each dance consists of a series of figures smoothly linked together, designed to fit to the chosen music. The most common form of music is 32 bar jigs or reels, but any music suitable for dancing can be used. In most dances the dancers will progress to a new position so that the next time through the music they are dancing with different people. While English Folk Dance Clubs embrace all types of country dance, American English Country Dance groups tend to exclude modern contra dances and square dances. Country dancing is intended for general participation, unlike folk dances such as clogging, which are concert dances, ballroom dances in which dancers dance with their partners independently of others.
Bright and simple, country dances had appeal as a refreshing finale to an evening of stately dances such as the minuet. The term contra dance is just another name for a country dance. Howe, in 1858, wrote, "The term "Country Dance" is the one invariably used in all books on dancing that have been published in England during the last three centuries, while all works issued in France within the same period employ the term Contra Dance, or in French "Contre Danse"; as the authority is good in both cases, either term is therefore correct. The Country or Contra Dance has been one of the most popular amusements in the British Isles and other continental countries from time immemorial". However, "contra dance" is most used today to refer to a specific American genre called contra dance. Country dances began to influence courtly dance in the 15th century and became popular at the court of Elizabeth I of England. Many references to country dancing and titles shared with known 17th-century dances appear from this time, though few of these can be shown to refer to English country dance.
While some early features resemble the morris dance and other early styles, the influence of the courtly dances of Continental Europe those of Renaissance Italy, may be seen, it is probable that English country dance was affected by these at an early date. Little is known of these dances before the mid-17th century. John Playford's The English Dancing Master listed over a hundred tunes, each with its own figures; this was enormously popular, reprinted for 80 years and much enlarged. Playford and his successors had a practical monopoly on the publication of dance manuals until 1711, ceased publishing around 1728. During this period English country dances took a variety of forms including finite sets for two and four couples as well as circles and squares; the country dance was introduced to the court of Louis XIV of France, where it became known as contredanse, to Germany and Italy. André Lorin, who visited the English court in the late 17th century, presented a manuscript of dances in the English manner to Louis XIV on his return to France.
Roomba is a series of autonomous robotic vacuum cleaners sold by iRobot. Introduced in September 2002, Roomba features a set of sensors that enable it to navigate the floor area of a home and clean it. For instance, Roomba's sensors can detect the presence of obstacles, detect dirty spots on the floor, sense steep drops to keep it from falling down stairs. Roomba uses two independently operating side wheels. A rotating, 3-pronged spinner brush can sweep debris from square corners to the cleaning head; the Roomba units have a range of model sizes with the 400 to 900 series, which provide several different features, such as tangle-free brushes, separate sweep canister, a more powerful vacuum, obstacle avoidance, or performance maps displayed via a smartphone app. However, some parts of the Roomba models are interchangeable between related models, allowing a mix/match of features, or switching into other units for longer battery operation; the 900 series Roombas feature a camera, which works in conjunction with onboard mapping, indoor positioning system and navigation software, to systematically cover all floor area, move from room to room and find recharging bases and beacons.
Additionally, some Roomba units can adapt to perform other, more creative tasks, using an embedded computer in conjunction with the Roomba Open Interface. Most Roomba models are disc-shaped, less than 9 cm high. A large contact-sensing mechanical bumper is mounted on the front half of the unit, with an omnidirectional infrared sensor at its top front center. A recessed carrying handle; as of 2016, there have been seven generations of Roomba units: The first-generation Original Series, the second-generation 400 and Discovery Series, the third-generation Professional and 500 Series, the fourth-generation 600 Series, the fifth-generation 700 Series, the sixth-generation 800 Series, the seventh-generation 980 model. All models have a pair of brushes, rotating in opposite directions, to pick up debris from the floor. In most models, the brushes are followed by a squeegee vacuum, which directs the airflow through a narrow slit to increase its speed in order to collect fine dust. A horizontally mounted "side spinner" brush on the right side of the unit sweeps against walls to reach debris not accessible by the main brushes and vacuum.
In the first generation of robots, the dirty air passes through the fan before reaching the filter, while models use a fan-bypass vacuum. The Roomba is powered by a removable NiMH battery, which must be recharged from a wall power adapter. Newer second- and third-generation models have a self-charging homebase that the unit seeks out at the end of a cleaning session via infrared beacons. Charging on the homebase takes about three hours. Four infrared "cliff sensors" on the bottom of the Roomba prevent it from falling off ledges such as stairways or entering black carpet areas. Most second- and third-generation models have internal acoustic-based dirt sensors that allow them to detect dirty spots and focus on those areas accordingly. Fourth-generation models have an optical sensor located in front of the vacuum bin, allowing detection of wider and smaller messes. Many second- and third-generation Roombas come packaged with infrared remote controls, allowing a human operator to "drive" the robot to areas to be specially cleaned.
Some higher-end 500, 700 and 800 series robots are compatible with Virtual Wall Lighthouses, which use radio signals to communicate. These more advanced accessories confine a Roomba to a fixed area to be cleaned, yet allow the robot to proceed to the next space which needs to be cleaned. There are several types of debris collection bins for the 500 series robots; the standard vacuum bin incorporates a squeegee vacuum. The high-capacity sweeper bin has greater debris capacity; the Aerovac Bin directs suction airflow through the main brushes instead of using a squeegee, thought to keep the brushes cleaner. All Roomba models can be operated by manually carrying them to the room to be cleaned and pressing a button. Models introduced several additional operating modes. "Clean" mode is the normal cleaning program, starting in a spiral and following a wall, until the room is determined to be clean. "Spot" mode cleans a small area using an outward-then-inward spiral. "Max" mode runs the standard cleaning algorithm.
"Dock" mode, introduced with the third generation, instructs the robot to seek a charging base for recharging. The availability of the modes varies by model; the robot's bumper allows it to sense when it has bumped into an obstacle, after which it will reverse or change paths. The third- and fourth-generations, which move faster than previous models, have additional forward-looking infrared sensors to detect obstacles; these slow down the robot when to reduce its force of impact. This technology is able to distinguish between hard and soft obstacles. After enough time cleaning or as the battery runs down, the Roomba will either search for and dock with the base, or stop where it is; the cleaning time depends on room size and, volume of dirt. First-generation models must be told the room size, while second- and third-generation models estimate room size by measuring the longest straight-line run they can perform without bumping into an object; when finished cleaning, or when the battery is nearly depleted, a second- or third-generation Roomba will try to return to a base if one is detected.
A second-generation Roomba may be used with a scheduler accessory, allowing cleaning to start at the time of day and on days of the week that the owner desires. Most 500 Series robots suppo
Radomir Radović was a civil engineering technician and trade unionist who advocated creating an independent trade union in SFR Yugoslavia. He was among 28 members of Milovan Đilas's Open University arrested on 20 April 1984, he was found dead several days on 30 April, under unsolved circumstances. He graduated from a vocational technical high school, he soon became involved in trade union activism. He helped to organize a petition, circulated by the workers of the Belgrade engineering enterprise Minela, demanding the replacement and punishment of one of the directors, Radoje Stefanović, for misappropriation and theft. An investigation was started but soon dropped, the signatories being informed that Stefanović had been appointed to head the executive of the Belgrade City Council. Radović was sacked, he found a job at Hidrotehnika, where he was involved in a workers' petition against Mikaina Savić, a judge in the Court of Associated Labor. The petition led the city's new top executive moved in to protect her.
In November 1982. Radović wrote to the Ninth Congress of the Union of Syndicates criticizing the system and suggesting measures to stop the financial crisis, he requested that the trade union be free from government control and a free association of workers, the right to strike, punishment for those governing structures and individuals who contributed to the crisis. He requested, he advocated for the freedom of a public dialog on all burning issues. Radović requested that the Congress condemn the juntas in Turkey and Poland; the ruling party connected it to support for Lech Wałęsa. He was arrested on 20 April 1984 together with the 28 members of the Open University led by Milovan Đilas. During the night between the 20th and the 21st, Radović was interrogated by Ranko Savić, the brother of Mikaina Savić, he was released on the 21st, arrested again on the 22nd only to be released on the 23rd. He was found dead in his weekend house in the village of Orašac near Obrenovac on 30 April 1984. Nineteen intellectuals, including Dobrica Ćosić, Mića Popović and Mihailo Marković, sent a letter regarding Radović's death to the State Secretary for Internal Affairs Stane Dolanc on 6 May 1984, demanding an inquiry into the death of Radomir Radović.
The letter was published in the Index on Censorship magazine on 1 August 1984. This was the first petition in postwar Yugoslavia calling on the Interior Minister to account for an unexplained death or accept responsibility for it and resign from office; the ruling party stated. Belgrade Six Kljajić Imširović, Jelka. Nerasvetljena smrt sindikaliste, Republika, 2002