Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy
Amadeus IV was Count of Savoy from 1233 to 1253. Amadeus was born in Montmélian, the legitimate heir of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva, he had however to fight with his brothers for the inheritance of Savoy lands after their fathers death. Together with his brother, Thomas, he fought against the communes of Turin and Pinerolo and he was succeeded by his young son Boniface. As the eldest son of Thomas I of Savoy, Amadeus inherited the County, his brothers Peter and Aymon demanded that he divide the territories and give them their share. In July 1234, he and his brother William convened a meeting at Château de Chillon. While both sides arrived with armed troops, William was able to negotiate a treaty between the brothers and this treaty kept the lands intact, but recognized the authority of the younger brothers within certain regions under Amadeus. These territories were on the frontiers of Savoy lands, designed to encourage the brothers to expand the county rather than diminish it, when his brother Thomas left his career in the church in 1235, Amadeus granted him similar territories.
Before he had a son, Amadeus changed his mind many times regarding his will, initially, he had made his sons-in-law his heirs, but in 1235, he rewrote his will in favour of his brother Thomas. In December of that year, it went back to having his sons-in-law as heirs, he rewrote the will in favour of Thomas. In March 1239, his daughters convinced him to return it to their favour, on 4 November 1240, Thomas returned and persuaded him to rewrite the will in his brothers favour again. When Thomas left, once again the will was reversed and his final will was written in 1252, leaving the title and nearly everything to his son and naming his brother Thomas as regent and second in line for the title. Amadeus faced many challenges in balancing the demands of the powers in Europe at that time. Then with his brothers, he led troops as part of the siege of Brescia, in July 1243, Amadeus and his brother Thomas were ordered by Enzo of Sardinia to join him in a siege of Vercelli, which had recently switched allegiances from the Empire to the Pope.
Not only was the attack on the city unsuccessful, but Amadeus, when the brothers wrote to the new Pope Innocent IV to appeal the excommunication, he granted their request. However, Amadeus was willing to open the same passes to the imperial army and he signed a treaty with Henry III on 16 January 1246 which gave rights of passage through the passes to the English in exchange for an annual payment of 200 marks. He had gathered his army in Turin, and ordered those still loyal to him in the kingdoms of Arles, the revolt of Parma pulled Frederick back from this plan. That same summer, Amadeus blocked an attempt by the Pope to send 1500 soldiers to the Lombard League, on 8 November 1248, Frederick asked Amadeus and his brother Thomas to go to Lyon and start negotiations for peace. However, their efforts were unsuccessful and war continued until the death of Frederick and he married twice, and each marriage produced children c
Peter II, Count of Savoy
Peter II, called the Little Charlemagne, held the Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire from April 1240 until his death and was Count of Savoy from 1263 until his death. He built the Savoy Palace in London, Peter was the seventh of nine sons of Thomas I of Savoy and Marguerite of Geneva, and the uncle of Eleanor of Provence, queen-consort of Henry III of England. He was born in Suze in the French County of Albon, at that point, Peter had already been growing restless with church life. Upon the death of his father, Peter demanded substantial portions of the County from his eldest brother Amadeus, the brothers all got together in 1234 at Chillon, where they negotiated a settlement which recognized Amadeus as the head of the house. From this, Peter received control of key castles which helped him to expand his control in the area of Geneva. His brother William negotiated a marriage for him with Agnes of Faucigny and his desire to further extend his territory led him into conflict with his uncle, William II of Geneva.
Around 1236, Peter was ambushed and captured by his cousin Rudolf, when the resulting conflict was concluded in 1237, Amadeus forced William to sign a treaty which required Geneva to pay 20,000 marks and the castle of Arlod. He continued to use money and force to take further control of lands surrounding Savoy. On 29 May 1244 Cossonay similarly surrendered significant territories to Peter and Amadeus and he continued to gain control of key towns and trade routes throughout the Pays de Vaud, often by enfeofing them to the younger sons of the previous rulers. He was responsible for the significant renovations of the Château de Chillon, one scholar suggests that French is the language of western Switzerland due partly to Peters extensive conquests in the region. In January 1236, Eleanor of Provence, Peters niece, married King Henry III, in February 1246 he was granted land between the Strand and the Thames, where Peter built the Savoy Palace in 1263, on the site of the present Savoy Hotel. It was destroyed during the Peasants Revolt of 1381, by his will, the Honour of Richmond was left to his niece queen Eleanor, who transferred it to the crown.
In 1241, Henry sent Peter to gather support for an invasion of Poitou. He travelled to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, Theobald I of Navarre, his brother Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy, in February 1242, Peter was sent into Poitou to see what support existed there for Henry. He was nearly captured there, but managed to escape and he travelled to Provence to negotiate the marriage of his niece Sanchia of Provence to Henrys brother Richard. In 1246, Peter went back to Savoy, in part to seal a deal with Amadeus. In February 1247, he returned to England with Alice of Saluzzo and she was married to Edmund de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract that May. Boston, on the river Witham, had many years become an important port for Lincoln
Boniface, Count of Savoy
Boniface was Count of Savoy from 1253 to 1263, succeeding his father Amadeus IV. He never married and thus no heir. Since he became Count of Savoy at the age of nine, the uncles were, however granted compensation in return, receiving more properties within the County. When Thomas died in 1259, Cecile continued as regent in Savoy, under her regency and Peter continued their previous work of expanding the control and influence of the County of Savoy. Bonifaces campaigns in Flanders and Piedmont were not successful, in September 1262, Rudolf of Geneva offered homage to cousin Boniface after yet another round of the war between Peter and their kin in Geneva. In 1263, Boniface was mortally wounded in battle and died, la Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge
Adelaide of Susa
Adelaide of Susa or Adelaide of Turin was the Marchioness of Turin from 1034 to her death. She was the last of the Arduinici, born in Turin to Ulric Manfred II and Bertha around 1014/1020, Adelaides early life is not well known. Adelaide had two sisters and Bertha. She may have had a brother, whose name is not known, thus, on Ulric Manfreds death, the great margraviate was divided between his three daughters, though the greatest part by far went to Adelaide. She received the property in the counties of Turin, especially in the Susa Valley, Adelaide inherited property, but probably not comital authority, in Albenga, Alba and Ventimiglia. It is likely that Adelaides mother, briefly acted as regent for Adelaide after Ulric Manfreds death, since the margravial title primarily had a military purpose at the time, it was thus was not considered suitable for a woman. Emperor Conrad II therefore arranged a marriage between Adelaide and his stepson, Herman IV, in January 1037, Herman was invested as margrave of Turin.
Herman died of the plague while fighting for Conrad II at Naples in July 1038, Adelaide remarried in order to secure her vast march. Probably in 1041, and certainly before 19 January 1042, Adelaide married Henry, Henry died c.1045 and left Adelaide a widow for the second time. Immediately, a marriage was undertaken, this time to Otto of Savoy. With Otto she had three sons, Peter I, Amadeus II, and Otto, the couple had two daughters, who married Henry IV of Germany, and Adelaide, who married Rudolf of Rheinfelden. After the death of her husband Otto, c. 1057/60, Adelaide ruled the march of Turin and it is sometimes said that Adelaide abandoned Turin as a capital and began to reside permanently at Susa. Adelaide is documented far more frequently at the palace in Turin than anywhere else. In 1070 Adelaide captured and burned the city of Asti, which had rebelled against her, in 1069 Henry IV tried to repudiate Adelaides daughter, which caused Adelaides relationship with the imperial family to cool.
However, through the intervention of Bertha, Henry received Adelaides support when he came to Italy to submit to Pope Gregory VII, in return for allowing him to travel through her lands, Henry gave Bugey to Adelaide. Adelaide and her son Amadeus accompanied Henry IV and Bertha to Canossa, bishop Benzo of Alba sent several letters to Adelaide between 1080 and 1082, encouraging her to support Henry IV in the Italian wars which formed part of the Investiture Controversy. Adelaides dealings with Henry IV became closer after this and she offered to mediate between him and Matilda and Tuscany, and may even have joined him on campaign. Adelaide made many donations to monasteries in the march of Turin, in 1064 she founded the monastery of Santa Maria at Pinerolo
Moncalieri is a town and comune of approximately 58,000 inhabitants about 8 kilometres directly south of downtown Turin, in Piedmont, Italy. It is notable for its castle, built in the 12th century and enlarged in the 15th century and it is part of the World Heritage Site Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Moncalieri was founded in 1228 by some inhabitants of Testona as a refuge from the assaults from Chieri. The easy access to the Po River and the bridge that it commanded granted a certain flourishing to the city, in the 17th century it was acquired by the House of Savoy, whose members often lived in their castle here during the summer. During the unification of Italy it was the site of the famous Proclamation of Moncalieri, having maintained its tradition as a summer resort, today Moncalieri is home to many high technology companies. The castle is one of the Savoy Residences listed as a World Heritage Site and it hosts since 1919 a prestigious carabinieri school. Close to the castle, the square of Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II was in the past the major centre for the Moncalieri activities.
Its cobbled pavement was built back in 1825, and a sculpture-fountain of Neptune can be found in the top part of it, for aesthetic as well as practical reasons, the Neptune fountain was several times moved back and forth. A small passage connects this square to the prestigious Real Collegio Carlo Alberto, the Gothic church of Santa Maria della Scala houses the remains of the local patron. Other churches of interest are the San Francesco, SantEgidio, Moncalieri is devoted to Beato Bernardo, around the day dedicated to him, a historical reconstruction of his arrival in Moncalieri from Baden-Baden in 1458 is held. Libraries and Research Centers Biblioteca Europea di Cultura Victor Del Litto C. I. R. V. I, pietro Canonica sculptor and senator for life Moncalieri is twinned with, Media related to Moncalieri at Wikimedia Commons
Amadeus III, Count of Savoy
Amadeus III of Savoy was Count of Savoy and Maurienne from 1103 until his death. He was known as a Crusader and he was born in Carignano, the son of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, the daughter of William I of Burgundy. He succeeded as count of Savoy upon the death of his father and he helped restore the Abbey of St. Maurice of Agaune, in which the former kings of Burgundy had been crowned, and of which he himself was abbot until 1147. He founded the Abbey of St. Sulpicius in Bugey, Tamié Abbey in the Bauges, despite his marriage to Mahaut, he still fought against his brother-in-law Guy, who was killed at the Battle of Montmélian. Following this, King Louis VI of France, married to Amadeus sister Adélaide de Maurienne, Amadeus was saved by the intercession of Peter the Hermit, and by his promise to participate in Louis planned crusade. In 1147, he accompanied his nephew Louis VII of France and he financed his expedition with help from a loan from the Abbey of St. Maurice. Amadeus travelled south through Italy to Brindisi, where he crossed over to Durazzo, after crossing into Anatolia, who was leading the vanguard, became separated from Louis near Laodicea, and Louis forces were almost entirely destroyed.
Marching on to Adalia, Louis and other barons decided to continue to Antioch by ship, on the journey, Amadeus fell ill on Cyprus, and died at Nicosia in April 1148. He was buried in the Church of St. Croix in Nicosia, in Savoy, his son Humbert III succeeded him, under the regency of bishop Amadeus of Lausanne. The Early History of the House of Savoy, 1000-1233, Charles, Medieval Lands Project on Amadeus III of Savoy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
Humbert I, Count of Savoy
Humbert I, better known as Humbert the White-Handed or Humbert Whitehand was the founder of the House of Savoy. Humbert was the son of Amadeus, who may or may not have preceded him as count of Maurienne and his brother was Bishop Otto of Belley. Humbert is the progenitor of the dynasty known as the House of Savoy, the origins of this dynasty are unknown, but Humberts ancestors are variously said to have come from Saxony, Burgundy or Provence. Humbert initially held lands around Belley and in the county of Sermorens, before gaining lands in Aosta, after Rudolf III’s death, Humbert I swore fealty to Emperor Conrad II. He supported Conrad II in his campaigns against Odo II, Count of Blois, in return, Conrad II appointed Humbert count of Savoy and granted him Maurienne and perhaps Tarentaise. These imperial grants to a loyal supporter secured key passes through the Alps and she may have been Ancilla of Lenzburg, the daughter of the master of ceremonies of Burgundy. Alternatively, Ancilla may have been a daughter of Anselm and Aldiud, Humbert is often said to have died c.
1047/8 at Hermillon, a town in the Maurienne region of present-day Savoie, France. More recently, it has suggested that he died by 1042. Humbert was buried in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Cathedral, New Jersey, Princeton University Press. Ducourthial, ‘Géographie du pouvoir en pays de Savoie au tournant de l’an Mil, guilleré, J- M. Poisson, L. Ripart and C. Le royaume de Bourgogne autour de l’an mil, pp. 207–246, history of House of Savoy Humbert Weißhand, Graf von Savoyen Humbert Biancamano, Conte di Savoia
Margaret of Geneva
Margaret of Geneva, countess of Savoy, was the daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, and Beatrice de Faucigny. She was supposed to become the wife of Philip II of France. However, when her father was escorting her to France in May 1195, attracted by her youth and her beauty, Count Thomas married her himself, claiming that Philip II was already married. Margarets father fell sick and died after the wedding, and her mother died the following year, margaret was the mother of either 14 or 19 children. She was married in 1219 and was mother to four queens consort and maternal grandmother of Philip III of France, after her death, she was buried at Hautecombe Abbey in Savoy
Thomas, Count of Savoy
Thomas was Count of Savoy from 1189 to 1233. He is sometimes numbered Thomas I to distinguish him from his son of the same name, Thomas was born in Aiguebelle, the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois. His birth was seen as miraculous, his father had despaired of having a male heir after three wives. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, and it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178 and he was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket. He had reached his majority by August 1191, Thomas possessed the martial abilities and brilliance that his father lacked, and Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories, in the same year he granted Aosta Valley the Charte des Franchises, recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy. This right was maintained until the eve of the French Revolution, he conquered Vaud and Carignano.
He supported the Hohenstaufens, and was known as Thomas the Ghibelline because of his career as Imperial Vicar of Lombardy, Thomas worked throughout his career to expand the control and influence of the County of Savoy. One of the key tools that he used was his number of children. In part, this was done by getting many of his sons into episcopal offices in surrounding territories, in addition to Guglielmo and Bonifacio, who made their careers in the clergy, their brother Thomas started out as a canon at Lausanne and became prévôt of Valence by 1226. Pietro was a canon at Lausanne and served as acting bishop there until he was replaced in 1231, in 1219 he worked to get his daughter Beatrice married to the fourteen-year-old Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence. This established a relationship between the two adjoining counties which would help cement Savoy control over trade between Italy and France. Thomas fought battles to expand his control. In 1215, his troops fought in an alliance with Milan against Monferrato, Thomas worked through diplomatic and economic means to expand his control.
The county of Savoy long enjoyed control over critical passes through the Alps, in his quest to gain more control over Turin, Thomas made an agreement with their rival Asti to reroute their French trade around Turin through Savoyard lands in a treaty on 15 September 1224. In 1226, Emperor Frederick II came to northern Italy and named Thomas Imperial Vicar of Lombardy, in this role, he mediated in a Genoese rebellion and a dispute between the town of Marseille and their bishop. Thomas made a policy of granting franchises and charters to towns on key trade routes which enabled the merchant class to develop more wealth and built support for his rule. In 1195 he ambushed the party of Count William I of Geneva, Thomas carried off Marguerite and married her himself, producing some eight sons and six daughters