Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein

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Jutland and Northernmost Germany showing Schleswig and Holstein in today's German Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein.

The Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein were titles of the Frankish Empire. The dynastic family came from the County of Schauenburg near Rinteln (district Schaumburg) on the Weser in Germany. Together with its ancestral possessions in Bückeburg and Stadthagen, the House of Schauenburg ruled the County of Schauenburg and the County of Holstein. The comital titles of Holstein were subject to the liege lord, the Dukes of undivided Saxony till 1296, and thereafter the Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.

The counties of Schauenburg and Holstein[edit]

The County of Schaumburg originated as a medieval county, which was founded at the beginning of the 12th century, it was named after Schauenburg Castle, near Rinteln on the Weser, where the owners started calling themselves Lords (from 1295 Counts) of Schauenburg. Adolf I probably became the first Lord of Schauenburg in 1106.

In 1110, Adolf I, Lord of Schauenburg was appointed by Lothair, Duke of Saxony to hold Holstein and Stormarn, including Hamburg, as fiefs.[1] In a battle with Denmark, however, Adolf became prisoner of the king Valdemar II, to whom he had to give Holstein in exchange for his freedom; in 1227 Adolf III's son, Adolf IV, recovered the lost lands from Denmark. Subsequently, the House of Schaumburg were also counts of Holstein and its partitions Holstein-Itzehoe, Holstein-Kiel, Holstein-Pinneberg (till 1640), Holstein-Plön, Holstein-Segeberg] and Holstein-Rendsburg (till 1460) and through the latter at times also the dukes of Schleswig.

Partitions of Holstein[edit]

Holstein partitions of 1261 and 1273[edit]

After 1261 the previously jointly ruling brothers Gerhard I and the elder John I divided the Counties of Holstein and Schauenburg (Schaumburg). Gerhard I received the Counties of Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg, whereas John received the County of Holstein-Kiel, after the death of John I, his sons Adolphus V and John II reigned jointly in Holstein-Kiel. In 1273 they partitioned Holstein-Kiel and John II continued ruling over Kiel; Adolphus V the Pomeranian then received Segeberg (aka County of Stormarn). After the death of Adolphus V, Holstein-Segeberg was reincorporated into Holstein-Kiel.

Holstein partition of 1290 and reversions of 1350 and 1390[edit]

After Gerhard I's death in 1290 his three younger sons partitioned Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg into three branches, with Adolph VI the Elder, the third brother, getting Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg south of the Elbe, the second brother Gerhard II the Blind getting Holstein-Plön, and the fourth Henry I receiving Holstein-Rendsburg. The eldest brother John was Canon at the Hamburg Cathedral.

After the death of Gerhard II his sons Gerhard IV and his younger half-brother John III the Mild inherited and ruled in Holstein-Plön together. In 1316 the brothers militarily seized the possessions of John II the One-Eyed (d. 1321) in Holstein-Kiel, whose sons had been killed. John III the Mild, before a second-born co-ruling count in Plön, then received Kiel from the deposed John II the One-Eyed, a cousin of his father Gerhard II the Blind. Gerhard IV continued ruling Holstein-Plön as sole count.

After the death of John III's nephew Gerhard V, Count of Holstein-Plön in 1350, who had succeeded Gerhard IV, the Plön line became extinct and John III re-inherited their possessions. In 1390 his son Adolphus IX (aka VII)[2] ruling since 1359 Kiel including Plön, died without issue and thus Nicholas (Claus) of Holstein-Rendsburg and his nephews Albert II and Gerhard VI (jointly ruling till 1397) succeeded to the territories of Holstein-Kiel and Holstein-Plön.

Holstein partition of 1397 and the extinction of the Rendsburg line in 1459[edit]

In 1390 the Holstein-Rendsburg line had assembled the larger part of the partitioned Holstein counties, to wit Kiel, Plön and Segeberg, but not Holstein-Pinneberg, which existed until 1640. Members of the Rendsburg family branch were often also simply titled as Counts of Holstein after 1390, for the Pinneberg family branch, usually residing in the County of Schaumburg, the titling after Schaumburg started to prevail.

In 1397 after the death of their uncle Nicholas (Claus), with whom the nephews Albert II and the elder Gerhard VI had jointly ruled Holstein-Rendsburg, they partitioned Holstein-Segeberg (aka county of Stormarn) from Holstein-Rendsburg, with Albert receiving the new branch county in return for waiving his co-rule in Rendsburg. After Albert's death in 1403 Segeberg reverted to Rendsberg; in 1459, with the death of Adolphus XI (aka VIII),[2] the Rendsburg branch was extinct in the male line and the nobility of Holstein-Rendburg and of Schleswig then assigned the succession to his sister's son King Christian I of Denmark, House of Oldenburg.

The last Schauenburg line ruling Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg till 1640[edit]

After King Christian I of Denmark, House of Oldenburg had been chosen as heir to the County of Holstein-Rendsburg Christian ascended to the comital throne in 1460; in 1474 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, elevated Christian I from Count of Holstein-Rendsburg to Duke of Holstein. For his succession in the Duchy of Holstein see List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein#House of Oldenburg (1460–1544). The Schauenburg line in the Counties of Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg persisted until its extinction in the male line in 1640, this line is also known as Holstein-Schauenburg. The Counts were elevated to Princes of Schaumburg in 1619/1620, however, the Dukes of Holstein opposed the transition of that title to the County of Holstein-Pinneberg.

Schaumburg partition of 1640[edit]

After the death in 1640 of Count Otto V without children, the rule of the House of Schaumburg ended in Holstein, the County of Holstein-Pinneberg was merged under Christian IV with his royal share in the Duchy of Holstein, which is now part of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. For Christian IV and his successors see List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein#House of Oldenburg (1640–1713)

The Principality of Schaumburg proper, however, was partitioned among the agnatic Schauenburg heirs into three parts, one incorporated into the Principality of Lüneburg of the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, the second becoming the County of Schaumburg-Lippe and the third continuing the name County of Schaumburg, ruled in personal union by Hesse-Cassel. All the three are now part of the state of Lower Saxony, the Sovereign Lordship of Gemen, in 1531 acquired for Schaumburg through marriage by Jobst I, and ruled by his second-born son of Jobst II (ca. 1520–1581, regnant since 1531), passed on to the family of Limburg Stirum. Gemen is in today's North Rhine-Westphalia.

House of Schauenburg[edit]

Partitions of Holstein and Schauenburg under Schauenburg rule[edit]

County of Holstein-Schauenburg
(1110-1137)
County of Holstein
(1137-1143)
County of Schauenburg
(1137-1143)
County of Holstein-Schauenburg
(1143-1203)
Annexed by Denmark County of Schauenburg
(1203-1227)
County of Holstein-Schauenburg
(1227-1261)
       Holstein-Itzehoe and Schauenburg
(1261-1290)
Holstein-Segeberg
(1st creation)
(1273-1308)
Holstein-Kiel
(1261-1390)
       Holstein-Plön
(1290-1350)
       Holstein-Pinneberg and
Schauenburg
(1290-1640)
       Holstein-Rendsburg
(1290-1459)
             
      
Holstein-Segeberg
(2nd creation)
(1397-1403)
      
      
Annexed by Denmark

Table of rulers[edit]

(Note: Here the numbering of the counts is the same for all counties, as all were titled Counts of Holstein, despite of the different parts of land or particular numbering of the rulers. The dukes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Adolph I ? 1106-1110 13 November 1130 Schauenburg Hildewa
before 1128
four children
First count of Schauenburg, in 1110 becomes count of Holstein.
1110-1130 Schauenburg and Holstein
Adolph II c.1128 1130-1137 6 July 1164 Schauenburg and Holstein Mechthild of Schwarzburg-Käfernburg
before 1160
one son
In 1137 Henry of Badewide occupied Holstein.
1137-1143 Schauenburg
Henry of Badewide ? 1137-1143 1164 Holstein A relative of the King of Denmark
before 1164
at least two children
Non-dynastic. Restrained in 1139 to Wagria.
Adolph II c.1128 1143-1164 6 July 1164 Schauenburg and Holstein before 1160
one son
Reunites Holstein and Schauenburg.
Matilda of Schwarzburg-Käfernburg
(regent)
? 1164-c.1174 1192 Schauenburg and Holstein Regent during the minority of her son.
Adolph III
Hansa-schwert.jpg
1160 c.1174-1203 3 January 1225 Schauenburg and Holstein Adelaide of Assel
1182
no children

Adelaide of Querfurt
Before 10 May 1189
four children
Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, ceding the latter to Valdemar II in 1203 in order to be released from his captivity.
1203-1225 Schauenburg
Valdemar II of Denmark
Valdemar sejr.jpg
9 May or 28 June 1170 1203-1227 28 March 1241 Holstein Dagmar of Bohemia
1205
one son

Berengaria of Portugal
1214
four children
Non-dynastic as invader of Holstein. From the House of Estridsen.
Adolph IV
Adolf von Schauenburg IV.jpg
Before 1205 1225-1227 8 July 1261 Schauenburg 1223
four children
Count of Holstein by military victory over Valdemar II; he later resigned and became a monk.
1227-1238 Schauenburg and Holstein
Heilwig of Lippe (regent) 1200 1238-c.1243 1249 or 1250 Schauenburg and Holstein Regent during the minority of her sons.
John I
Seal Johann I. (Holstein-Kiel) 02.jpg
1229 c.1243-1261 20 April 1263 Schauenburg and Holstein Elisabeth of Saxe-Wittenberg
1249 or 1250
four children
Sons of Adolph IV, ruled jointly. On the aftermath of the death of their father in self-retirement, they divided their possessions: John received Holstein-Kiel; Gerhard received Holstein-Itzehoe and also the county of Schauenburg. After Gerhard's death in 1290 his sons partitioned Holstein-Itzehoe and Schaumburg into three branches, with Adolph getting Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg, Gerhard getting Holstein-Plön, and Henry getting Holstein-Rendsburg.
1261-1263 Holstein-Kiel
Gerhard I
Seal Gerhard I. (Holstein-Itzehoe) 01.jpg
1232 c.1243-1261 21 December 1290 Schauenburg and Holstein Elizabeth of Mecklenburg
1250
eleven children

Alexia of Montferrat
1282
no children
1261-1290 Holstein-Itzehoe and Schauenburg
John II the One-Eyed
Seal Johann II. (Holstein-Kiel) 01.jpg
1253 1263-1316 1321 Holstein-Kiel Margareta of Denmark
1276
two children
Sons of John I, ruled jointly. In 1273 divided the land: John II kept Holstein-Kiel; Adolph received Holstein-Segeberg. After the death of Adolph in 1308 without descendants, Holstein_Segeberg returned to Holstein-Kiel; in 1316, John II was deposed by his cousin John III from Holstein-Plön.
Adolph V the Pomeranian
Seal Adolf V. (Holstein-Segeberg) 02.jpg
1252 1263-1273 10 April or 11 November 1308 Holstein-Kiel Euphemia of Pomerania-Wolgast
1273 or 1278
one child
1273-1308 Holstein-Segeberg
Gerhard II the Blind
Seal Gerhard II. (Holstein-Plön) 01.jpg
1254 1290-1312 28 October 1312 Holstein-Plön Ingeborg of Sweden
12 December 1275
four children

Agnes of Brandenburg
1293
one child
First son of Gerhard I, ruled in -Plön.
Adolph VI the Elder
Seal Adolf VI. (Holstein-Schauenburg) 01.jpg
1256 1290-1315 13 May 1315 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Helen of Saxe-Lauenburg
14 February 1294
seven children
Second son of Gerhard I, ruled in -Pinneberg and also received Schauenburg.
Henry I
Seal Heinrich I. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1258 1290-1304 5 August 1304 Holstein-Rendsburg Heilwig of Bronckhorst
1289
four children
Third son of Gerhard I, ruled in -Rendsburg.
Gerhard III the Great
Seal Gerhard III. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 02.jpg
1292 1304-1340 1 April 1340 Holstein-Rendsburg Sophia of Werle
1315
four children
As Gerhard I, also Duke of Schleswig between 1326 and 1330.
Gerhard IV
Seal Gerhard IV. (Holstein-Plön) 01.jpg
1254 1312-1323 1323 Holstein-Plön Anastasia of Schwerin
30 July 1313
two children
Sons of Gerhard II, ruled jointly. In 1316, John III deposed John II of Holstein-Kiel and took over the duchy, leaving sole rule of Plön to his brother Gerhard IV. John III also served, alongside Gerhard III, as lord ruling in guardianship the Danish Duchy of Schleswig 1332–1340.
John III the Mild
Seal Johann III. (Holstein-Kiel) 02.jpg
1297 1312-1316 27 September 1359 Holstein-Plön Catherine of Głogów
25 December 1317 or 27 January 1319
three children

Miroslawa of Schwerin-Wittenburg
1327
three children
1316-1359 Holstein-Kiel
Adolph VII 1295 or 1297 1315-1354 9 October 1354 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Hedwig of Schwalenberg
by 1301
three children

Helwig of Lippe
1322
eight children
Gerhard V
Seal Gerhard IV. (Holstein-Plön) 01.jpg
1315 1323-1350 22 September 1350 Holstein-Plön Unmarried After his death, his uncle John III, ruler of -Kiel and previous co-ruler in -Plön, reunites both lands.
Nicholas I
Seal Nikolaus (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1321 1340-1397 8 May 1397 Holstein-Rendsburg Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1354
one child
Nicholas and Henry ruled jointly as sons of Gerhard III. In 1375 they inherited the Duchy of Schleswig from the House of Estridsen; in 1384, with the death of his brother, Nicholas associated his nephews (Gerhard and Albert, sons of Henry) to power. In 1386 he abdicated of Schleswig to his older nephew Gerhard, who assumed alone this lands; in 1390 Nicholas inherited Holstein-Kiel. After Nicholas' death in 1397, the co-ruling nephews, Gerhard and Albert, divided the land: Gerhard kept Rendsburg, which he reunited with his duchy of Schleswig; Albert received Segeberg. As Albert left no descendants at his death in 1403, Segeberg reunited again with Rendsburg, still in hands of his brother, who died in the following year.
Henry II of Iron
Seal Heinrich II. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1317 1340-1384 1384 Holstein-Rendsburg Matilda of Lippe
one child

Ingeborg of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
before 1374
four children
Gerhard VI
Gerhard VI.jpg
1367 1384-1404 5 August 1404 Holstein-Rendsburg Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1390
six children
Albert I
Seal Albrecht II. (Holstein) 01.jpg
1369 1384-1397 28 September 1403 Holstein-Rendsburg Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg
before 23 March 1399
no children
1397-1403 Holstein-Segeberg
Adolph VIII the Younger
Seal Adolf VIII. (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
After 1301 1354-1370 13 October 1370 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Unmarried
Adolph IX the Mild
Seal Adolf IX. (Holstein-Kiel) 04.jpg
1327 1359-1390 26 January 1390 Holstein-Kiel Anne of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
4 December 1362 or 21 September 1365
no children
Received from inheritance of his father -Kiel and also -Plön, incorporated in 1350. After his death in 1390 without descendants, -Kiel and its patrimony is inherited by Holstein-Rendsburg.
Otto I
Seal Otto I. (Schaumburg), 01.jpg
1330 1370-1404 After 16 March 1404 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Mechtild of Brunswick-Lüneburg
25 June 1368
ten children
Henry III
Seal Heinrich III. von Schauenburg-Holstein 01.jpg
c.1372 1404-1421 February 1421 Holstein-Rendsburg Unmarried Also Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück as Henry I (1402–1410).
Adolph X 1375 1404-1426 9 October 1426 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Helena of Hoya
1378
three children
Henry IV 1397 1421-1427 28 May 1427 Holstein-Rendsburg Unmarried Died without descendants. Passed the land to his brothers.
Otto II
Seal Otto II. (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
1400 1426-1464 2 June 1464 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Elisabeth of Hohnstein
1418
ten children
Adolph XI
C. W. Eckersberg Hertug Adolf, som afslaar Tilbudet om den danske Krone.jpg
1401 1427-1459 4 December 1459 Holstein-Rendsburg Matilda
before 1433
no children

Margareta of Mansfeld
1433
no children
Sons of Gerhard VI, ruled jointly in Holstein-Rendsburg. As Gerhard also wanted to rule in Schleswig he claimed (unsuccessfully) this duchy for himself against his brother. Adolph was the mightiest vassal of Danish crown at his time, gaining royal Danish recognition in 1440, after Adolph's death his patrimony is annexed by Denmark.
Gerhard VII
Seal Gerhard VII. (Holstein) 01.jpg
1404 1427-1433 24 July 1433 Holstein-Rendsburg Agnes of Baden
2 June 1432
Baden
ten children
Adolph XII 1419 1464-1474 9 October 1474 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Irmgard of Hoya
1459
no children
First son of Otto II. Left no descendants.
Eric I 1420 1474-1492 24 or 25 March 1492 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Heba of East Frisia
1476
no children
Second son of Otto II. Left no descendants.
Otto III
Seal Otto III. (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
1426 1492-1510 1510 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Unmarried Third son of Otto II. Left no descendants.
Anton I 1439 1510-1526 22 December 1526 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 November 1492
no children

Anna of Schönburg
before 25 September 1497
no children
Sixth son of Otto II and the fourth ruling. Left no descendants.
John IV 1449 1526-1527 30 March 1527 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Cordula of Gehmen
1482
one child
Jobst I 1483 1527-1531 5 June 1531 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Maria of Nassau-Dietz
1506
eight children
Adolph XIII
Seal Adolf (III.) von Schaumburg 01.jpg
19 January 1511 1531-1544 20 September 1556 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Unmarried Joint rule with his brother John IV. Abdicated in 1544. Later he became Archbishop of Cologne as Adolph III (1547-1556).
John V 1512 1531-1544 1560 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Elisabeth of East Frisia
1558
no children
Joint rule with his brother Adolphus XIII. Abdicated in 1544.
Otto IV
Stadthagen StMartini Grabmal.JPG
1517 1544-1576 21 December 1576 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Maria of Pomerania-Stettin
before 1545
four children

Ursula of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1558
three children
In 1559 he officially began the Reformation in Schauenburg and Holstein-Pinneberg.
Adolph XIV
Seal Adolf XI. (XIV.) (Schaumburg) 01.jpg
27 February 1547 1576-1601 2 July 1601 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
6 May 1583
Wolfenbüttel
one child
Ernest
Ernst von Schaumburg.jpg
24 September 1569 1601-1622 17 January 1622 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Hedwig of Hesse-Kassel
11 September 1597
Schmalkalden
ten children
Brother of Adolphus XIV. Was elevated to "Prince of Schaumburg" in 1619.
Jobst Herman 6 October 1593 1622-1635 5 November 1635 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Unmarried Cousin of his predecessor. Died without descendants.
Otto V 1 March 1614 1635-1640 15 November 1640 Holstein-Pinneberg and Schauenburg Unmarried Cousin of his predecessor. Died without descendants.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lemma Schauenburg/Schaumburg. In: Klaus-Joachim Lorenzen-Schmidt, Ortwin Pelc (Hrsg.): Schleswig-Holstein Lexikon. 2. Aufl., Wachholtz, Neumünster, 2006.
  2. ^ a b The numbering varies; some authors count all namesakes within the House of Schauenburg, here put in front, others count only the namesakes within any branch line, here given in parenthesis.