Ulster is a province in the north of the island of Ireland. It is made up of nine counties, six of which are in Northern Ireland and three of which are in the Republic of Ireland, it is the second largest and second most populous of Ireland's four provinces, with Belfast being its biggest city. Unlike the other provinces, Ulster has a high percentage of Protestants, making up half of its population. English is Ulster English the main dialect. A minority speak Irish, there are Gaeltacht in southern Londonderry, the Gaeltacht Quarter of Belfast and in Donegal, where 25% of the total Gaeltacht population of Ireland is located. Lough Neagh, in the east, is the largest lake in the British Isles, while Lough Erne in the west is one of its largest lake networks; the main mountain ranges are the Mournes, Sperrins and Derryveagh Mountains. Ulster lay at the heart of the Gaelic world made up of Gaelic Ireland and the Isle of Man. According to tradition, in ancient Ireland it was one of the fifths ruled by a rí ruirech, or "king of over-kings".
It is named after the overkingdom of Ulaid, in the east of the province, in turn named after the Ulaid folk. The other overkingdoms in Ulster were Ailech. After the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century, eastern Ulster was conquered by the Anglo-Normans and became the Earldom of Ulster. By the late 14th century the Earldom had collapsed and the O'Neill dynasty had come to dominate most of Ulster, claiming the title King of Ulster. Ulster became the most Gaelic and independent of Ireland's provinces, its rulers were defeated in the Nine Years' War. King James I colonized Ulster with English-speaking Protestant settlers from Britain, in the Plantation of Ulster; this led to the founding of many of Ulster's towns. The inflow of Protestant settlers and migrants led to bouts of sectarian violence with Catholics, notably during the 1641 rebellion and the Armagh disturbances. Along with the rest of Ireland, Ulster became part of the United Kingdom in 1801. In the early 20th century, moves towards Irish self-rule were opposed by many Ulster Protestants, sparking the Home Rule Crisis.
This, the subsequent Irish War of Independence, led to the partition of Ireland. Six Ulster counties became Northern Ireland, a self-governing territory within the United Kingdom, while the rest of Ireland became the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland. Ulster has no official function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO 3166-2, Ulster is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code "IE-U"; the name is used by various organisations such as cultural and sporting bodies. The name Ulster has several possible derivations: from the Norse name "Uladztir", an adaptation of Ulaidh and tir, the Irish for "land", it has been suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster, common in the Shetland Islands and Norway. The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the "province of the Ulaid", with the term cúige referring to a fifth; the Ulaidh were a group of tribes. Ulaidh has been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia.
The latter two have yielded the terms Ultonian. The Irish word for someone or something from Ulster is Ultach, this can be found in the surnames MacNulty, MacAnulty, Nulty, which all derive from Mac an Ultaigh, meaning "son of the Ulsterman". Words that have been used in English are Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman. Northern Ireland is referred to as Ulster, despite including only six of Ulster's nine counties; this usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland who are unionist, although it is used by the media throughout the United Kingdom. Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context. Ulster has an area of 21,552 square kilometres. About 62 % of the area of Ulster is in the UK. Ulster's biggest city, has an urban population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland and the 10th largest urban area in the UK. Six of Ulster's nine counties, Armagh, Fermanagh and Tyrone, including the former parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry, form Northern Ireland which remained part of the United Kingdom after the partition of Ireland in 1921.
Three Ulster counties – Cavan and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland. About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Down. Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, the ROI 2011 Census for counties Cavan and Monaghan, there is a Roman Catholic majority over Protestant of 50.8% to 42.7%. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland, this is no longer the case in Northern Ireland. Since 1974, the traditional counties have a ceremonial role only. Local government in Northern Ireland is today demarcated by 11 districts. Counties shaded in grey are in the Republic of Ireland. Counties shaded in pink are in Northern Ireland. Settlements in Ulster with at least 14,000 inhabitants, li
County Monaghan is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Ulster, it is named after the town of Monaghan. Monaghan County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county is 60,483 according to the 2011 census. The county has existed since 1585, when the Mac Mathghamhna rulers of Airgíalla agreed to join the Kingdom of Ireland. Following the 20th-century Irish War of Independence and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Monaghan was one of three Ulster counties to join the Irish Free State rather than Northern Ireland. Monaghan is the fifth smallest of the Republic's 26 counties in area and fourth smallest by population, it is the smallest of Ulster's nine counties in size and the smallest in terms of population. Cremorne Dartree Farney Monaghan Trough 1. Monaghan = 7,452 2. Carrickmacross = 4,925 3. Castleblayney = 3,634 4. Clones = 1,761 5. Ballybay = 1,461 Notable mountains include Mullyash Mountain and Coolberrin Hill. Lakes include Lough Avaghon, Dromore Lough, Drumlona Lough, Lough Egish, Emy Lough, Lough Fea, Inner Lough, Muckno Lough and White Lough.
Notable rivers include the River Glyde, the Ulster Blackwater and the Dromore River. Monaghan has a number including Rossmore Forest and Dartrey Forest. Managed by Coillte since 1988, the majority of trees are conifers. Due to a long history of intensive farming and recent intensive forestry practices, only small pockets of native woodland remain; the Finn Bridge is a border crossing point over the River Finn to County Fermanagh. It is close to Scotshouse. Lead was mined in County Monaghan. Mines included Lisdrumgormley Lead Mines. In 1585, the English lord deputy of Ireland, Sir John Perrot, visited the area and met the Irish chieftains, they requested that Ulster be divided into counties and land in the kingdom of Airgíalla be apportioned to each of the McMahon chiefs. A commission was established to accomplish this and County Monaghan came into being; the county was subdivided into five baronies: Farney, Dartrey and Truagh, left under the control of the McKenna chieftains. After the defeat of the rebellion of Hugh O'Neill, The O'Neill and the Ulster chieftains in 1603, the county was not planted like the other counties of Ulster.
The lands were instead left in the hands of the native chieftains. In the Irish Rebellion of 1641 the McMahons and their allies joined the general rebellion of Irish Catholics. Following their defeat, some colonisation of the county took place with Scottish and English families. County Monaghan is traversed by the derelict Ulster Canal, however Waterways Ireland are embarking on a scheme to reopen the canal from Lough Erne into Clones; the Ulster Railway linked Monaghan with Armagh and Belfast in 1858 and with the Dundalk and Enniskillen Railway at Clones in 1863. It became part of the Great Northern Railway in 1876; the partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the boundary with County Armagh into an international frontier, after which trains were delayed by customs inspections. In 1957 the Government of Northern Ireland made the GNR Board close the line between Portadown and the border, giving the GNRB no option but to withdraw passenger services between the border and Clones as well. CIÉ took over the remaining section of line between Clones and Glaslough in 1958 but withdrew goods services between Monaghan and Glaslough in 1959 and between Clones and Monaghan in 1960, leaving Monaghan with no railway service.
Monaghan is divided into four local electoral areas: Carrickmacross, Castleblayney and Monaghan. The towns of Ballybay, Castleblayney and Monaghan are represented by nine-member town councils which deal with local matters such as the provision of utilities and housing. For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the Cavan–Monaghan Constituency which elects five T. D.s. In the 2011 general election, there was a voter turnout of 72.7%. For elections to the European Parliament, the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency. Politically, the county is considered a stronghold for Sinn Féin, the largest party in the county, followed by Fine Gael. County Monaghan is the birthplace of the poet and writer Patrick Kavanagh, who based much of his work in the county. Kavanagh is one of the most significant figures in 20th-century Irish poetry; the poems "Stony Grey Soil" and "Shancoduff" refer to the county. Monaghan has produced several successful artists. Chief among these is George Collie, born in Carrickmacross and trained at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art.
He was a prolific exhibitor at the Royal Hibernian Academy throughout his lifetime and is represented by works in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland and the Ulster Museum. Monaghan was the home county of the Irish writer Sir Shane Leslie, 3rd Baronet of Glaslough, who lived at Castle Leslie in the north-east corner of the county. A Catholic convert, Irish nationalist and first cousin of Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Leslie became an important literary figure in the early 1900s, he was a close friend of many politicians and writers of the day including the American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, who dedicated his second novel, The Beautiful and Damned, to Leslie. Monaghan County Museum is recognised as one of the l
Belfast is a city in the United Kingdom, the capital city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is second-largest on the island of Ireland, it had a population of 333,871 as of 2015. By the early 19th century, Belfast became a major port, it played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen-producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was a key industry. Belfast as of 2019 has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922, its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War of 1939–1945. Belfast suffered in the Troubles: in the 1970s and 1980s it was one of the world's most dangerous cities.
However, a survey conducted by a finance company and published in 2016 rated the city as one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years, has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as for the arts, higher education and law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard, dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, it is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Belfast as a Gamma global city in 2018; the name Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, spelt Béal Feirste. The word béal means "mouth" or "rivermouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.
The name would thus translate as " mouth of the sandbar" or " mouth of the ford". This sandbar was formed at the confluence of two rivers at what is now Donegall Quay: the Lagan, which flows into Belfast Lough, its tributary the Farset; this area was the hub. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. An alternative interpretation of the name is "mouth of of the sandbar", an allusion to the River Farset, which flows into the Lagan where the sandbar was located; this interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster-Scots, the name of the city has been variously translated as Bilfawst, Bilfaust or Baelfawst, although "Belfast" is used. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the city continues to be viewed as straddling County Antrim and County Down; the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age.
The Giant's Ring, a 5,000-year-old henge, is located near the city, the remains of Iron Age hill forts can still be seen in the surrounding hills. Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in 1177; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. In the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe O'Neill, built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast. Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester, it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster.
In 1791, the Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast, after Henry Joy McCracken and other prominent Presbyterians from the city invited Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell to a meeting, after having read Tone's "Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35,000 workers. In 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned.
The accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfas
Red beds are sedimentary rocks, which consist of sandstone and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides. These red-colored sedimentary strata locally contain thin beds of conglomerate, limestone, or some combination of these sedimentary rocks; the ferric oxides, which are responsible for the red color of red beds occur as a coating on the grains of sediments comprising red beds. Classic examples of red beds are the Permian and Triassic strata of the western United States and the Devonian Old Red Sandstone facies of Europe. Krynine suggested that the red beds were formed by the erosion and redeposition of red soils or older red beds, but a fundamental problem with this hypothesis is the relative scarcity of red-colored source sediments of suitable age close to an area of red bed sediments in Cheshire, England. Van Houten developed the idea to include the in situ reddening of the sediment by the dehydration of brown or drab colored ferric hydroxides; these ferric hydroxides include goethite and so-called "amorphous ferric hydroxide" or limonite.
Much of this material may be the mineral ferrihydrite. This dehydration or "aging" process has been found to be intimately associated with pedogenesis in alluvial floodplains and desert environments. Berner showed that goethite is unstable relative to hematite and, in the absence of water or at elevated temperature, will dehydrate according to the reaction: 2FeOOH → Fe2O3 +H2OThe Gibbs Free Energy for the reaction goethite → hematite is −2.76kJ/mol and Langmuir showed that G becomes negative with smaller particle size. Thus detrital ferric hydroxides, including goethite and ferrihydrite, will spontaneously transform into red-colored hematite pigment with time; this process not only accounts for the progressive reddening of alluvium but the fact that older desert dune sands are more intensely reddened than their younger equivalents. The formation of red beds during burial diagenesis was described by Walker and Walker et al.. The key to this mechanism is the intrastratal alteration of ferromagnesian silicates by oxygenated groundwaters during burial.
Walker’s studies show that the hydrolysis of hornblende and other iron-bearing detritus follows Goldich dissolution series. This is controlled by the Gibbs free energy of the particular reaction. For example, the most altered material would be olivine: e.g. Fe2SiO4 + O2 → Fe2O3 + SiO2 with E = -27.53kJ/molA key feature of this process, exemplified by the reaction, is the production of a suite of by products which are precipitated as authigenic phases. These include mixed layer clays, potassium feldspar and carbonates as well as the pigmentary ferric oxides. Reddening progresses as the diagenetic alteration becomes more advanced and is thus a time dependent mechanism; the other implication is that reddening of this type is not specific to a particular depositional environment. However, the favourable conditions for diagenetic red bed formation i.e. positive Eh and neutral-alkaline pH are most found in hot, semi-arid areas, this is why red beds are traditionally associated with such climates. Secondary red beds are characterized by irregular color zonation related to sub-unconformity weathering profiles.
The color boundaries may cross-cut lithological contacts and show more intense reddening adjacent to unconformities. Johnson et al. have showed how secondary reddening phases might be superimposed on earlier formed primary red beds in the Carboniferous of the southern North Sea. The general conditions leading to post-diagenetic alteration have been described by Mücke. Important reactions include pyrite oxidation: 3O2 + 4FeS2→ Fe2O3 + 8S E = −789 kJ/moland siderite oxidation: O2 + 4FeCO3 → 2Fe2O3 + 4CO2 E = −346 kJ/molSecondary red beds formed in this way are an excellent example of telodiagenesis, they are linked to the uplift and surface weathering of deposited sediments and require conditions similar to primary and diagenetic red beds for their formation. Red Beds of Texas and Oklahoma Chugwater Formation Red Hills, Kansas Old Red Sandstone New Red Sandstone American Geological Institute, Dictionary of Geological Terms, p. 416. Berner R. A. 1969. Goethite stability and origin of red beds. Geochimica Cosmomochimica Acta, 35, pp 267-273.
Krynine, P. D. 1950, Petrology and origin of the Triassic sedimentary Bulletin of the Connecticut Geology and Natural History Survey, 73, 239p. Langmuir, D. 1971, Particle size effect on the reaction Goethite = Hematite + Water. American Journal of Science, 271, pp 147-156. Mücke, A. 1994. Part 1. Postdiagenetic ferruginization of sedimentary rocks - including a comparative study of the reddening of red beds. Wolf, K. H. and Chilingarian, G V. pp 361-395 Diagenesis, IV. Developments in Sedimentology 5 1, Amsterdam. Van Houten, F. B. 1973, Origin of red beds. A review -1961-1972. Annual Review Earth Planetary Science, 1, pp 39-61 Walker, T. R. 1967, Formation of red beds in modern and ancient deserts. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 78, pp 353-368. Pictures of Permo-Triassic red beds in Palo Duro Canyon
Lough Erne is the name of two connected lakes in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is the second-biggest lake system in Northern Ireland and Ulster, the fourth biggest in Ireland; the lakes are widened sections of the River Erne, which flows north and curves west into the Atlantic. The smaller southern lake is called the Upper Lough; the bigger northern lake is called the Lower Broad Lough. The town of Enniskillen lies on the short stretch of river between the lakes; the lake has 154 islands along with many inlets. When windy, navigation on Lower Lough Erne, running for 26 miles to the Atlantic, can be something of a challenge with waves of open-sea dimensions. Shallow Upper Lough Erne, spreading southeast of Enniskillen for about 12 miles, is a maze of islands; the River Erne is 80ml long and drains an area of about 4,350 km2. Lough Erne appears to be named after an ancient population group called the Érainn, or after a goddess from which the Érainn took their name. Since tribes were named after a divine ancestor, T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that the Érainn took their name from a goddess named Érann and that Loch Éirne means "lake of Érann".
O'Rahilly and other scholars have connected these names to Ériu, the goddess after which Ireland is named. He writes that the earlier forms of these goddess names were Everna/Iverna and Everiu/Iveriu and that both come from "the Indo-European root ei-, implying motion". In his view Érann and Ériu would thus appear to mean "she who travels regularly", explained as "the sun-goddess, for the sun was the great celestial Traveller". Alternatively, John T. Koch suggests that Ériu was a mother goddess whose name comes from an Indo-European word stem meaning "fat, fertile". In Irish mythology and folklore, there are three tales about the lake's origins. One says that it is named after a mythical woman named Erne, Queen Méabh's lady-in-waiting at Cruachan. Erne and her maidens were frightened away from Cruachan when a fearsome giant emerged from the cave of Oweynagat, they drowned in a river or lake, their bodies dissolving to become Lough Erne. Patricia Monaghan notes that "The drowning of a goddess in a river is common in Irish mythology and represents the dissolving of her divine power into the water, which gives life to the land".
Another tale says that it was formed when a magical spring-well overflowed, similar to the tale of Lough Neagh. The third says that, during a battle between the Érainn and the army of High King Fíachu Labrainne, it burst from the ground and drowned the Érainn. In Cath Maige Tuired, it is listed as one of the twelve chief loughs of Ireland; the lake was called Loch Saimer. Folklore says that Partholón killed his wife's favourite hound—Saimer—in a fit of jealous rage, the lake was named after it. Lough Erne is the setting of a folk tale known as "The Story of Conn-eda" or "The Golden Apples of Lough Erne", which appears in Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry. In the tale, Conn-eda goes on a quest to procure three golden apples, a black steed and a supernatural hound from a city underneath Lough Erne; the city is ruled by a king of the Fir Bolg. The Menapii are the only known Celtic tribe named on Ptolemy’s AD 150 map of Ireland, where they located their first colony — Menapia — on the Leinster coast circa 216 BC.
They settled around Lough Erne, becoming known as the Fir Manach, giving their name to Fermanagh and Monaghan. Mongán mac Fiachnai, a 7th-century King of Ulster, is the protagonist of several legends linking him with Manannán mac Lir, they spread across Ireland. The Annals of Ulster were written in the late 15th century on Belle Isle, an island in Upper Lough Erne. Fermanagh escaped the potato blight disease during the Great Famine better than any other county, as the county had so many islands; the potato blight had difficulty travelling over water, compared to the easier transmission across the green hills and fields of most of Ireland. Those Erne islands produced surprising amounts of potatoes, whilst the mainland was starving in comparison. During the Second World War, RAF Castle Archdale was based on Lough Erne, providing an essential airbase for the Battle of the Atlantic and the battle against U boats. A secret agreement with the Irish Government permitted flying boats based there to fly West straight across neutral Ireland to the Atlantic, avoiding the two-hour detour that would have been necessary for aeroplanes based in Northern Ireland.
An example of the many ways Ireland assisted the allies while remaining neutral. In November 2012, it was announced that the Lough Erne Resort, a hotel on the southern shore of the Lower Lough, would host the 39th G8 summit; the lakes contain many small islands and peninsulas, which are called "islands" because of the convoluted shoreline and because many of them were islands prior to two extensive drainage schemes in the 1880s and the 1950s which dropped the water level by about 1.5 metres. Islands in the lower lake include Boa Island, Cleenishmeen Island, Crevinishaughy Island, Cruninish Island, Devenish Island, Ely Island, Goat Island, Horse Island, Inish Doney, Inish Fovar, Inish Lougher, Inish More, Inis Rath, Inishmakill, Lustybeg Island, Lustymore Island and White Island; those in the upper lake include Bleanish Island, Dernish Island, Inishcrevan, Inishleague, Inishturk, Killygowan Island, Naan Island and Trannish. Several of the islands are owned, come on
Marble Arch Caves
The Marble Arch Caves are a series of natural limestone caves located near the village of Florencecourt in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The caves are named after the nearby Marble Arch, a natural limestone arch at the upstream end of Cladagh Glen under which the Cladagh River flows; the caves are formed from three rivers draining off the northern slopes of Cuilcagh mountain, which combine underground to form the Cladagh. On the surface, the river emerges from the largest karst resurgence in Ireland, one of the largest in the United Kingdom. At 11.5 kilometres the Marble Arch Caves form the longest known cave system in Northern Ireland, the karst is considered to be among the finest in the British Isles. The Marble Arch, Cladagh River resurgence and three large dolines on the plateau above the end of Cladagh Glen were all known well before underground exploration began; as early as the 1730s, the Reverend William Henry described these features, as well as the sinks of the Owenbrean and Sruh Croppa rivers which he surmised to be feeders of the system.
Without venturing far into the cave, Henry descended to the base of one of the dolines above the resurgence: The arch over my head was 20 feet high, continued with a little landing for 100 yards to the other great pit, by the light of which I could observe the river flowing along... The stream passages at the base of each shakehole were first explored by Édouard-Alfred Martel and Dublin naturalist Lyster Jameson in 1895. Using a canvas boat, with candles and magnesium flares for light and Jameson found 300 metres of passages, including the junction where the three rivers meet, they drew a map of the discoveries and line drawings depicting the expedition, noting the upstream conclusion by boat in the Grand Gallery, on foot at Pool Chamber. Today, this route to Pool Chamber forms part of the walking section of the show cave. Martel and Jameson investigated Cradle Hole, a large surface shakehole 400 metres south-south-west of Marble Arch. A cave entrance in the north-eastern corner—Lower Cradle—was explored, reaching an underground river and passages with the same proportions as those in the Marble Arch Cave.
In 1907, English cavers from the Yorkshire Ramblers' Club began exploration in the area, without access to a boat they decided to wade the section of underground river as far as The Junction, subsequently reaching the extent of Martel and Jameson's explorations. Bolstered by the experience, the good possibility of further discoveries, the Yorkshire Ramblers returned in Easter 1908. A group of cavers descended a pothole located close to the large dolines on the plateau and discovered the Great Boulder Chamber. After a few hours of exploring, they realised that they had found a new route into Pool Chamber, bypassing the deep water of the original entrance. During the 1908 explorations, the Yorkshire Ramblers conducted tests to ascertain the hydrological connections between caves, they performed a dye tracing experiment with fluorescein, establishing a direct hydrological connection from the Aghinrawn River sink at Monastir cliff, via Upper Cradle Hole Cave, to the Cladagh Glen resurgence. While surveying Lower Cradle Hole Cave, one caver sent a floating candle downstream along the river, until it floated under a low ceiling out of sight at the end of the known passage.
On plotting the surveyed passage on a map alongside Marble Arch Cave, it was apparent that only 9 metres separated the end of this passage from the upstream end of the Grand Gallery, it was postulated that a connection between the two might be forged. No further exploration was made until Easter 1935 when another group from the Yorkshire Ramblers' Club made their way from England. In wet conditions, the cavers re-entered Pool Chamber via the entrance found in 1908, after some investigation discovered a high-level crawling passage exiting the chamber; the passage ended high in the wall of New Chamber, a cavern of considerable size, where the upstream continuation of the river was found. Exploration was halted here; the club returned to New Chamber in 1936 to explore and survey the ongoing Skreen Hill passage, named after the hill on the surface above. After 370 metres of walking passage, the cavers stopped at a deep lake; this section of deep water is. When club members returned again in 1938 they brought an inflatable dinghy, allowing them to progress across the lake, only to discover that the way on was blocked by Sump 1, just 40 metres from the shore.
During the 1935 expedition another group of cavers explored Lower Cradle Hole Cave. On reaching the downstream end of the cave, they discovered that water levels were now low enough to see a series of low arches above the water surface. By anchoring a floating candle part-way through the passage, exiting the cave and returning to the end of the Grand Gallery in Marble Arch Cave, the cavers confirmed that the passages were connected. By the mid-1960s a number of advancements had been made in cave diving, by which method speleologists had extended their explorations into caves beyond the sumps that would have halted progress. In December 1966 divers Dave Cobley and Mike Boon made preparations to dive Sump 1 in Skreen Hill passage. Before making the dive however, they investigated a small dry passage leading off on the left bank of the lake, finding it to be blocked at the end by unstable boulders in the roof. Th
Enniskillen is a town and civil parish in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is located exactly in the centre of the county, between the Upper and Lower sections of Lough Erne, it had a population of 13,823 in the 2011 census. It was the seat of local government for the former Fermanagh District Council, is the county town of Fermanagh as well as its largest town; the town's name comes from the Irish: Inis Ceithleann. This refers to a figure in Irish mythology who may have been a goddess. Local legend has it that Cethlenn was wounded in battle by an arrow and attempted to swim across the River Erne, which surrounds the island, but she never reached the other side, so the island was named in reference to her, it has been anglicised many ways over the centuries – Iniskellen, Iniskillin, Inishkellen, Inishkillin, Inishkillen and so on. The town's oldest building is Enniskillen Castle, built by Hugh the Hospitable who died in 1428. An earthwork, the Skonce on the shore of Lough Erne, may be the remains of an earlier motte.
The castle was the stronghold of the junior branch of the Maguires. The first watergate was built around 1580 by Cú Chonnacht Maguire, though subsequent lowering of the level of the lough has left it without water; the strategic position of the castle made its capture important for the English in 1593, to support their plans for the control of Ulster. Maguire laid siege to it, defeated a relieving force at the Battle of the Ford of the Biscuits at Drumane Bridge on the Arney River. Although the defenders were relieved, Maguire gained possession of the castle from 1595 to 1598 and it was not captured by the English until 1607; this was part of a wider campaign to bring the province of Ulster under English control. The Maguires were supplanted by William Cole from Devon, appointed by James I to build an English settlement there. Captain Cole was installed as Constable and strengthened the castle wall and built a "fair house" on the old foundation as the centrepoint of the county town; the first Protestant parish church was erected on the hilltop in 1627.
The Royal Free School of Fermanagh was moved onto the island in 1643. The first bridges were drawbridges. By 1689 the town had grown significantly. During the conflict which resulted from the ousting of King James II by his Protestant rival, William III, Enniskillen and Derry were the focus of Williamite resistance in Ireland, including the nearby Battle of Newtownbutler. Enniskillen and Derry were the two garrisons in Ulster that were not wholly loyal to James II, it was the last town to fall before the siege of Derry; as a direct result of this conflict, Enniskillen developed not only as a market town but as a garrison, which became home to two regiments. The current site of Fermanagh College was the former Enniskillen Gaol. Many people were hanged in the square during the times of public execution. Part of the old Gaol is still used by the college. Enniskillen is the site of the foundation of two British Army regiments: Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers The Inniskillings The town's name continues to form part of the title to The Royal Irish Regiment.
Enniskillen Castle features on the cap badge of both regiments. Enniskillen was the site of several events during The Troubles, the most notable being the Remembrance Day bombing in which 11 people were killed. Bill Clinton opened the Clinton centre in 2002 on the site of the bombing; the Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility for the attack. The Enniskillen Dragoon is a famous Irish folk song associated with the Inniskilling Dragoons Regiment. Tommy Makem wrote re-named the song Fare Thee Well, Enniskillen; the Chieftains sing a song that mentions Enniskillen titled "North Amerikay". Jim Kerr of Simple Minds was so moved by the horror of the Enniskillen bombing in 1987 that he wrote new words to the traditional folk song "She Moved Through The Fair" and the group recorded it with the name "Belfast Child"; the recording reached No. 1 in the UK Charts and several other countries in 1989. The single was taken from the album Street Fighting Years; the video to the song was shot in black and white and displays poignant footage of children and the destruction of the bombing.
U2 held a concert the same day as the bombing. The footage is included in Hum. Neil Hannon mentions Enniskillen in his song Sunrise; the Irish language novel Mo Dhá Mhicí by Séamus Mac Annaidh is set in Enniskillen. Enniskillen is classified as a medium town by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. On Census day there were 13,823 people living accounting for 0.76 % of the NI total. Of these: 19.76% were aged under 16 years and 15.59% were aged 65 and over.