Leitrim, County Leitrim
Leitrim is a village in County Leitrim, Ireland, on the River Shannon near the border with County Roscommon. It is at the junction of the R284 regional roads. Located on the River Shannon, Leitrim village is connected to the River Erne via the Shannon-Erne Waterway; the river port has a quay, several jetties and two marinas, with facilities for the cruising traffic. The village is about 5 kilometres from Carrick-on-Shannon. Successive Finance Acts during the 1990s encouraged the building of hotels and holiday houses in designated deprived rural areas; the village was a large beneficiary of these tax incentives. The resultant explosive growth in the period between 2002 and 2007 saw several large complexes of self-catering apartment blocks being erected around the marinas, one of, funded by the International Fund for Ireland under the auspices of the Anglo-Irish Agreement, it is a well kept village with an excellent record in the Tidy Towns competition, on one occasion won the title. Leitrim village is an ideally located base from which to explore surrounding attractions such as the Arigna Mining Experience, Lough Rynn, Lough Key Forest Park, the Shannon-Erne Blueway and the nearby County Town of Carrick on Shannon.
St Joseph's National School St Joseph's Catholic Church The village had 274 residents in 1834. In 2016, the population was 594. From the Early modern period, County Leitrim is named after the village. Throughout at least the 19th and 20th centuries, numerous annual fairs were held at Leitrim village on- 22 January, 20 February, 25 March, 5 May, 16 June, 23 July, September 1, 13 October, 1 December. In 1925, Leitrim village comprised 30 houses with 5 being licensed to sell alcohol. Liatroim was a strategically important ford of the River Shannon connecting Connacht; the Irish Annals makes mention of Leitrim village many times. In 1270 the Battle of Áth an Chip between Normans and Connacht occurred on Drumhierney townland beside Battle-bridge; the county itself is named after the village of Leitrim near the River Shannon, an important stronghold during the Ó Ruairc family reign. The name'Leitrim' itself is derived from the Irish Liath Druim, meaning'grey ridge', is a common place name throughout Ireland.
List of towns and villages in Ireland
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
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Ballinamore is a small town in County Leitrim, Ireland, 19 km from the border with County Fermanagh. It is located on the R202 regional road where it is joined by the R199 and R204. Béal an Átha Móir means "mouth of the big ford", the town is so named because it was the main crossing point of the Yellow River, which flows past the town; this waterway become known as the Ballinamore-Ballyconnell Canal, built to link the Rivers Erne and Shannon in the 1840s. It reopened as the Shannon–Erne Waterway in 1994; the history of Ballinamore has enabled it to grow through the centuries as a town with a large variety of trades and tradesmen. The first mention was under the Plantation of Leitrim in 1621 when the Manor of Ballinamore was granted to Sir Fenton Parsons with 600 acres of arable land. In 1256, a great battle fought between the O'Rourkes and the O'Reillys occurred near Ballinamore, leading to a division of Breifne between the O'Rourkes of North Leitrim, the O'Reillys of Cavan. In the 18th century, dispossessed Catholics from County Down travelled to the west of Ireland looking for new places to live.
They stopped in an area of land they found suitable notably for its location near the rivers Shannon and Erne. This was the origins of Ballinamore; these dispossessed Ulster people brought with them numerous skills such as blacksmiths, skilled craftsmen and farmers. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, two annual fairs were held at Ballinamore on- May 12, November 12, it is recorded, that in 1925, Ballinamore town comprised 163 houses 28 being licensed to sell alcohol. Back in the 18th century, there was a flourishing ironworks here. Ballinamore Iron works was established sometime after 1693 and continued production until 1747 when the business was put up for sale, the assets including a furnace, slitting mill, mine yards, coal yards, large quantities of pig iron and coals; the operation closed due to the exhaustion of forests locally. Ballinamore railway station opened on 24 October 1887, but closed on 1 April 1959, it was part of the narrow gauge Cavan and Leitrim Railway and was the hub of the line, with the locomotive depot and works.
It was the point where the line from Dromod through Mohill and Ballinamore to Belturbet branched to Kiltubrid and Arigna. The Ballinamore and Ballyconnell Canal was opened in 1860 but was not a success and fell into disrepair, it now brings more tourists into the town. Today, Ballinamore has daily Local-link bus services to Carrick on Shannon and Dromod railway station Monday to Saturday; the local Church of Ireland church is the oldest building in Ballinamore in the 1780s from the ruins of the local Roman Catholic Church demolished during the reformation and penal laws. The Ballinamore Estate was granted to the Ormsby family in 1677. Elizabethan settlers located at first in County Sligo, from where they spread into Counties Mayo and Galway; the Ballinamore branch were descended from the Ormsby of Cummin in County Sligo. A monument to the IRA Chief of Staff, TD, local councillor John Joe McGirl is located on the bridge crossing the Shannon-Erne Waterway; the monument bears the phrase: "An Unbroken and Unbreakable Fenian".
Christy Moore released a song called The Ballad of Ballinamore in 1984, giving the writing credits to Fintan Vallely. Compilations have referred to the song as Ballinamore; the song was a parody of an earlier Irish rebel song called The Man from the Daily Mail. It was written after an RTE investigation in the Ballinamore area for evidence of the abducted racehorse Shergar found several locals refusing to say anything other than "no comment". List of towns and villages in Ireland Official website
Gaelic Ireland was the Gaelic political and social order, associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century. Before the Norman invasion of 1169, Gaelic Ireland comprised the whole island. Thereafter, it comprised that part of the country not under foreign dominion at a given time. For most of its history, Gaelic Ireland was a "patchwork" hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs, who were elected through tanistry. Warfare between these territories was common. A powerful ruler was acknowledged as High King of Ireland. Society was made up of clans and, like the rest of Europe, was structured hierarchically according to class. Throughout this period, the economy was pastoral and money not used. A Gaelic Irish style of dress, dance, sport and art can be identified, with Irish art merging with Anglo-Saxon styles to create Insular art. Gaelic Ireland was pagan and had an oral culture. Inscription in the ogham alphabet began in the protohistoric period as early as the 1st century.
The conversion to Christianity accompanied the introduction of literature, much of Ireland's rich pre-Christian mythology and sophisticated law code were preserved, albeit Christianized. In the Early Middle Ages, Ireland was an important centre of learning. Irish missionaries and scholars were influential in western Europe, helped to spread Christianity to much of Britain and parts of mainland Europe. In the 9th century, Vikings began raiding and founding settlements along Ireland's coasts and waterways, which became its first large towns. Over time, these settlers became the Norse-Gaels. After the Norman invasion of 1169–71, large swathes of Ireland came under the control of Norman lords, leading to centuries of conflict with the native Irish; the King of England claimed sovereignty over this territory – the Lordship of Ireland – and the island as a whole. However, the Gaelic system continued in areas outside Anglo-Norman control; the territory under English control shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Hiberno-Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture.
In 1542, Henry VIII of England declared himself King of Ireland. The English began to conquer the island. By 1607, Ireland was under English control, bringing the old Gaelic political and social order to an end. Gaelic culture and society was centred around the clann or fine, the landscape and history of Ireland was wrought with inter-clan relationships, friendships, vendettas, so on. Gaelic Ireland had appreciation of deeper and intellectual pursuits. Filí and draoithe were held in high regard during Pagan times and orally passed down the history and traditions of their people. Many of their spiritual and intellectual tasks were passed on to Christian monks, after said religion prevailed from the 5th century onwards. However, the filí continued to hold a high position. Poetry, storytelling and other art forms were prized and cultivated in both pagan and Christian Gaelic Ireland. Hospitality, bonds of kinship and the fulfilment of social and ritual responsibilities were important. Like Britain, Gaelic Ireland consisted not several.
The main kingdoms were Ulaid, Laigin, Connacht, Bréifne, In Tuaiscert, Airgíalla. Each of these overkingdoms were built upon lordships known as túatha. Law tracts from the early 700s describe a hierarchy of kings: kings of túath subject to kings of several túatha who again were subject to the regional overkings. Before the 8th century these overkingdoms had begun to replace the túatha as the basic sociopolitical unit. Before Christianization, the Gaelic Irish were pagan, they had many gods and goddesses, which have parallels in the pantheons of other European nations. Two groups of supernatural beings who appear throughout Irish mythology—the Tuatha Dé Danann and Fomorians—are believed to represent the Gaelic pantheon, they were animists, believing that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, that these spirits could be communicated with. Burial practices—which included burying food and ornaments with the dead—suggest a belief in life after death; some have equated this afterlife with the Otherworld realms known as Magh Meall and Tír na nÓg in Irish mythology.
There were four main religious festivals each year, marking the traditional four divisions of the year – Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh. The mythology of Ireland was passed down orally, but much of it was written down by Irish monks, who Christianized and modified it to an extent; this large body of work is split into three overlapping cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle. The first cycle is a pseudo-history that describes how Ireland, its people and its society came to be; the second cycle tells of the deaths of Ulaidh heroes such as Cúchulainn. The third cycle tells of the exploits of the Fianna. There are a number of tales that do not fit into these cycles – this includes the immrama and echtrai, which are tales of voyages to the'Otherworld'; the introduction of Christianity to Ireland dates to sometime before the 5th century, with Palladius sent by Pope Celestine I in the mid-5th century to minister to Irish "believing in Christ". Early medieval traditions credit Saint Patrick as being the first Primate of Ireland
The Border Region is a NUTS Level III statistical region of the Republic of Ireland. The name of the region refers to its location along the Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, it is not a cross-border region, as it comprises the Irish counties of Cavan, Leitrim and Sligo. The Border Region spans 11,516 km2, 16.4% of the total area of the state, has a population of 392,837 persons, 8.28% of the state total. Its NUTS code is IE041. Prior to 2014, the region was governed by the Border Regional Assembly. Statutory instrument No. 573/2014 abolished that assembly. Since that date, the association between Regional Assemblies and NUTS regions has ceased; the NUTS regions are used for statistical reporting to Eurostat, while the Regional Assemblies are responsible for planning at a local government level. The region's largest town is Letterkenny, followed by Sligo; the Border Region was administered by the Border Regional Authority, which consisted of 38 elected representatives including the region's representative on the EU Committee of the Regions.
These representatives met once a month and were nominated from the six local government councils of the region: Donegal County Council Louth County Council Cavan County Council Monaghan County Council Sligo County Council Leitrim County CouncilThe Regional Authorities were dissolved in 2014 and were replaced by Regional Assemblies. Under Commission Regulation 2016/2066, which took effect in 2018, County Louth was transferred to the Mid-East Region, reducing the number of Border Region counties from 6 to 5. Due to its position along the Dublin–Belfast corridor and strong economic ties with the Greater Dublin Area, Louth was removed from the Border Region despite sharing a border with Northern Ireland; these changes had a number of implications. County Louth represented 24.6% of the population of the Border region and was its 2nd most populous county after Donegal. In addition, the region's two largest towns and Drogheda, were lost, as was the region's connection to the Irish Sea. Louth was the only Leinster county in the region.
Drogheda, at just 48km from Dublin, was the region's closest town to the capital. Following the change, County Cavan, now holds that title, at 85km away; the local authorities in the border region are as follows: Donegal County Council Cavan County Council Monaghan County Council Sligo County Council Leitrim County CouncilSince the 2014 reforms, NUTS Level III regions have had no administrative role. The elected representatives of these councils instead convene at the Northern and Western Regional Assembly for planning and local government purposes. Much like the rest of Ireland, the Border Region has a increasing population, although it remains on average the slowest growing region in the country; the region's population growth is split along east-west lines, owing to the more easterly border counties' proximity to Dublin. Cavan is one of Ireland's fastest growing counties, having registered a 4% population increase between 2011 and 2016. In contrast, Donegal is Ireland's most declining county, having shrank 1.5% during that same period.
According to the 2016 census, the Border Region had a population of 392,837, which constitutes 8.28% of the national population. Its population density was 34.1 persons per the second lowest in the country. Donegal is by far the largest county in the Border Region by both population; the Border Region contains a number of nationally significant Gaeltacht areas, such as Gweedore, Na Rosa and Tory Island. The dialect spoken in the border region is Ulster Irish, while Donegal has its own distinct sub-dialect known as West Ulster Irish, colloquially referred to as "Donegal Irish". 25% of Ireland's Gaeltacht population lives within Donegal. Despite this, the Border Region has the lowest percentage of Irish speakers of any region; the percentage of Irish speakers by county is: Leitrim, Monghan Donegal and Cavan. The region only contains 17 towns with a population of over 2,000 people. 7 of these are located in Donegal, 5 in Cavan, 3 in Monaghan and 1 in both Sligo and Leitrim respectively. A list of the ten largest settlements in the Border Region.
County capitals are shown in bold. According to Eurostat figures for 2016, the region had GDP of €11.399 bn and a GDP per capita of €21,885, the lowest per capita GDP in the country. This 2016 data included County Louth, the CSO has yet to publish 2018 data for the new boundary; the Irish Financial Crisis of 2008 had a devastating impact on the Border Region. In 2007, regional GDP per capita was €30,697, by 2014 it had fallen to €19,957. While economic activity is growing it still remains well below peak levels. Services, manufacturing and tourism are all important industries in the region. According to 2016 CSO data on Gross value added by region, Services account for 64.1% of the regional economy, followed by Manufacturing and Construction at 32.8% and Agriculture at 3%. Tourism to the Border Region, while continuing to grow in significance, is hindered by poor infrastructure; the region is rural, characterized by much smaller farms than seen in the Mid-East or Mid-West. Agriculture in the region produces €396.2 million per year.
65% of all commercial fish landings in Ireland take place in Donegal. A study by the European Committee of the Regions found that Ireland's border counties were the most exposed in Europe to the economic effects of Brexit. Cross-border trade between Northern Ireland and the Republic is centered around the Border Region, some 33% of Border Region exports go to the UK, well above the state total of 18%. In Q2 2017, regional un
County Cavan is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region, it is based on the historic Gaelic territory of East Breffny. Cavan County Council is the local authority for the county, which had a population of 76,176 at the 2016 census. Cavan borders six counties: Leitrim to the west and Monaghan to the north, Meath to the south-east, Longford to the south-west and Westmeath to the south. Cavan shares a 70 km border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. Cavan is the 19th largest of the 25th largest by population. There are eight historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Castlerahan see Virginia, County Cavan Clankee Clanmahon Loughtee Lower Loughtee Upper – whose chief town, Cavan, is the county town Tullygarvey Tullyhaw – the largest in the county at 89,852 acres Tullyhunco Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are 1979 townlands in the county.
Cavan - 10,914 Bailieborough - 2,683 Ballyjamesduff - 2,661 Virginia - 2,648 Kingscourt - 2,499 The county is characterised by drumlin countryside dotted with many lakes and hills. The north-western area of the county is sparsely mountainous; the Breifne Mountains contain Cuilcagh, at 665 metres. Cavan is the source of many rivers. Shannon Pot on the slopes of Cuilcagh is the source of the River Shannon, the longest river in Ireland at 386 km; the River Erne is a major river which rises from Beaghy Lough, two miles south of Stradone in Cavan and flows for 120 km to Lough Erne. Other rivers in the county include the Blackwater River, which rises near Bailieborough and flows through Lough Ramor, joining the River Boyne at Navan; the Glyde and the Owenroe source in Cavan. Cavan is reputed to contain 365 lakes. At 18.8 km2, Lough Sheelin is the county's largest lake. A large complex of lakes form in the north and west of Cavan into designated Specially Protected Areas. Other important wildlife protected lakes such as Lough Gowna and Lough Ramor are in the south and east of the county.
Cavan has a hilly landscape and contains just under 7,000 hectares of forested area, 3.6% of Cavan's total land area. The county contains forests such as Bellamont Forest near Cootehill, Killykeen Forest Park at Lough Oughter, Dún na Rí Forest Park and the Burren Forest. Met Éireann records the climate data for Cavan from their station at Ballyhaise. Under Köppen climate classification, Cavan experiences a maritime temperate oceanic climate with cold winters, mild humid summers, a lack of temperature extremes; the average maximum January temperature is 8.2 °C, while the average maximum July temperature is 19.8 °C. On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 104.4 mm of rain, the driest months are May and June with 67.8 mm and 67.9 mm respectively. Humidity is high year round and rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with the annual precipitation at Ballyhaise being 1,006 mm On average, snow showers occur between November and March. In 2010, record low temperatures for November and January were recorded in Cavan.
In late December, the temperature at the station fell to − its lowest ever. On Tuesday 21 December 2010, a daily maximum of −9.4 °C was recorded at Ballyhaise, the lowest daily maximum recorded in Ireland. Summer daytime temperatures range between 15 °C and 22 °C, with temperatures going beyond 25 °C; the average annual sunshine hours range between 1,300 hours in the north to 1,500 hours in the south. In medieval times, the area of Cavan was part of the petty kingdom of East Bréifne or Brefney O'Reilly after its ruling Gaelic family; this in turn was a division of the 11th century Kingdom of Bréifne. For this reason the county is colloquially known as the Breffni County. A high degree of defence was achieved by using the natural landscape of drumlin loughs; the poorly drained heavy clay soils contributed as an obstacle against invasion. Cavan was part of the western province of Connacht, but was transferred to Ulster in 1584 following the composition of Breifne. In the south, the Lough Sheelin area was part of Leinster until the late 14th century.
Parts of Cavan were subjected to Norman influence from the twelfth century and the remains of several motte and bailie fortifications are still visible in the east of the county, as well as the remains of stronger works such as Castlerahan and Clogh Oughter castle. The influence of several monastic orders owes its origins to around this time with abbey remains existent in locations such as Drumlane and Trinity Island; the Plantation of Ulster from 1610 saw the settlement and origins of several new towns within the county
The Kingdom of West Breifne or Breifne O'Rourke was a historic kingdom of Ireland that existed from 1256 to 1605, located in the area, now County Leitrim. It took its present boundaries in 1583 when West Breifne was shired and renamed Leitrim, after the village of Leitrim, an O'Rourke stronghold; the kingdom came into existence after a battle between the ruling O'Rourke clan and the ascendant O'Reillys caused the breakup of the older Kingdom of Breifne and led to the formation of East Breifne and West Breifne. The kingdom was ruled by the O'Rourke clan and lasted until the early 17th century, when their lands were confiscated by England. In 1172, Tighearnán Ua Ruairc, the longtime Lord of Breifne and Conmaice, was betrayed and killed at Tlachtgha during negotiations with Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath. Tighearnán was beheaded, his head and body was conveyed to the Anglo-Normans in Dublin, where it was put on display; the assassination of Tighernán caused a war of succession in Breifne and for the next hundred years there would be no long standing King of Breifne, as rival branches of the O'Rourke clan fought for the kingship.
This time of turbulence in the kingdom caused a great rift between the various branches of clan O'Rourke, with regular fighting between rival members. The instability and weakness of Breifne, which had lost much of its territory during the Norman invasion, prompted the O'Reilly in the east of the kingdom to launch a campaign against the ruling O'Rourke dynasty. By the late 1230s the O'Reilly had usurped control of Breifne, Cathal O'Reilly ruled as king from the east of the kingdom and Cúchonnacht O'Reilly, Connacht's foremost general and close ally of King Felim O'Conor, had militarily taken control of western Breifne and expelled the O'Rourke leaders; the turbulent decades that followed saw the O'Reilly switch allegiance to the Norman de Burghs and the O'Rourke were once again allied to Connacht. By 1250 the O'Reilly had been pushed back out of western Breifne as Connacht advanced into their eastern homeland. In 1256 the devastating Battle of Magh Slecht was fought between Connacht and the O'Rourke clan against the O'Reilly.
Despite ending in an O'Rourke victory, they had lost complete control over the eastern half of their kingdom and the immediate chaos that ensued within West Breifne following the war left them without the power to retake it. As a result, Breifne was left permanently divided into West Breifne. After repelling de Burgh and the O'Reilly, the kings of Connacht, Tír Eoghain and Tír Chonaill met at Caoluisce Castle to agree to form a united front against the Normans in the future. At these talks, which the O'Rourke lords of Breifne were excluded from, it was agreed that the king of Connacht was the rightful ruler of all of Breifne "from Kells to Drumcliff". Aedh O'Conor saw Breifne as an integral part of Connacht rather than an independent kingdom and, as heir to the kingship, was determined to rein in its leaders; this put Aedh in direct confrontation with Conchobar O'Ruairc, king of West Breifne, who rebelled against him. According to the Annals of Connacht, the two men "had been good comrades till now".
To assert West Breifne's independence, Conchobar made peace with the de Burghs without the permission of the king of Connacht, prompting Aedh O'Conor to launch raids on West Breifne. In 1257, after a brief war, Conchobar submitted to O'Conor and signed a peace treaty offering O'Conor any lands of his choice in Breifne. O'Conor put a garrison into it; that year, Conchobar violated the terms of the treaty and forced O'Conor's garrison out of the castle before razing it. Due to this act of betrayal, Aedh O'Conor elected Sitric O'Ruairc to replace Conchobar as king of West Breifne, however Sitric was soon killed by Domnall, Conchobar's son, to avenge his father's dispossession; this led to Domnall's arrest and imprisonment and Aedh O'Conor resumed raids on West Breifne. This sparked a series of conflicts that lasted from 1257 to 1266 whereby Aedh O’Conor attempted to control the politics of West Breifne by instating and supporting his favoured candidates as kings, driving a wedge between the O’Rourkes, with devastating consequences for the unity and stability of the kingdom.
Amlaib was chosen to succeed Sitric, however the kingdom was in disarray and, like his predecessor, his authority as king was nominal. His rule marks the first appearance in the annals of the king ruling “from the mountain westward” i.e. west of Slieve Anieran on the eastern shore of Lough Allen – a situation, to be repeated in the 15th century. Art O'Ruairc, son of Cathal Riabach, ruled the east in opposition to Connacht. In 1258, with the war against Connacht still ongoing, Conchobar was betrayed and murdered by his own men with the assistance of Matha O'Reilly, king of East Breifne, who had risen up in rebellion against Aedh O'Conor. After his father's death, Domnall was instated as king of West Breifne. However, shortly after his appointment as king, Domnall killed Magrath Mac Tiernan, chieftain of Tellach-Dunchada, a clan that held land within Breifne; as a result of this killing, Domnall was deposed as king by the major clans of West Breifne, including Tellach-Dunchada, who executed Domnall's brother Cathal in retaliation.
After Domnall was deposed, Art O'Ruairc was supported by the major clans as the effective ruler of the entire kingdom, but in 1259, he was taken prisoner by Connacht. Connacht continued to vie for control of Breifne and supported Art bec, Amlaib’s brother, as king in 1260. Evidently a rift emerged between the two as Aedh O'Conor killed Art bec, his own candidate for the kingship, that