The River Erne in the northwest of the island of Ireland, is the second-longest river in Ulster flowing through Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It rises on the east shoulder of Slieve Glah mountain three miles south of Cavan in County Cavan, Republic of Ireland, flows 80 miles through Lough Gowna, Lough Oughter and Upper and Lower Lough Erne, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, to the sea at Ballyshannon, County Donegal back in the Republic. For 30 miles from Crossdoney in County Cavan to Enniskillen in County Fermanagh, it is difficult to distinguish the river as it winds its way through interconnected loughs or parts of loughs nestling among the drumlin hills of Cavan and south Fermanagh; the river is 120 kilometres long and is used for fly fishing for trout and salmon, with a number of fisheries along both the river itself and its tributaries. The town of Enniskillen is situated on an island in the river, between Upper and Lower Lough Erne, it is linked to the River Shannon by the Shannon–Erne Waterway.
The total catchment area of the River Erne is 4,372 km2. The long-term average flow rate of the River Erne is 101.7 cubic metres per second The river takes its name from a mythical princess named Éirne. The building of hydroelectric power stations at Cliff and Ballyshannon caused local salmon beats to be flooded; the run of salmon into the Erne has now declined to a level, of little angling value, except for the few fish that are caught below Cliff when the power station is generating. Roach first appeared in the river in 1963, there was an increase in the roach population in 1968; this increase could well have had an adverse effect on trout stocks, which went into decline at that time. Water pollution became a problem in the 1970s and up to 1987. Since 1987 the pollution problem has been controlled, the roach population has declined and trout stocks have made a return and provide good angling once more, both on the Erne itself and its tributaries. Live aboard pleasure cruisers are available in several locations along the Erne waterway, including Belturbet, Carrybridge, Bellanaleck and Killadeas.
In addition to the use of the Erne for live aboard boating holidays, sections of the river are used for water skiing, bank fishing, jet skiing and scuba diving. Boaters are cautioned, by the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, that Upper Lough Erne is a maze of small islands needing careful navigation, waves on Lower Lough Erne can reach "open-sea dimensions"; the Erne waterway is home to ancient ruins, both Christian and Pagan, with ruins found in several locations, including: Crom Estate, on the North bank of the Upper Erne channel, Gad Island, near Crom Estate, Devenish Island, Inismacsaint Island, Davy’s Island, White Island, Boa Island. Many of these locations can only be reached by boat. Devenish Island has a historical display centre adjacent to its ruins. Visitors sometimes use rental boats and the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland Activity Map of Lough Erne to locate these ancient sites; the song Buachaill Ón Éirne is an Irish ballad about a young boy from the Erne area. It has been recorded by such groups as Clannad and The Corrs.
A number of places were once accessible by train along the River Erne, with the once extensive Great Northern Railway and the Sligo and Northern Counties Railway both serving the area. Information and maps of the Erne from the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland
Abbeyshrule is a village in south-east County Longford, Ireland, on the River Inny and the Royal Canal. The village takes its name from an early medieval Cistercian abbey, the ruins of which still survive on the banks of the Inny; the building of the Royal Canal in the early nineteenth century, which required the construction of the architecturally significant Whitworth aqueduct across the Inny, brought increasing trade to the village until the mid twentieth century. Abbeyshrule won the 2012 National Tidy Towns Award with a total of 312 marks; the village claimed the award for Ireland’s Tidiest Village 2012. Abbeyshrule subsequently won a Gold Medal Award at the European Entente Florale Competition, for which achievement Minister for Environment and Local Government Phil Hogan said the village should be immensely proud. Renowned novelist and poet Oliver Goldsmith is believed to have been born in 1728 at Pallas near to the village, where his father resided as a local curate; the location is marked by a replica of the Goldsmith statue found at the entrance to Trinity College, Dublin.
As a village geographically well situated in the Irish midlands between major urban centres such as Athlone and Mullingar, Abbeyshrule has grown popular for midland business affairs. The Abbeyshrule Aerodrome is located just outside the village, while the Royal Canal has been reopened to extensive tourist marine traffic in recent years. List of towns and villages in Ireland Abbeyshrule village website
Gaelic Ireland was the Gaelic political and social order, associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century. Before the Norman invasion of 1169, Gaelic Ireland comprised the whole island. Thereafter, it comprised that part of the country not under foreign dominion at a given time. For most of its history, Gaelic Ireland was a "patchwork" hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs, who were elected through tanistry. Warfare between these territories was common. A powerful ruler was acknowledged as High King of Ireland. Society was made up of clans and, like the rest of Europe, was structured hierarchically according to class. Throughout this period, the economy was pastoral and money not used. A Gaelic Irish style of dress, dance, sport and art can be identified, with Irish art merging with Anglo-Saxon styles to create Insular art. Gaelic Ireland was pagan and had an oral culture. Inscription in the ogham alphabet began in the protohistoric period as early as the 1st century.
The conversion to Christianity accompanied the introduction of literature, much of Ireland's rich pre-Christian mythology and sophisticated law code were preserved, albeit Christianized. In the Early Middle Ages, Ireland was an important centre of learning. Irish missionaries and scholars were influential in western Europe, helped to spread Christianity to much of Britain and parts of mainland Europe. In the 9th century, Vikings began raiding and founding settlements along Ireland's coasts and waterways, which became its first large towns. Over time, these settlers became the Norse-Gaels. After the Norman invasion of 1169–71, large swathes of Ireland came under the control of Norman lords, leading to centuries of conflict with the native Irish; the King of England claimed sovereignty over this territory – the Lordship of Ireland – and the island as a whole. However, the Gaelic system continued in areas outside Anglo-Norman control; the territory under English control shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Hiberno-Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture.
In 1542, Henry VIII of England declared himself King of Ireland. The English began to conquer the island. By 1607, Ireland was under English control, bringing the old Gaelic political and social order to an end. Gaelic culture and society was centred around the clann or fine, the landscape and history of Ireland was wrought with inter-clan relationships, friendships, vendettas, so on. Gaelic Ireland had appreciation of deeper and intellectual pursuits. Filí and draoithe were held in high regard during Pagan times and orally passed down the history and traditions of their people. Many of their spiritual and intellectual tasks were passed on to Christian monks, after said religion prevailed from the 5th century onwards. However, the filí continued to hold a high position. Poetry, storytelling and other art forms were prized and cultivated in both pagan and Christian Gaelic Ireland. Hospitality, bonds of kinship and the fulfilment of social and ritual responsibilities were important. Like Britain, Gaelic Ireland consisted not several.
The main kingdoms were Ulaid, Laigin, Connacht, Bréifne, In Tuaiscert, Airgíalla. Each of these overkingdoms were built upon lordships known as túatha. Law tracts from the early 700s describe a hierarchy of kings: kings of túath subject to kings of several túatha who again were subject to the regional overkings. Before the 8th century these overkingdoms had begun to replace the túatha as the basic sociopolitical unit. Before Christianization, the Gaelic Irish were pagan, they had many gods and goddesses, which have parallels in the pantheons of other European nations. Two groups of supernatural beings who appear throughout Irish mythology—the Tuatha Dé Danann and Fomorians—are believed to represent the Gaelic pantheon, they were animists, believing that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, that these spirits could be communicated with. Burial practices—which included burying food and ornaments with the dead—suggest a belief in life after death; some have equated this afterlife with the Otherworld realms known as Magh Meall and Tír na nÓg in Irish mythology.
There were four main religious festivals each year, marking the traditional four divisions of the year – Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh. The mythology of Ireland was passed down orally, but much of it was written down by Irish monks, who Christianized and modified it to an extent; this large body of work is split into three overlapping cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle. The first cycle is a pseudo-history that describes how Ireland, its people and its society came to be; the second cycle tells of the deaths of Ulaidh heroes such as Cúchulainn. The third cycle tells of the exploits of the Fianna. There are a number of tales that do not fit into these cycles – this includes the immrama and echtrai, which are tales of voyages to the'Otherworld'; the introduction of Christianity to Ireland dates to sometime before the 5th century, with Palladius sent by Pope Celestine I in the mid-5th century to minister to Irish "believing in Christ". Early medieval traditions credit Saint Patrick as being the first Primate of Ireland
Cairn Hill transmission site
The Cairn Hill transmission site is located on a 278-metre hill in County Longford that lies 10 km north east of Longford town. This was the first UHF television transmitter to be opened in the Republic of Ireland by RTÉ to facilitate the introduction of their second television channel in 1978, two new channels TV3 and TG4 were added later; the site still has its original 123 metre tall cable-stayed steel lattice mast. The transmitter was designed to cover an area of poor reception in central Ireland, when it opened in 1978 it was the most powerful television transmitter in all of Ireland, with an effective radiated power of 800 kW. FM radio transmissions started in 2005 but to date only RTÉ Radio 1 and local station iRadio are broadcast from here. Digital terrestrial television broadcasts began from Cairn Hill in February 2009, analogue television services subsequently ended on 24 October 2012. Today the transmitter and operated by 2RN, provides the national DTT service Saorview to an extensive area in the Irish midlands
Killashee is a village in County Longford, Ireland. It is situated on the N63 midway between Lanesborough and Longford, near the Royal Canal and 8 km east of the River Shannon. Killashee is home to St. Brigid's Killashee GAA, the team competes in the Longford Intermediate Football Championship; the village is situated along the N63 road between Claregalway and Longford and is only 8 kilometres south of Longford town. The closest airport to the Killashee is the Abbeyshrule Aerodrome located 33 kilometres south-east of the village, the closest major airport is Knock Airport in Charlestown, County Mayo, 91 kilometres north-west of Killashee. Killashee is served by two Bus Éireann routes. Route 425 provides a daily service each way to / from Galway via Roscommon. Route 467 provides two journeys each way to Lanesboro on Wednesday. List of towns and villages in Ireland
County Cavan is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region, it is based on the historic Gaelic territory of East Breffny. Cavan County Council is the local authority for the county, which had a population of 76,176 at the 2016 census. Cavan borders six counties: Leitrim to the west and Monaghan to the north, Meath to the south-east, Longford to the south-west and Westmeath to the south. Cavan shares a 70 km border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. Cavan is the 19th largest of the 25th largest by population. There are eight historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Castlerahan see Virginia, County Cavan Clankee Clanmahon Loughtee Lower Loughtee Upper – whose chief town, Cavan, is the county town Tullygarvey Tullyhaw – the largest in the county at 89,852 acres Tullyhunco Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are 1979 townlands in the county.
Cavan - 10,914 Bailieborough - 2,683 Ballyjamesduff - 2,661 Virginia - 2,648 Kingscourt - 2,499 The county is characterised by drumlin countryside dotted with many lakes and hills. The north-western area of the county is sparsely mountainous; the Breifne Mountains contain Cuilcagh, at 665 metres. Cavan is the source of many rivers. Shannon Pot on the slopes of Cuilcagh is the source of the River Shannon, the longest river in Ireland at 386 km; the River Erne is a major river which rises from Beaghy Lough, two miles south of Stradone in Cavan and flows for 120 km to Lough Erne. Other rivers in the county include the Blackwater River, which rises near Bailieborough and flows through Lough Ramor, joining the River Boyne at Navan; the Glyde and the Owenroe source in Cavan. Cavan is reputed to contain 365 lakes. At 18.8 km2, Lough Sheelin is the county's largest lake. A large complex of lakes form in the north and west of Cavan into designated Specially Protected Areas. Other important wildlife protected lakes such as Lough Gowna and Lough Ramor are in the south and east of the county.
Cavan has a hilly landscape and contains just under 7,000 hectares of forested area, 3.6% of Cavan's total land area. The county contains forests such as Bellamont Forest near Cootehill, Killykeen Forest Park at Lough Oughter, Dún na Rí Forest Park and the Burren Forest. Met Éireann records the climate data for Cavan from their station at Ballyhaise. Under Köppen climate classification, Cavan experiences a maritime temperate oceanic climate with cold winters, mild humid summers, a lack of temperature extremes; the average maximum January temperature is 8.2 °C, while the average maximum July temperature is 19.8 °C. On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 104.4 mm of rain, the driest months are May and June with 67.8 mm and 67.9 mm respectively. Humidity is high year round and rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with the annual precipitation at Ballyhaise being 1,006 mm On average, snow showers occur between November and March. In 2010, record low temperatures for November and January were recorded in Cavan.
In late December, the temperature at the station fell to − its lowest ever. On Tuesday 21 December 2010, a daily maximum of −9.4 °C was recorded at Ballyhaise, the lowest daily maximum recorded in Ireland. Summer daytime temperatures range between 15 °C and 22 °C, with temperatures going beyond 25 °C; the average annual sunshine hours range between 1,300 hours in the north to 1,500 hours in the south. In medieval times, the area of Cavan was part of the petty kingdom of East Bréifne or Brefney O'Reilly after its ruling Gaelic family; this in turn was a division of the 11th century Kingdom of Bréifne. For this reason the county is colloquially known as the Breffni County. A high degree of defence was achieved by using the natural landscape of drumlin loughs; the poorly drained heavy clay soils contributed as an obstacle against invasion. Cavan was part of the western province of Connacht, but was transferred to Ulster in 1584 following the composition of Breifne. In the south, the Lough Sheelin area was part of Leinster until the late 14th century.
Parts of Cavan were subjected to Norman influence from the twelfth century and the remains of several motte and bailie fortifications are still visible in the east of the county, as well as the remains of stronger works such as Castlerahan and Clogh Oughter castle. The influence of several monastic orders owes its origins to around this time with abbey remains existent in locations such as Drumlane and Trinity Island; the Plantation of Ulster from 1610 saw the settlement and origins of several new towns within the county
Longford is the county town of County Longford in Ireland. It has a population of 10,008 according to the 2016 census, it is about one third of the county's population lives there. Longford lies at the meeting of Ireland's N4 and N5 National Primary Route roads, which means that traffic traveling between Dublin and County Mayo, or North County Roscommon passes around the town; the station in Longford on the Dublin-Sligo line is important for commuters. The town is built on the banks of the River Camlin, a tributary of the River Shannon; the name Longford is an Anglicization of the Irish Longphort, from port. This name was applied to many Irish settlements of Viking origin and came to mean fort or camp in the Irish language, so Longfort the modern Irish spelling, is the name of this town, one of the only Gaelic Irish market towns to arise without first being founded by Vikings or Normans; the area came under the sway of the local clan which controlled the south and middle of the County of Longford and hence, the town is sometimes called Longfort Uí Fhearghail.
A Dominican priory was founded there in 1400. The Corlea Trackway Visitor Centre is located near in Keenagh; the Centre houses an Iron Age bog road, built in 148 BC across the boglands in proximity to the River Shannon. The oak road is the largest of its kind to have been uncovered in Europe and was excavated over the years by Professor Barry Raftery of University College Dublin. Inside the building, an 18-metre stretch of preserved road is on permanent display in a specially designed hall with humidifiers to prevent the ancient wood from cracking in the heat. Bord na Mona and the Heritage Service have carried out conservation work on the surrounding bog to ensure that it remains wet and that the buried road is preserved. There are some exhibits at the centre. St. Mel's Cathedral in the town features several stained glass windows by Harry Clarke studios; these include one of his earliest works The consecration of St. Mel as Bishop of Longford, exhibited at the RDS Annual Art Industries Exhibition in 1910, where it received second prize.
It was exhibited at The Arts and Crafts Society of Ireland fourth exhibition in the same year. The Cathedral was extensively damaged in a fire on Christmas Day 2009. St. Mel's Cathedral remained closed for five years following the fire while it was the centre of one of the largest restoration projects undertaken in Europe, it reopened for services at midnight mass on Christmas Eve 2014 and has since become a significant tourist attraction. The two most intricated stained-glass windows in the transepts of the Cathedral have been faithfully restored – these depict St Anne and the Resurrection. Longford town boasts a state-of-the-art 212-seat theatre called Backstage Theatre just outside of the town, a four-screen multiplex cinema, with restaurants; the mix and quality of housing is extensive and the Rural Renewal Hi Scheme has ensured that a steady supply of residential development has come about. Longford town has a decentralized government department which employs 300 people and a further 130 are employed at the Irish Prison Service's headquarters in the Lisamuck area of the town.
The Prison Service HQ boasts a sculpture by renowned artist Remco de Fou which, apart from the Spire in Dublin is the largest piece of sculpture in Ireland. Connolly Barracks once employed 180 soldiers, many of whom were involved in UN peace-keeping duties, until the barracks closed in January 2009; the town serves as the cathedral town of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Clonmacnoise. St Mel's Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mel, the founder of the diocese of Ardagh, was designed by architect John Benjamin Keane, who designed St. Francis Xavier's Church on Gardiner Street in Dublin. There are a number of portal dolmens located around Longford. Longford's main industries are food production, steelworking, generator retailing, cable making and the production of medical diagnostics, it is the major services centre for the county as well as the location of the Department of Social Welfare and the Irish Prison Service. The town is a local commercial centre, with many retail outlets including multiples such as Tesco and Homestore and more, German discount retailers and Lidl and Irish retail outlets such as Dunnes Stores and Penneys.
Up until 2007, construction was a major local employer due to government tax breaks for property development provided under the Rural Renewal scheme. However the downturn in the construction industry, the withdrawal of Rural Renewal, extensive local oversupply of property has caused large job losses in the construction industry and a significant increase in unemployment in the region. Longford town has a number of primary schools and three secondary schools: two single-sex schools, St. Mel's College, Scoil Mhuire, as well as a mixed school. Primary schools in Longford include a St. Joseph's. An extensive adult education centre exists in Longford. St. Mel's College is the oldest and best-known of these schools, being founded 150 years ago by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnois as a diocesan seminary to train students for the priesthood. While the school only functioned as a seminary, it served for many years as a boarding school, while a