Gaelic Ireland was the Gaelic political and social order, associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century. Before the Norman invasion of 1169, Gaelic Ireland comprised the whole island. Thereafter, it comprised that part of the country not under foreign dominion at a given time. For most of its history, Gaelic Ireland was a "patchwork" hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs, who were elected through tanistry. Warfare between these territories was common. A powerful ruler was acknowledged as High King of Ireland. Society was made up of clans and, like the rest of Europe, was structured hierarchically according to class. Throughout this period, the economy was pastoral and money not used. A Gaelic Irish style of dress, dance, sport and art can be identified, with Irish art merging with Anglo-Saxon styles to create Insular art. Gaelic Ireland was pagan and had an oral culture. Inscription in the ogham alphabet began in the protohistoric period as early as the 1st century.
The conversion to Christianity accompanied the introduction of literature, much of Ireland's rich pre-Christian mythology and sophisticated law code were preserved, albeit Christianized. In the Early Middle Ages, Ireland was an important centre of learning. Irish missionaries and scholars were influential in western Europe, helped to spread Christianity to much of Britain and parts of mainland Europe. In the 9th century, Vikings began raiding and founding settlements along Ireland's coasts and waterways, which became its first large towns. Over time, these settlers became the Norse-Gaels. After the Norman invasion of 1169–71, large swathes of Ireland came under the control of Norman lords, leading to centuries of conflict with the native Irish; the King of England claimed sovereignty over this territory – the Lordship of Ireland – and the island as a whole. However, the Gaelic system continued in areas outside Anglo-Norman control; the territory under English control shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Hiberno-Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture.
In 1542, Henry VIII of England declared himself King of Ireland. The English began to conquer the island. By 1607, Ireland was under English control, bringing the old Gaelic political and social order to an end. Gaelic culture and society was centred around the clann or fine, the landscape and history of Ireland was wrought with inter-clan relationships, friendships, vendettas, so on. Gaelic Ireland had appreciation of deeper and intellectual pursuits. Filí and draoithe were held in high regard during Pagan times and orally passed down the history and traditions of their people. Many of their spiritual and intellectual tasks were passed on to Christian monks, after said religion prevailed from the 5th century onwards. However, the filí continued to hold a high position. Poetry, storytelling and other art forms were prized and cultivated in both pagan and Christian Gaelic Ireland. Hospitality, bonds of kinship and the fulfilment of social and ritual responsibilities were important. Like Britain, Gaelic Ireland consisted not several.
The main kingdoms were Ulaid, Laigin, Connacht, Bréifne, In Tuaiscert, Airgíalla. Each of these overkingdoms were built upon lordships known as túatha. Law tracts from the early 700s describe a hierarchy of kings: kings of túath subject to kings of several túatha who again were subject to the regional overkings. Before the 8th century these overkingdoms had begun to replace the túatha as the basic sociopolitical unit. Before Christianization, the Gaelic Irish were pagan, they had many gods and goddesses, which have parallels in the pantheons of other European nations. Two groups of supernatural beings who appear throughout Irish mythology—the Tuatha Dé Danann and Fomorians—are believed to represent the Gaelic pantheon, they were animists, believing that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, that these spirits could be communicated with. Burial practices—which included burying food and ornaments with the dead—suggest a belief in life after death; some have equated this afterlife with the Otherworld realms known as Magh Meall and Tír na nÓg in Irish mythology.
There were four main religious festivals each year, marking the traditional four divisions of the year – Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh. The mythology of Ireland was passed down orally, but much of it was written down by Irish monks, who Christianized and modified it to an extent; this large body of work is split into three overlapping cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle. The first cycle is a pseudo-history that describes how Ireland, its people and its society came to be; the second cycle tells of the deaths of Ulaidh heroes such as Cúchulainn. The third cycle tells of the exploits of the Fianna. There are a number of tales that do not fit into these cycles – this includes the immrama and echtrai, which are tales of voyages to the'Otherworld'; the introduction of Christianity to Ireland dates to sometime before the 5th century, with Palladius sent by Pope Celestine I in the mid-5th century to minister to Irish "believing in Christ". Early medieval traditions credit Saint Patrick as being the first Primate of Ireland
Delvin is a town in County Westmeath, Ireland. The town is 20 km from Mullingar and is the setting of the book Valley of the Squinting Windows by Delvin native Brinsley MacNamara, described under the fictitious name of "Garradrimna"; the word Delvin comes from Delbhna. That tribe settled in what is present-day Delvin, along with a branch of the Soghain, in Tricha céd na Delbna Móire agus na Sogan. Delvin Castle, now a ruin, was built in 1181 by Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath for his brother-in-law, Gilbert de Nugent. De Nugent settled on some land in Delvin. De Nugent was granted the title Baron of Delvin within the Lordship of Meath, a title now held by the Earl of Westmeath; the ruins of Nugent Castle remain near the center of the town. A second castle was built several centuries hundreds of metres from the centre of the Delvin settlement of that time. Clonyn Castle is situated on dominant ground south of Delvin between the N52 and the Collinstown road. An alternative access to the castle grounds exists on the Collinstown Road opposite the church.
This access is used by Delvin Golf Club members. The 18-hole Delvin Castle Golf Club is located near the town. There is a bank, hotel/guest house, pubs, a few shops and a take-away in the town. There are a few pubs on the Main Street; the town work on a development in the center of the village recommenced. Plans were unveiled for the provision of a new sports and leisure facility within the village; some outdoor facilities called the DSLC are expected to be available by Summer 2007, while plans for the multi-purpose indoor leisure complex are being prepared. St. Patricks Crowenstown St. Tolas St. Ernans List of towns and villages in Ireland Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet Mary McEvoy, actress who played Biddy Byrne in Glenroe is from Delvin. Nationalist politician Laurence Ginnell Church of St Livinus Delvin Village website Delvin Parish
Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms; the kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, legal system, state church; the territory of the Kingdom had been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms. In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland; the English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s; the conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain. In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland.
Catholics, who made up most of the population, were discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars, the Williamite-Jacobite War, the Armagh disturbances and the Irish Rebellion of 1798; the Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, it established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain. The papal bull Laudabiliter of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155, it granted the Angevin King Henry II of England the title Dominus Hibernae. Laudabiliter authorised the king to invade Ireland. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope; this was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.
When Pope Clement VII excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII, in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry declared himself the head of the Church in England, he had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III; the Treason Act 1537 was passed to counteract this. Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas in 1534–35, the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, took their submissions. By 1540 most of Ireland seemed under the control of the king's Dublin administration. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, an Act of the Irish Parliament; the new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI, Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland.
The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland to the Crown of England became enshrined in Catholic canon law. In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland was ruled by the reigning monarch of England; this placed the new Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with the Kingdom of England. In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King's Inns for barristers in 1541, the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin were delayed until 1592. In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords and Spain against the crown, in what became known as the Nine Years' War. A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland. In 1603 James VI King of Scots became James I of England, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Ireland in a personal union.
The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England and Ireland were ruled as a republic until 1660; this period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England and Ireland. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II. Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649. Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782, granting Ireland legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan's Parliament, after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan. Although Ireland had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788 -- 89 a Regency crisis arose. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales George
Parliament of Ireland
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800. It was modelled on the Parliament of England and from 1537 comprised two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the Lords were members of bishops. The Commons was directly elected, albeit on a restricted franchise. Parliaments met at various places in Leinster and Munster, but latterly always in Dublin: in Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin Castle, Chichester House, the Blue Coat School, a purpose-built Parliament House on College Green; the main purpose of parliament was to approve taxes that were levied by and for the Dublin Castle administration. Those who would pay the bulk of taxation, the clergy and landowners comprised the members. Only the "English of Ireland" were represented until the first Gaelic lords summoned during the 16th-century Tudor reconquest. Under Poynings' Law of 1495, all Acts of Parliament had to be pre-approved by the Irish Privy Council and English Privy Council.
Parliament supported the Irish Reformation and Catholics were excluded from membership and voting in penal times. The Constitution of 1782 amended Poynings' Law to allow the Irish Parliament to initiate legislation. In 1793 Catholics were re-enfranchised; the Acts of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and Kingdom of Great Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The parliament was merged with that of Great Britain. After the 12th-century Norman invasion of Ireland, administration of the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland was modelled on that of the Kingdom of England. Magna Carta was extended in 1217 in the Great Charter of Ireland; as in England, parliament evolved out of the Magnum Concilium "great council" summoned by the king's viceroy, attended by the council and prelates. Membership was based on fealty to the king, the preservation of the king's peace, so the fluctuating number of autonomous Irish Gaelic kings were outside of the system; the earliest known parliament met at Kilkea Castle near Castledermot, County Kildare on 18 June 1264, with only prelates and magnates attending.
Elected representatives are first attested in 1297 and continually from the 14th century. In 1297, counties were first represented by elected knights of the shire. In 1299, towns were represented. From the 14th century a distinction from the English parliament was that deliberations on church funding were held in Parliament rather than in Convocation; the separation of the individually summoned lords from the elected commons had developed by the fifteenth century. The clerical proctors elected by the lower clergy of each diocese formed a separate house or estate in until 1537, when they were expelled for their opposition to the Irish Reformation; the 14th and 15th centuries saw shrinking numbers of those loyal to the crown, the growing power of landed families, the increasing inability to carry out judicial rulings, that all reduced the crown's presence in Ireland. Alongside this reduced control grew a "Gaelic resurgence", political as well as cultural. In turn this resulted in considerable numbers of the Hiberno-Norman Old English nobility joining the independent Gaelic nobles in asserting their feudal independence.
The crown's power shrank to a small fortified enclave around Dublin known as the Pale. The Parliament thereafter became the forum for the Pale community until the 16th century. Unable to implement and exercise the authority of the Parliament or the Crown's rule outside of this environ, under the attack of raids by the Gaelic Irish and independent Hiberno-Norman nobles, the Palesmen themselves encouraged the Kings of England to take a more direct role in the affairs of Ireland. Geographic distance, the lack of attention by the Crown because of the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of the Roses, the larger power of the Gaelic clans, all reduced the effectiveness of the Irish Parliament, thus worried that the Irish Parliament was being overawed by powerful landed families in Ireland like the Earl of Kildare into passing laws that pursued the agendas of the different dynastic factions in the country, in 1494, the Parliament encouraged the passing of Poynings' Law which subordinated Irish Parliament to the English one.
The role of the Parliament changed after 1541, when Henry VIII declared the Kingdom of Ireland and embarked on the Tudor conquest of Ireland. Despite an era which featured royal concentration of power and decreasing feudal power throughout the rest of Europe, King Henry VIII over-ruled earlier court rulings putting families and lands under attainder and recognised the privileges of the Gaelic nobles, thereby expanding the crown's de jure authority. In return for recognising the crown's authority under the new Kingdom of Ireland, the Gaelic-Anglo-Irish lords had their position legalised and were entitled to attend the Irish Parliament as equals under the policy of surrender and regrant; the Reformation in Ireland introduced in stages by the Tudor monarchs did not take hold in most of the country, did not affect the operation of parliament until after the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis of 1570. In 1537, the Irish Parliament approved both the Act of Supremacy, acknowledging Henry VIII as head of the Church and the dissolution of the monasteries.
Vehicle registration plates of the Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, vehicle registration plates are the visual indications of motor vehicle registration – termed "index marks" – which it has been mandatory since 1903 to display on most motor vehicles used on public roads in Ireland. The alphanumeric marks themselves were issued by the local authority in which a vehicle is first registered; the current specification for number plates is the format YYY–CC–SSSSSS. Those issued from 1987 to 2012 had the format YY–CC–SSSSSS; the components are: YYY – a 3-digit year based on date of first registration and not agreeing with the official model year of the car as referenced by the 11th VIN digitYY from 1987–2012 – a 2-digit year CC – a 1- or 2-character County/City identifier. SSSSSS – a 1- to 6-digit sequence number, starting with the first vehicle registered in the county/city that year/period. Since 1991, the design of the standard Irish number plate has been based on European standard guidelines, with a blue vertical band to the left of the plate containing the 12 stars of the Flag of Europe, below, the country identifier for Ireland: IRL.
The rest of the plate has a white background with black characters. There are two hyphens. Required on vehicles registered is the full Irish language name of the county/city which must be positioned above the identifier; the current regulations are set out in the Vehicle Registration and Taxation Regulations, 1999, as amended by the Vehicle Registration and Taxation Regulations 2012. These prescribe the format and technical specifications of registration plates to be displayed on vehicles, they substitute the First Schedule of the Vehicle Registration and Taxation Regulations, 1992 to allow additional characters to be displayed on the registration plate and to ensure that these are displayed in the correct position and proportion. The changes were necessary to cater for increases in the number of car registrations. Unlike legal requirements in all other European countries, a standard uniform character font is not required; the rules require legible black sans serif characters, no more than 70 mm high and 36 mm wide with a stroke width of 10 mm, on a white reflective background.
The result is that a large variety of legal font styles may be seen, on either pressed aluminium or acrylic plates, both of which are allowed. Despite the rather relaxed lack of a specified font, the hyphen between the lettering must lie between the minimum dimensions of 13mm x 10mm or the maximum dimension of 22mm x 10mm. Vehicle owners may be fined if the plate's format does not meet the requirements, the vehicle will fail the mandatory periodic National Car Test. A vehicle's number plate is determined when it is first registered, the county/city code being taken from the first owner's postal address. Registration remains fixed on the one vehicle until it is de-registered, cannot be transferred to other vehicles. Sequence numbers may be reserved on completion of form VRT15A and payment of €1,000. Most registration numbers can be reserved, with the exception of the first number of each year issued in Cork, Dublin and Waterford as these are reserved for the respective Mayor/Lord Mayor of these cities.
Thus, for example, in the year 2008, Lord Mayor Cllr. Paddy Bourke, the Lord Mayor of Dublin, was entitled to receive the registration plate 08-D-1 on his official vehicle. Luxury cars with numeric names are registered with a matching pre-reserved sequence number: for example 06-D-911 on a Porsche 911 or 06-D-750 BMW 750 and 08-D-89 for an Aston Martin DB9. Dublin radio station FM104 tend to register their vehicles with reserved number sequences ending with "104", e.g. 05-D-38104. There are only two pre-1987 codes still issued in Ireland. "ZZ", administered by the AA Ireland as agents for the Revenue Commissioners, is given to registrants who are based outside the state and who only intend keeping the vehicle within the Republic of Ireland for a period not exceeding one month. This form of temporary registration is used for vehicles that are purchased within the Republic of Ireland but exported by its new owner to another sovereign state directly after purchase; the format of the code is ZZ followed by a five digit number.
"ZV", which can be selected as an alternative to the current scheme when registering a vehicle older than 30 years for the first time in the Republic of Ireland. Imported used cars are registered based on year of first registration in their country of original registration rather than year of import; each county had continuous sequence numbers for vehicles so if a new car registered on 31 December 2010 was 10 D 37456 the next registered car from 2010 registered in 2011 would be 10 D 37457. This changed in late 2011 when each county had their next available sequence number increased for no particular reason other than being identified as an "import". For example, 10-D-120006 would be the 6th import in Dublin of a car from 2010, as Dublin's re-registration band starts at 120000. Meath's starts at 15000. Vehicles registered to the Irish Defence Forces have plates with silver letters on black background; these do not feature the Irish-language county name. Trade plates have plates with white letters on dark green background.
Diplomatic plates are similar to civilian format, except the small "CD" between index mark code and serial number. The city codes are a single letter, the initial letter of its Engl
Henry II of England
Henry II known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou and Nantes, Lord of Ireland. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would come to be called the Angevin Empire. Henry was the son of daughter of Henry I of England, he became involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England occupied by Stephen of Blois, was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards became the Duke of Aquitaine by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his grandfather Henry I.
During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou and Touraine. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury; this controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse. Henry and Eleanor had eight children -- five sons. Three of his sons would be king, though Henry the Young King was named his father's co-ruler rather than a stand-alone king; as the sons grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest.
France, Brittany and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183; the Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. By 1189, Young Henry and Geoffrey were dead, Philip played on Richard's fears that Henry II would make John king, leading to a final rebellion. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon castle in Anjou, he was succeeded by Richard. Henry's empire collapsed during the reign of his youngest son, John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems.
Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign. Henry was born in France at Le Mans on 5 March 1133, the eldest child of the Empress Matilda and her second husband, Geoffrey the Fair, Count of Anjou; the French county of Anjou was formed in the 10th century and the Angevin rulers attempted for several centuries to extend their influence and power across France through careful marriages and political alliances. In theory, the county answered to the French king, but royal power over Anjou weakened during the 11th century and the county became autonomous.
Henry's mother was King of England and Duke of Normandy. She was born into a powerful ruling class of Normans, who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy, her first husband had been the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. After her father's death in 1135, Matilda hoped to claim the English throne, but instead her cousin Stephen of Blois was crowned king and recognised as the Duke of Normandy, resulting in civil war between their rival supporters. Geoffrey took advantage of the confusion to attack the Duchy of Normandy but played no direct role in the English conflict, leaving this to Matilda and her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester; the war, termed the Anarchy by Victorian historians, degenerated into stalemate. Henry spent some of his earliest years in his mother's household, accompanied Matilda to Normandy in the late 1130s. Henry's childhood from the age of seven, was spent in Anjou, where he was educated by Peter of Saintes, a noted grammarian of the day. In late 1142, Geoffrey decided t
Postal addresses in the Republic of Ireland
A "Postal Address" is a delivery address as defined by Irish Standard - I. S. EN 14142-1:2011, as operated by the Universal Service Provider, An Post, their addressing guides comply with the Universal Postal Union’s addressing guidelines. In Ireland, 35% of Irish premises have non-unique addresses due to an absence of house numbers or names. In smaller towns and many townlands, this requires postal workers to remember which family names correspond to which house. Ireland was the last country in the OECD to create a postcode system, called Eircode. In July 2015 all 2.2 million residential and business addresses in Ireland received a letter notifying them of the new Eircode for their address. Unlike other countries, where postcodes define clusters or groups of addresses, an Eircode identifies an individual address and shows where it is located; the system was criticised at its launch, was not available on Google Maps until September 2016. Responsibility for the current postal delivery system rests with a semi-state body.
In Dublin city and its suburbs, a system of postal districts was introduced in 1917 by the Royal Mail with the prefix "D", retained after Ireland became an independent country, without the prefix. However the use of district numbers by the public did not begin until 1961, when street signs displayed postal district numbers. Prior to that time, street signs only displayed the street name in English; the Dublin system had 22 districts — Dublin 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6W, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24. These were incorporated into the routing keys used by the Eircode national postcode system as D01, D02, D12, D22, etc; the city of Cork had four numbered postal districts, but these were used internally by An Post and on mail. Cork 1 covered the city centre and large parts of the surrounding city, e.g.: the "Patrick Street" sign displays the digit'1'. Cork 2, administered from the Ballinlough sorting office, covered the south-east, Cork 3 covered the north-west while Cork 4 covered the south-west.
The numbers are not used in the Eircode system, with routing keys in the Cork area instead beginning with the letter'T'. The launch of a national postcode system in Ireland began on 28 April 2014; the system incorporates. Eircode made Ireland the first country in the world to have a unique postcode for each address; the codes, known as "Eircodes", consist of seven characters. The first three characters, called the "Routing Key", are designed to benefit the postal and logistics industry and contain on average 15,000 addresses each; the Routing Key is used to help sort mail, it is the principal Post Town of the address as defined by An Post. The second part of the Eircode, called the "Unique Identifier," consists of four characters drawn from a selected set of randomised letters and numbers that identify each individual address, they are stored in a central database, Eircode Address Database, along with other useful geographic information including addresses, variants/aliases, geo-coordinates of each address point.
Sample product data and pricing details were issued to businesses in March 2015. The ECAD is now available to licence by end-users and value-added resellers called Eircode Providers An example of a typical Irish address is that of the Lord Mayor of Dublin: The Eircode is added on as an extra line to the existing address and postal district code which remains unchanged. Dublin City Council, Lord Mayor’s Office, Mansion House, Dawson Street, Dublin 2. D02 AF30 Unlike other postcode systems, Eircode is not used for PO Box addresses. An Post did not introduce automated sorting machines until the 1990s. By the optical character recognition systems were advanced enough to read whole addresses, as opposed to just postcodes, thereby allowing An Post to skip a generation. Mail to addresses in the rest of the state did not require any digits after the address. While An Post stated that the addressing system and sorting technologies make postcodes for mail delivery unnecessary, it was suggested that other services would benefit from a national system.
After considerable delays, it was announced on 8 October 2013 that codes would be introduced by Spring 2015. A ten-year contract to introduce and implement the postcode system was awarded to Capita Business Support Services Ireland in January 2014 with support from BearingPoint and Autoaddress. In 2005 it became the policy of the Government of Ireland to introduce a national scheme of postcodes. In May 2005, Noel Dempsey, the Minister for Communications announced that postcodes would be introduced by 1 January 2008, His successor as minister, Eamon Ryan, announced in August 2007 that he was delaying the project pending additional consultation and investigation into the need. On 24 February 2008, The Sunday Times reported that Ryan was finalising the system and hoped to bring the plans to cabinet before the summer of 2008, for introduction in 2009. An Post was quoted as saying "it would be at the heart of the introduction" and the report of PA Consultants indicated that An Post should be paid over €27 million for its involvement.
Following further delays, in September 2009 the cabinet agreed to go ahead with the project. It was to be put out to tender with the end of 2011 given as the date by