County Dublin is a former county in Ireland. It is conterminous with the Dublin Region and is in the province of Leinster and it is named after the city of Dublin, which is the regional capital and the capital city of Ireland. County Dublin was one of the first parts of Ireland to be shired by John, prior to 1994 County Dublin was an administrative unit covering the whole county outside of Dublin City Council. In 1994 Dublin County Council was abolished and replaced with three separate administrative county councils, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin, the total population of the three aforementioned counties and Dublin city was 1,345,402 according to the census of 2016. Since the abolition of the Dublin Regional Assembly by statutory instrument No, 573/2014, the Eurostat statistical region known as Dublin Region falls under the remit of the wider Eastern and Midland Regional Authority. There are four local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the area of the county and city of Dublin.
These are Dublin City Council, South Dublin County Council, Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council, prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 1993, the county was a unified whole even though it was administered by two local authorities - Dublin County Council and Dublin Corporation. They rank equally as first level administrative units of the NUTS3 Dublin Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU1 entities in the Republic of Ireland, each local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. Dublin County Council was abolished in 1994 and the area divided among the counties of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal. To these areas may be added the area of Dublin city which collectively comprise the Dublin Region, the area lost its administrative county status in 1994, with Section 9 Part 1 of the Local Government Act,1993 stating that the county shall cease to exist. I am not sure whether Dubliners realise that that is what we are about today, the county is part of the Dublin constituency for the purposes of European elections.
Together they return 44 deputies to the Dáil, despite the legal status of the Dublin Region, the term County Dublin is still in common usage. Many organisations and sporting teams continue to organise on a County Dublin or Dublin Region basis, the term Greater Dublin Area, which might consist of some or all of the Dublin Region along with counties of Kildare and Wicklow, has no legal standing. The Dublin Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland, the region is one of eight regions of the Republic of Ireland for the purposes of Eurostat statistics. It is co-extensive with the old county, the regional capital is Dublin City which is the national capital. The latest Ordnance Survey Ireland Discovery Series 1,50,000 map of the Dublin Region, Sheet 50, shows the boundaries of the city and three surrounding counties of the region. Extremities of the Dublin Region, in the north and south of the region, Local radio stations include 98FM, FM104,103.2 Dublin City FM, Q102, SPIN1038, Sunshine 106.8, TXFM, Raidió Na Life and Radio Nova
Avoca, County Wicklow
Avoca is a small town near Arklow, in County Wicklow, Ireland. It is situated on the River Avoca, the Avoca area has been associated with its famous copper mines for many years and the valley has been celebrated by Thomas Moore in the famous song The Meeting of the Waters. The name of the song derives from the meeting of the Avonmore and Avonbeg rivers, the song is said to have been written under a tree, the stump of which remains by the Meetings. Avoca is famous for its handweaving, with Avoca Handweavers based there, Avoca was once known as Newbridge. It subsequently became known as Ovoca, and in Victorian times as Avoca, ptolemy mentions the river Obhoca on his early map of Ireland. The official name of the village is now Avoca in English, none of the other names are used today. Avoca has been used as a location for several films. The BBC series Ballykissangel was filmed there, in 1967, Avoca was one of the locations used in the film Jules Vernes Rocket to the Moon, and it was the setting for the comedy film Zonad which had a general Irish release in 2010.
The red kite, recently reintroduced to Ireland, is now seen in. Copper mining is reported to have begun in the Avoca River valley around 1720 and it continued, with interruptions, earlier mining, perhaps dating back to the Bronze Age, may have occurred. The East Avoca site, today, is composed mainly of a number of rock waste spoil heaps, abandoned quarries, the largest spoil heap, Mount Platt, was built up from waste rock excavated from Cronebane open pit. There was a tramway built from the West Avoca mines, through the village. The route of most of this was subsumed into the Dublin-Rosslare railway line, but an arch, Avoca lies on the R752 regional road linking Rathnew with Woodenbridge. The village is served by Bus Éireann route 133 from Dublin and Wicklow to Arklow, Avoca has town twinning agreements with, Wiltshire, United Kingdom. List of towns and villages in Ireland Avoca Cemetery Headstones Avoca Handweavers Official Site Mining, Metal Resources and Exploration in the Republic of Ireland in German, English summary
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Greystones is a coastal town and seaside resort in County Wicklow, Ireland. The town was named after a mile or one-kilometre stretch of grey stones between two beaches on the sea front. The harbour area and the Greystones railway station are at the northern and southern ends respectively. The North Beach, which begins at the harbour, is a beach, and some of its length is overlooked by the southern cliffs of Bray Head. The South Beach is a sandy beach about one kilometre long. It is a Blue Flag beach and receives visitors and tourists. In 2008, Greystones was named as the worlds most liveable community at the LivCom Awards in China, Greystones is located south of the site of an ancient castle of the Barony of Rathdown. There was a hamlet which, like the castle, was known as Rathdown, and this site occupied an area now known as the Grove, north of Greystones harbour, but only the ruins of a chapel, St. Crispins Cell, survive. Greystones is a more recent settlement and is first mentioned in Topographia Hibernica.
Here it is described as a fishing place four miles beyond Bray. In the early 19th century, there were some scattered around the harbour, Windgates, Killincarrig. Delgany was a substantial and longer established village. However, Greystones was put on the map with the coming of the railway in 1855, an undertaking which was performed in consultation with Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The railway station was built on the line dividing the properties of two landowners, the La Touche family of Bellevue House, and the Hawkins-Whitshed family of Killincarrig House and it provided links with Bray and Dublin, and left room for development on the adjoining estates. In the latter half of the 19th century, under the ownership of William Robert La Touche, to the north of the station, Church Road, Victoria Road and Trafalgar Road were laid out, and many houses were built in the years following the arrival of the railway. Following her fathers death, Elizabeth Hawkins-Whitshed was the inheritor of his property.
In 1879, she married Frederick Gustavus Burnaby, a soldier, Burnaby died in battle in 1885 and Elizabeth remarried twice, but the property continued to be known as the Burnaby Estate. In the early 20th century, the Burnabys began to expand the town on their side of the station, and the roads and houses of the Burnaby were developed, the names of these two families remain well known today, with many roads and housing estates bearing their names
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Baltinglass, historically known as Baltinglas, is a town in south-west County Wicklow, Ireland. It is located on the River Slaney near the border with County Carlow and County Kildare and its Irish name means the way of Conglas, Conglas being a member of the mythological warrior collective, the Fianna. A previous Irish-language name for the village, bringing to mind its monastic past, was Mainistir an Bhealaigh, the surrounding area is rich in archaeological and historical sites. On the highest point of the hill, north-east of the village, on bright days is said to be visible from Kildares Curragh 48 km away. D. The medieval Viscounts Baltinglass were from the Hiberno-Norman Eustace family, who founded Ballymore Eustace and their estates passed to their cousin Sir Maurice Eustace, Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1660-1665. Sir Maurice did much to promote the development of the town, building a church, a school and a bridge, the town centre mainly lies east of the river, along Main Street and ending at Market and Weavers Square.
West of the river, the town is located around the N81/R747 crossroads, along Edward Street, Mill Street, quinns superstore is a landmark site on Mill Street to the North of the town. The population of the town has grown considerably in recent years to its current population of 2,061 people, the towns rich and historic heritage makes a significant contribution to its distinct character. The Baltinglass GAA club has several pitches and teams, one of their early successes was the 1912 Junior title. In 1927 they won the Wicklow Senior Hurling title,1958 saw Baltinglass win the Wicklow Senior Football Championship for the first time, they have won it several times since, most recently in 2007. In 1990 the club claimed the All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship, Baltinglass railway station opened on 1 September 1885, as part of the line from Sallins to Tullow. It closed to passengers on 27 January 1947 and to traffic on 10 March 1947. The site is now occupied by a livestock mart, although the station building remains intact.
Bus services are available to Carlow via Rathvilly and Tullow, twice daily Mondays to Fridays and this route is operated by JJ Kavanagh and Sons, and it stops in Baltinglass outside Burkes shop, to pick/drop off passengers. Bus Éireann route 132 provides a once-a-day, each-way commuter link to Dublin via Tallaght on the same days, Baltinglass Community Website & Forum Wicklow Today - Baltinglass Baltinglass win the senior County Title,2007
Hollywood, County Wicklow
Hollywood, historically known as Killinkeyvin, is a village in west County Wicklow, Ireland. It is situated on the Wicklow Gap road, near its junction with the N81 national secondary road and it is located approximately 30 minutes from Co. It is known for its pre-1950s themed fair which takes place in August of every year, a population of less the 100 people registered in the 2002 Census, though the community draws from a larger area which consists of about 500 people. Cillín Chaoimhín is the associated Irish name for Hollywood, its translation being Kevins Small Church. Another, older Irish name is Cnoic Rua, literally meaning Red Hill and this may be a reference to the red berries of holly trees on the hills above the village or it may in fact be a reference to the presence of Wicklow heather. Another possibility is that the name for Hollywood may have been Holy Wood. Local landmarks include Saint Kevins Chair, and Saint Kevins Cave, Saint Kevins Way is a 30 km pilgrim path from Hollywood to Glendalough, and it is the good way to enjoy part of the Wicklow Mountains National Park.
The Church of Ireland in the church has a vaulted roof from the 17th century. About 3 km northeast of the village is the picturesque Poulaphouca, the Bronze Age Pipers Stones, are 3.5 km to the southwest of Hollywood on the N81. Hollywood, like its namesake in California, has an illustrious past in the entertainment industry and it has provided the picturesque setting for several films, including King Arthur, Dancing At Lughnasa, and Michael Collins. An imitation of the iconic Hollywood sign overlooks the village from a nearby hill, gaelic games play a strong role in the community, the local club being Hollywood GAA club who play in the Wicklow Senior Football Championship
Glencree is a valley in the Wicklow Mountains in eastern Ireland. It is the second closest valley in the mountains to Dublin city, the River Dargle flows down the valley, which rises to a height of about 400 metres. The foot of the valley is site of the village of Enniskerry, a barracks was built at Glencree, just off the road in 1806. With the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the building was vacated by the British Army, in 1858 the buildings were converted into a reformatory school. St. Kevin’s Reformatory was operated by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate and it was used to house German prisoners of war during the First World War 1914-18, when Ireland was still part of the United Kingdom. Under Operation Shamrock the Irish Red Cross and the French Sisters of Charity cared for German, the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation opened in 1975 to foster better relations between the two communities in Northern Ireland. Currently, they run a range of programmes aimed at bringing various actors from global conflict zones to the valley.
At present, there are programmes serving youth, women, ex-combatants, the centre provides training in mediation and conflict resolution, as well as hosting a summer school each year on a topic of relevance to the Irish conflict and society. Of late, they have begun broadening their reach to include actors from other conflicts, most notably from the Middle East, Sri Lanka. Finally, the centre runs a programme that invites adults from around the world to serve from 2 months to one year on programme. From September 2007, volunteers have fulfilled only menial tasks, with six interns working on the programmes, on the site, there is a gift and coffee shop. When programmes are not in session, the rooms are rented in hostel-style, Glencree German War Cemetery was dedicated on 9 July 1961. Most are Luftwaffe or Kriegsmarine personnel,53 are identified,28 are unknown. Six remains belong to World War I prisoners of war held by the British, dr. Hermann Görtz, an Abwehr spy, is buried there. Dr. Görtz, who committed suicide after the war, feared he would be handed over to the Soviet Union and it is administered by the German War Graves Commission.
Alongside the German Cemetery, on the bank of the Glencree River and it may be reached by a narrow riverside path. In the valley, where the Glencree River flows, there is a dedicated to Our Lady of Reconciliation. There was previously a youth hostel some metres outside the Glencree gates, the mountains around Glencree are popular for walking
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed