The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Hualien City is a county-administered city and the county seat of Hualien County, Taiwan. It is located on the east coast of Taiwan on the Pacific Ocean, has a population of 106,368 inhabitants. Hualien County annals record; this name refers to their settlement. After Taiwan came under Japanese rule in 1895 its governors sought to change the name because "Kiray" is pronounced the same as the Japanese word for "dislike"; the name was changed to Karen Harbour. After World War II the incoming Kuomintang-led Republic of China retained the Kanji spelling but shortened the name to just Karen, or Hualien via Chinese romanization; the Spaniards built mines for gold in Hualien in 1622. Permanent settlements began in 1851, when 2,200 Han Chinese farmers led by Huang A-fong from Taipei arrived at Fengchuan. In 1875, more farmers, led by Lin Cang-an from Yilan, settled at Fengchuan. Settlements in the area remained small by the start of Japanese rule; the city was expanded circa 1912 by its Japanese governors to incorporate Guohua and Guoan Villages, a region known as Old New Port.
In 1920, Karenkō Town was established, around 1923 it was extended to Riran Port, today known as "New Port", including the Guowei and Guoji Villages. In 1940, the town was upgraded to Karenkō Prefecture. On 25 October 1945, Taiwan was handed over from Japan to the Republic of China under Kuomintang government. In January 1946, the incoming Kuomintang designated Hualien City a county-controlled city of Hualien County and to be the county seat, an administrative structure that has remained in place since Taiwan's transition to democracy. Hualien experiences a tropical rainforest climate with frequent cyclones so not equatorial, it borders on a humid subtropical climate. The city experiences significant rainfall year round and the temperature there averages 23.4 °C. Precipitation in the city averages 2,177 mm. January is the city's driest month; the 45 villages of the city are divided into six village unions: The first union: Minyun, Minxiang, Minxin, Minde, Minqin, Minxiao The second union: Minsheng, Minzu, Minzhu, Minzhi The third union: Zhuji, Zhuxin, Zhushang, Zhugong The fourth union: Zhuxue, Zhunong, Zhuli, Zhu'an, Zhumu The fifth union: Guofeng, Guozhi, Guohun, Guo'an, Guohua, Guosheng The sixth union: Guofu, Guoqing, Guofu, Guoxing The newest villages from 2002 are Guosheng, Guoxing and Minzhu.
Hualien County Government Hualien County Council Hualien City has 9,000 aboriginal people, making it the city with the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The majority of the aborigines that reside in Hualien include the Amis, Atayal and Bunun. Hualien City is the most densely populated area in Hualien county. There are 3 universities, 12 senior high schools, 4 junior high schools, 16 elementary schools, 37 churches and 31 temples. National Dong Hwa University, Meilun campus Tzu Chi University Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology National Hualien Senior High School Hualien City is the center of politics and transportation of Hualien County. Hualien City is the center of import and export trading due to its strategic location within the county and its proximity to airport and major harbor, it has rich tourism industries, ranging from tourist objects, accommodations etc. One of its ingenious industry is the local stone art cultural industry. Hualien Tzu Chi Medical Center Mennonite Christian Hospital Hualien Hospital, Department of Health, Execusive Yuan Dongdamen Night Market Hualien Baseball Stadium Hualien County Stone Sculptural Museum Hualien Cultural and Creative Industries Park Hualien Martyrs' Shrine Hualien Railway Culture Park Pine Garden North Beach Park South Beach Park and Night Market Meilun Mountain Park Hualien Fish Market Old Railroad Cultural Shopping Street Rock Street Ciji Sing Ji Hall of the Tzu Chi Foundation Al-Falah Hualien Mosque Gong Tian Temple Hualien City is served by Hualien Airport located at the neighboring Xincheng Township of Hualien County.
The airport is about 10 minutes drive to the city. Hualien Station, TRA North-Link Line and Hualien–Taitung Line The Port of Hualien is an international port in the city with liners sailing to Japan, Middle East, South East Asia and South Korea. Provincial Highway No. 9 Provincial Highway No. 11 County Road No.193 Hsieh Chia-hsien, baseball player Lin Man-ting and futsal player Yeh Kuang-shih, Minister of Transportation and Communications Yang Mu, writer Ulsan, South Korea Yonaguni, Japan Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States Bellevue, United States Oudtshoorn, South Africa Takachiho, Japan Santa Maria, Philippines Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, United States Kashipur, India List of East Asian ports 2018 Hualien earthquake Hualien travel guide from Wikivoyage Hualien City Office Website Web preferential Hu
Ellicott City, Maryland
Ellicott City is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in, the county seat of, Howard County, United States. Part of the Baltimore metropolitan area, its population was 65,834 at the 2010 census, qualifying it as the largest unincorporated county seat in the country. Ellicott City's historic downtown – the Ellicott City Historic District – lies in the valleys of the Tiber and Patapsco rivers; the historic district includes the Ellicott City Station, the oldest surviving train station in the United States, having been built in 1830 as the first terminus of the original B&O Railroad line. The historic district is called "Historic Ellicott City" or "Old Ellicott City" to distinguish it from the surrounding suburbs that extend south to Columbia and west to West Friendship. In 1766, James Hood used the "Maryland Mill Act of 1669" to condemn 20 acres for a mill site adjacent to his river-side 157-acre property, his gristmill was built on the banks of the Patapsco River where the Frederick road crossed the river.
The site was known as "Ellicott's Upper Mills". His son Benjamin rebuilt the corn grinding mill after one of the frequent Patapsco floods in 1768. Benjamin Hood sold the mill to Joseph Ellicott in 1774 for 1,700 pounds. In years the B&O Railroad ran through the property, with track laid over the graves of the Hood family. On 24 April 1771, three Quaker brothers from Bucks County, north of Philadelphia, chose the picturesque wilderness several miles upriver from Elk Ridge Landing, the uppermost part of the river navigable by tobacco-loading sailing merchant ships in the 18th century, to establish a flour mill, purchasing 50 acres of Baltimore County land from Emanuel Teal and 35 acres from William Williams. In 1775 they expanded their holdings with 30.5 acres from Hood's Mill. John and Joseph Ellicott founded "Ellicott's Mills", which became one of the largest milling and manufacturing towns in the East. Nathaniel sold his partnership in 1777, Joseph sold all but his Hood's Mill ownership the next year.
The town retained the name "Ellicott's Mills" when the U. S. Postal stop opened on October 7, 1797; the Ellicott brothers constructed sawmills, stables, an oil mill, a grain distillery, grain mills. They helped revolutionize farming in the area by persuading farmers to plant wheat instead of tobacco and by introducing Plaster of Paris fertilizer to revitalize depleted soil; the Ellicotts produced the product until a fire on 11 January 1809. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, a rare Roman Catholic and a wealthy landowner with the largest fortune in colonial America, was an early influential convert from tobacco to wheat. By 1830, the founders' families could no longer support operations as "Ellicott and Company" or "Johnathan Ellicott and Sons". By 1840, the Ellicott family sold off their interests in the two flour mills, the granite quarry, the saw mill and plaster mill. In 1830, Ellicott's Mills became the first terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad outside Baltimore, the first commercially operated cargo and passenger railroad in the country.
The B&O was organized in 1827 and had its "first stone" laid the following year with major ceremonies on July 4, Independence Day, with the beginning of construction. The Ellicott City Station, built on an embankment across the corner of the town and along the Patapsco River and intersecting Tiber Creek stream, with its "Oliver Viaduct", named for a B&O board member Robert Oliver crossing over the National Road of large blocks of locally quarried gray granite, stands today as a living history museum, has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the U. S. Department of the Interior, administered by the National Park Service, it bears the designation as the "Oldest surviving railroad station in America". In 1829, New York industrialist and Baltimore foundry-owner Peter Cooper began testing his iron steam engine, Tom Thumb, on the B&O Railway; this was the first time a steam locomotive was used to transport persons over rails in the United States. The famous race between Tom Thumb and a horse-drawn rail carriage took place between Relay Junction on the return trip from Ellicott's Mills towards Baltimore in August 1830.
Though the horse won the race due to a sudden broken drive belt on the Tom Thumb, it heralded the time when steam engines improved, the soon-to-be steam-operated railroad became a vital link in the town's economy and expanding to the city of Baltimore's economic supremacy along with the state in the nation. The site of the Howard County Courthouse, built from 1840–1843 in the former western Howard District of Anne Arundel County, was so designated for the new temporary district in 1839, continued and was expanded when Howard County became an official independent jurisdiction in 1851, as one of the 23 counties in the state of Maryland; the town in 1851 was in a spate of depression as low costs shut the Maryland Machine Manufacturing Company. Over 80 vacant dwellings lined the Howard County side of the river. By 1861, Ellicott's Mills was manufacturing area. At the start of the Civil War in April 19, 1861, "Gaithers Raiders", part of the Confederate "Howard County Dragoons" from Oakland Manor, marched through Ellicott's Mills to Baltimore, responding to the Baltimore riot of 1861, before heading south to join J. E. B.
Stuart. That month, Union Army troops seized the "Winans Steam Gun", en route to Harpers Ferry, Vi
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U. S. states. The state capital is the least populous state capital in the United States; the most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. In crime statistics, it was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory, now Vermont and was claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. Thereafter, the nearby colonies the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont.
The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York. A group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War; the Vermont Republic abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont was admitted to the newly established United States as the fourteenth state in 1791. Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were sovereign states, given that the original 13 states were former colonies. During the mid 19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment and sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Protestants and Catholics make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference with 37% reporting no religion.
Other religions individually contribute no more than 2% to the total. The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. A majority of its terrain is forested with conifers. A majority of its open land is in agriculture; the state's climate is characterized by cold, snowy winters. Vermont's economic activity of $26 billion in 2010 caused it to rank 34th in gross state product, it has been ranked 42nd as a state in. In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican towards favoring more liberal and progressive candidates. Starting in 1963, voters have alternated between choosing Democratic governors. Voters have chosen Democrats for president since 1992. In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples; the origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but comes from the French Les Monts Verts, meaning "the Green Mountains".
Thomas Young introduced it in 1777. In 1913, the Secretary of State of Vermont speculated that the archaic French term Mont Verd may have inspired Young. Another source points out the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, as a possible reason; the Green Mountains form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are located the Taconic Mountains. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Vermont is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state, it is the only state. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is smaller than Haiti, it is the only landlocked state in New England, it is the easternmost and the smallest in area of all landlocked states.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New Hampshire's territory. 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed. Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long, its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border; the width averages 60.5 miles. The state's geographic center is three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Canada. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state. Areas in Vermont a
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st
Towson is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland. The population was 55,197 as of the 2010 census, it is the second-most populated unincorporated county seat in the United States. The first inhabitants of the future Towson and central Baltimore County region were the Susquehannock people who hunted in the area, their region included all of Baltimore County, though their primary settlement was farther northeast along the Susquehanna River. Towson was settled in 1752 when Pennsylvania brothers and Thomas Towson, began farming an area of Sater's Hill, northeast of the present-day York and Joppa Roads. William's son, opened the Towson Hotel to serve the growing number of farmers bringing their produce and livestock to the port of Baltimore, he built the hotel near the area's main crossroads. The village became known as "Towsontown"; the property in West Towson came from two land grants: 400 acre Gott's Hope in 1719, Gunner's Range in 1706. In 1790, businessman Capt. Charles Ridgely completed the magnificent Hampton Mansion just north of Towsontown, the largest private house in America at the time.
The Ridgelys lived there for six generations, until 1948. It is now open to the public. Dr. Grafton Marsh, a surgeon during the war of 1812, his brother Dr. Josiah Marsh settled their families in a collection of early houses known as Gott's Hope, part of a group along Joppa Road, they consolidated four of the structures into a larger dwelling that they called "Marshmont". The brothers went into business together as medical practitioners. Neither had any heirs but were joined in practice by their nephew, Dr. Grafton Marsh Bosley, who inherited the medical practice, the Marshmont compound, a 140-acre farm; the farm extended west of York Road, south of Joppa Road, north of the Sheppard Pratt Hospital, east of Woodbine Avenut. In 1869, Bosley and his wife Margaret Nicholson built a new home in an area of the property known as "Highlands" or "Highland Park", which they named "Uplands"; the ratification of the second Maryland Constitution of 1851 provided for the jurisdictional separation of the former Baltimore Town, founded in 1729.
Baltimore Town had served as the county seat since 1767, now the City of Baltimore, since its incorporation in 1796–97 by the General Assembly of Maryland. Several tortured sets of negotiations occurred to divide the various assets of the city and the county, such as the downtown courthouse of 1805, the city/county jail of 1801 along the Jones Falls and the almshouse, jointly owned. After a series of elections and referenda, on February 13, 1854, Towson became, by popular vote, the choice of the remaining, now rural, eastern and western portions of the county as the new county seat of Baltimore County; the Baltimore County Courthouse, still in use by 2015, with its various annexes, was designed by the local city architectural firm of Dixon and Dixon. It was completed within a year, constructed of limestone and marble donated by the well-known Ridgely family of nearby Hampton Mansion, on land donated by Towson doctor Grafton Marsh Bosley; the courthouse was subsequently enlarged in 1910 through additional designs for north and south wings by well-known and regarded city architects, Baldwin & Pennington.
Additional expansions in 1926 and 1958 created an H-shaped plan for the courthouse. An additional modernistic Baltimore County Courts Building, with room for the new charter government since 1956 and administration of a county executive and county council, plus administrative and executive departments, was erected in 1970–71 across a plaza to the west of the older historic courthouse; the old Baltimore County Jail was built in 1855, was replaced in the 1980s by a new modern Baltimore County Detention Center, north of the town on Kenilworth Avenue, with an addition constructed in the 2010s. From 1850 to 1874, another notable land owner, Amos Matthews, had a farm of 150 acres that—with the exception of the 17-acre natural parcel where the Kelso Home for Girls, was erected —was wholly developed into the neighborhoods of West Towson, Southland Hills and other subdivisions, beginning in the middle 1920s. During the Civil War, Towson was the scene of two minor engagements. Many local citizens were sympathetic to the Southern Confederate cause, so much so that Ady's Hotel and the current site of the 1920s-era Towson Theatre, flew the Southern flag.
The Union Army found it necessary to overtake the town by force on June 2, 1861. During the raid, the Union Army seized weapons from citizens at Ady's Hotel. A local paper, in jest, refers to the "strongly fortified and impregnable city of Towsontown" and downplays the need for the attack, stating, "the distinguished Straw, with only two hundred and fifty men, has taken a whole city and nearly frightened two old women out of their wits."The second engagement took place around July 12, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces. On July 10, 1864, a 135-man Confederate cavalry detachment attacked the Northern Central Railway to the north in nearby Cockeysville, under orders from Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, of Frederick, Maryland; the First and Second Maryland Cavalry, led by Baltimore County native and pre-war member of the Towson Horse Guards, Maj. Harry W. Gilmor, of Glen Ellen, attacked strategic targets throughout Ba