The Coupe de France known as the Coupe Charles Simon, is the premier knockout cup competition in French football organized by the French Football Federation. It was first held in 1917 and is open to all amateur and professional football clubs in France, including clubs based in the overseas departments and territories. Between 1917 and 1919, the competition was called the Coupe Charles Simon, in tribute of Charles Simon, a French sportsman and the founder of the French Interfederal Committee, who died in 1915 while serving in World War I; the final is played at the Stade de France and the winner qualifies for the group stage of the UEFA Europa League and a place in the Trophée des Champions match. A concurrent women's tournament is held, the Coupe de France Féminine. Combined with random draws and one-off matches, the Coupe de France can be difficult for the bigger clubs to win; the competition is beneficial to the amateur clubs as it forces higher-ranked clubs professional clubs, to play as the away team when drawn against lower-league opposition if they are competing two levels below them.
Despite the advantages, only two amateur clubs have reached the final since professionalism was introduced in French football in 1932: Calais RUFC in 2000 and Les Herbiers VF in 2018. Two clubs from outside Ligue 1 have won the competition, Le Havre in 1959 and Guingamp in 2009; the reigning champions are Rennes, who defeated Paris Saint-Germain in the final of the 2018–19 competition. The Coupe de France was created on 15 January 1917 by the French Interfederal Committee, an early predecessor of the French Football Federation; the idea was pushed by the federation's general secretary Henri Delaunay and under union sacrée, the competition was declared open to all clubs and professional, though professionalism in French football at the time was non-existent. The major clubs in France objected to the notion. However, the federation declared the competition would remain as is. Due to the minimal requirements to enter, the first competition featured 48 clubs. By 1948, the number had increased to 1,000 and at present, the competition features more than 7,000 clubs.
Due to the initial increase in clubs, the federation created preliminary rounds beginning with the 1919–20 season. The following season, they added a second preliminary round; as of today, the competition contains eight regional rounds with some regions containing as much as ten. The first Coupe de France victors were Olympique de Pantin who defeated FC Lyon 3–0 at the Stade de la Légion Saint-Michel in Paris in front of 2,000 spectators; the following year, the competition was shifted to the Parc des Princes and drew 10,000 supporters to the final that saw CASG Paris defeat Olympique de Paris 3–2. The competition alternated between many stadiums during its early years playing at the Stade Pershing from 1920–1924 before switching to the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir in Colombes; the competition lasted a decade there before returning to the Parc des Princes in 1938. In 1941, the final was held at the Stade de Paris; the following year, the final returned to Colombes and remained there until moving to the Parc des Princes permanently following its renovation, which made it the largest in terms of attendance in France.
There are vastly more amateur than professional clubs in France, the competition produces surprises. The best performance by an amateur club in the competition is awarded the Petit Poucet Plaque. One of the competition's biggest upsets occurred in February 1957 when Algerian club SCU El Biar defeated Stade de Reims who had players such as Robert Jonquet, Michel Hidalgo, Léon Glovacki, Just Fontaine. One of the more recent successes of an amateur club occurred during the 1999–2000 competition when Championnat de France amateur club Calais RUFC reached the final. Calais, composed of doctors, dock workers, office clerks, started the competition in the 5th round and, after defeating fellow amateurs, beat clubs Lille, Langon-Castets, Cannes and Bordeaux to advance to the final. Calais' road to the final was a prime example of the major advantages amateur clubs had with the club playing all of its matches at home beginning with the Round of 64 match. In the final the club lost to Nantes 2–1 despite scoring first.
Professional clubs have continued to express their displeasure with the advantages amateur clubs receive in the competition with many of their complaints being directly associated with their hosting of matches. Coupe de France rules explicitly state that teams drawn first during the draw are granted hosting duties for the round, however, if the club drawn second is competing two levels below the club drawn first the hosting duties will be given to the second club drawn. Many clubs have subsequently complained that, due to the amateur clubs not having adequate funds, the stadiums they play in are unkempt; the resulting differences led to the clubs represented by the Ligue de Football Professionnel forming their own cup competition, the Coupe de la Ligue. More amateur clubs have begun to move to more established stadiums for their Coupe de France matches with their primary reason being to earn more money at the gate due to more established stadiums having the ability to carry more spectators.
The winner of the Coupe de France trophy holds on to the trophy for one year to put in on display at their headquarters before returning it to the French Football Federation. In the early 1980s, the cup was retrieved by the authorities quickly. Since 1927, the President of France has always attended the cup final and presented the trophy to the winning team's captain. G
Tania Antoshina, is a Russian contemporary artist, curator, PHD in art history, one of the first participants of the gender movement in Moscow art. In 1991 she completed postgraduate studies at the Stroganov Moscow State University of Arts and Industry pursued design at the Modern Design Laboratory since 1994, she received a PhD in Fine Arts Stroganov Moscow State University of Industry. Antoshina is a member of the Moscow Artists Union, her work has been exhibited, including the Venice Biennale including the Venice Biennale in the Pavilion of Mauritius in 2015, is in the permanent collections of several museums. Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Cold Land. Northern Tales, ZARYA Center for Contemporary Art, Vladivostok, 2017-2018 Reggae Feminism or 88 March, Dukley Art Center, Montenegro, 2017 Museum of a Woman, Podgorica Museums & Galleries, Gallery Art, Montenegro, 2015 Cold Land, Krasnoyarsk Museum Center, Russia, 2014 My Favorite Artists, Galerie Vallois, France, 2010 Alice and Gagarin, VP Studio, Russia, 2010 My Favorite Artists, Mario Mauroner Gallery, Austria, 2008 Space Travelers, Guelman Gallery, Russia, 2006 Museum of a Woman, White Space Gallery, London, UK, 2004 The Voyeurism of Alice Guy, Guelman Gallery, Russia, 2002 Museum of a Woman, Florence Lynch Gallery, NY, USA, 2001 April in Moscow, Guelman Gallery, Russia, 1999 Museum of a Woman, Guelman Gallery, Russia, 1997 Women of Russia, Guelman Gallery, Russia To Moor, Expo 88, Russia, 1996 The Hound of Baskervilles, Regina Gallery, Russia, 1992 From Non-Conformism to Feminisms: Russian Women Artists from the Kolodzei Art Foundation, Museum of Russian Art, Minnesota, 2018-2019 18-th ASIAN ART BIENNALE BANGLADESH, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy, National Academy of Fine and Performing Arts, Dhaka, 2018 Women at Work: Subverting the Feminine in Post-Soviet Russia, White Space Gallery, London, 2018 ART RIOT: POST-SOVIET ACTIONISM, Saatchi Gallery, London, 2017-2018 17th Asian Art Biennale Bangladesh, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy National Art Gallery, Bangladesh, 2016 56 Venice Biennale, State pavilion of Mauritius, 2015 Gender Check, MUMOK, Vienna, 2012 Moscow — NY = Parallel Play, Chelsea Art Museum, NY, 2008 Moscow Biennale, Russa, 2007 SIGHT/INSIGHT, Corcoran Art Museum, Washington DC, 2006 Photo London, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2005 After the wall, National Gallery, Hamburger Bahnhof, 2001 After the Wall, Ludwig Museum, Budapest, 2000 After the Wall, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 1999 Scholarship Residence Center for Contemporary Art "Zarya", Russia, 2017.
The Quest of Power, special project of 6 Moscow Biennale 2015. Galenz and G. Kuznetsov, InteriorDAsein, Berlin, 2012. Kuznetsov, PROEKT FABRIKA, Moscow, 2011. Vysheslavsky, Velletri, Italy, 1992. Thomas Deecke, Markus Bulling. ‘’8. Triennale Kleinplastik Fellbach Vor-Sicht, Rück-Sicht’’. Germany, Stadt Fellbach Auflage. Александр Боровский. «Как-то раз Зевксис с Паррасием... Современное искусство: практические н
The Victory Corps was an American program during the Second World War that provided military training to male and female high school students. On September 25, 1942, Commissioner of Education John W. Studebaker, in conjunction with United States Departments of War and Civil Aeronautics, established the Victory Corps; the program was designed to prepare secondary school students for possible military service and participation in the war effort. Although participation in the program was voluntary, many high schools across the country sought to aid the war effort due to rising patriotic fervor following Pearl Harbor. For example, a survey conducted by the American Legion in 1943 found that of 232 high schools in Oregon, 86 schools had established a Victory Corps program and 96 schools planned on implementing the program in the following semester; the United States Office of Education aimed that every high school in the country would implement the Victory Corps program. At the start of the 1942-43 school year, the United States Office of Education proposed that the Victory Corps purpose was to fulfill two major objectives: 1.
The training of youth for the war service that will come after they leave school. Active participation of youth in the community's war effort while they are yet in school. Two categories of membership were offered. A general membership, one for students who were involved in school war effort activities; the program focused on skills relevant to the war effort, ranging from physical conditioning to more specialized skills depending on the desired branch of the armed forces, such as trigonometry for the U. S. Navy. Broadly, the Corps emphasized "science and physical education"; the program consisted of eight areas of training to prepare students for war service and war effort participation: Guidance into Critical Services and Occupations Wartime Citizenship Physical Fitness Basic Training in Mathematics and Science Pre-flight Aeronautics Production Training for Critical Occupations Community Service Military DrillFrom these areas, students would choose an occupational path based on their strengths and interests.
These paths, or divisions, included the following: air service, sea service, land service, production service, community service. Along with the program's curriculum being taught in the classroom, school clubs were created and modified for war work. For example, at Whittier High School in Whittier, the Home Economics Club made garments for the Red Cross while the World Friend's Club held panels on post-war problems; the ambition of the Victory Corps Program was not always matched with application. The program was only implemented into 52% of schools, these schools complained of being understaffed, unsure of how to implement the Victory Corps into their existing curriculum. Criticism of the program came from Quakers and Brethren churches as they feared that the introduction of the Victory Corps was a step towards militarism in American schools. Parallels were drawn between the militarization of German and Japanese schooling and youth movements; as the war drew to a close in Europe and Asia, the Corps was phased out starting in June 1944.
However, the Victory Corps Program made a significant impact in the United States war effort during WWII. During its two years of existence, the program distributed a substantial amount of knowledge to schools across the country and raised millions of dollars for the war effort. Along with its practical achievements, the Victory Corps program was groundbreaking for its time because it allowed participation from both white and African-American students, ten years before public schools were desegregated