SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Court

A court is any person or institution as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law. In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, it is understood that all people have an ability to bring their claims before a court; the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary; the place where a court sits is known as a venue. The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom, the building as a courthouse; the practical authority given to the court is known as its jurisdiction – the court's power to decide certain kinds of questions or petitions put to it. According to William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, a court is constituted by a minimum of three parties: the actor or plaintiff, who complains of an injury done.

It is usual in the superior courts to have barristers, attorneys or counsel, as assistants, though courts consist of additional barristers, reporters, a jury. The term "the court" is used to refer to the presiding officer or officials one or more judges; the judge or panel of judges may be collectively referred to as "the bench". In the United States, other common law jurisdictions, the term "court" by law is used to describe the judge himself or herself. In the United States, the legal authority of a court to take action is based on personal jurisdiction over the parties to the litigation and subject-matter jurisdiction over the claims asserted; the word court comes from the French cour, an enclosed yard, which derives from the Latin form cortem, the accusative case of cohors, which again means an enclosed yard or the occupants of such a yard. The English word court is a cognate of the Latin word hortus from Ancient Greek χόρτος, both referring to an enclosed space; the meaning of a judicial assembly is first attested in the 12th century, derives from the earlier usage to designate a sovereign and his entourage, which met to adjudicate disputes in such an enclosed yard.

The verb "to court", meaning to win favor, derives from the same source since people traveled to the sovereign's court to win his favor. The word jurisdiction comes from juris and dictio. Jurisdiction is defined as the official authority to make legal decisions and judgements over an individual or materialistic item within a territory."Whether a given court has jurisdiction to preside over a given case" is a key question in any legal action. Three basic components of jurisdiction are personal jurisdiction over an individual, jurisdiction over the particular subject matter or thing and territorial jurisdiction. Jurisdiction over a person refers to the full authority over a person regardless on where they live, jurisdiction over a particular subject matter refers to the authority over the said subject of legal cases involved in a case, lastly, territorial jurisdiction is the authority over a person within an x amount of space. Other concepts of jurisdiction include general jurisdiction, exclusive jurisdiction, territorial jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, diversity jurisdiction.

Trial courts are courts. Sometimes termed "courts of first instance", trial courts have varying original jurisdiction. Trial courts may conduct trials with juries as the finders of fact or trials in which judges act as both finders of fact and finders of law. Juries are less common in court systems outside the Anglo-American common law tradition. Appellate courts are courts that hear appeals of trial courts; some courts, such as the Crown Court in England and Wales may have both trial and appellate jurisdictions. The two major legal traditions of the western world are the civil law courts and the common law courts; these two great legal traditions are similar, in that they are products of western culture although there are significant differences between the two traditions. Civil law courts are profoundly based upon Roman Law a civil body of law entitled "Corpus iuris civilis"; this theory of civil law was rediscovered around the end of the eleventh century and became a foundation for university legal education starting in Bologna and subsequently being taught throughout continental European Universities.

Civil law is ensconced in the French and German legal systems. Common law courts were established by English royal judges of the King's Council after the Norman Invasion of Britain in 1066; the royal judges created a body of law by combining local customs they were made aware of through traveling and visiting local jurisdictions. This common standard of law became known as "Common Law"; this legal tradition is practiced in the American legal systems. In most civil law jurisd

1987 Aegean crisis

1987 Aegean crisis took place in late March between Turkey and Greece, as part of the Aegean dispute. Turkey learned that Greece was starting to drill for oil in the Greek but disputed by Turkey Aegean waters in the vicinity of Thasos. In response, the Turkish survey ship Piri Reis, the RV MTA Sismik 1, was sent to the area to conduct survey with an escort of Turkish warships. Oil was discovered off Thasos, in 1973. Greece claimed ownership of mineral rights in the continental shelf extending from beneath all its islands in the Aegean. Turkey proposed. In March 1987, a decision of the Greek government to nationalize the consortium of companies, drilling oil off Thasos, planned exploratory oil drilling 11 miles east of the island of Thasos, such as the impression by Turkey that Greece was planning new researches for oil, provoked tension between the two countries; the crisis escalated, armed forces of both countries were on alert, both sides said they would use force if obstructed by the other.

The incident nearly started a war between Turkey. Greek prime minister Andreas Papandreou gave the orders to sink the ship if it was found in the waters claimed by Greece. Turkish Prime Minister Turgut Özal said that "If Greece interferes with our vessel in any way, this is what Papandreou is saying, we will act in the same way against him", "As a result, it could be cause for war.", but he added that "We are waiting for the first move from them." The Greek foreign minister Karolos Papoulias was sent to Bulgaria for discussions. The Greek government gave orders for the suspension of operation of the base of NATO in Nea Makri, while the Greek forces and Navy were alarmed. Britain's Lord Carrington, the Secretary General of NATO, urged Greece and Turkey to avoid the use of force and offered to act as a mediator; the crisis was solved when Özal announced that if the Greek government did not enter the disputed waters, the Turks would stay out as well.

Sport in Algeria

Sport in Algeria dates back to antiquity. In the Aurès Mountains, people played games such as El khergueba. Playing cards and chess games are part of Algerian culture. Horse racing and rifle shooting are among the recreational traditions of Algeria; the first Algerian and African gold medalist was Boughera El Ouafi in the marathon at the 1928 Olympics of Amsterdam. The second Algerian medalist was marathon runner Alain Mimoun, who won the marathon at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne; the Ministry of Youth and Sports in Algeria manages sport-related activities. The most convenient and the most popular sport in Algeria is association football. During the Algerian War, the FLN football team, consisting of players who joined the National Liberation Front, participated in several tournaments and sports events; the Algerian Football Federation is an association of Algerian football clubs that organizes national competitions and international matches for the Algeria national football team. The AFF organized the meetings of the Algeria Championship of football, a professional league of 16 clubs, the Algerian Cup, is a member of the Confederation of African Football.

Notable Algerian players in the history of the sport include: Lakhdar Belloumi, Rachid Mekhloufi, Hassen Lalmas, Rabah Madjer, Salah Assad and Djamel Zidane. The Algerian national team qualified for the FIFA World Cup in 1982, 1986, 2010 and most 2014. In 1982, the national team came close to progressing into the second round, but was eliminated after Germany beat Austria in the so-called "non-aggression pact of Gijón". In 2014 Algeria proceeded to the Round of 16 for the first time after finishing in second place in Group H. Additionally, several football clubs have won continental and international trophies, such as the clubs ES Sétif and JS Kabylia. Handball is the second most popular participation sport in Algeria. Algeria's national handball team has six titles at the Men's African Championship, four gold medals at the All-Africa Games and many other titles with many participations in the World Men's Handball Championship and in the Olympic Games; the national clubs are strong and win many international titles.

Algeria, along with Tunisia, is one of the best African male handball teams. The men's national handball team has won several titles including in the African Championship in 1981, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1989 and 1996; the women's national handball team has triumphed in the tournaments of the African Championship and the Pan Arab games. Algeria has a strong reputation in middle-distance running. Several men and women have been champions in athletics since the 1990s including Noureddine Morceli, Hassiba Boulmerka, Nouria Mérah-Benida, Taoufik Makhloufi — all specialists in middle-distance running. Algeria has had many African and world champions in boxing, has won many medals in boxing at the Olympic Games; the country's boxing champions have included Mohamed Benguesmia, Loucif Hamani, Hocine Soltani, the Olympic champion in Atlanta 1996. Notable cyclists from Algeria have included Hichem Chaabane, Redouane Chabaane, Abdel Basset Hannachi, Azedine Lagab, Eddy Lembo and Youcef Reguigui. Algeria has had tens of thousands of Vovinam practitioners, some of whom competed in the World Championship of 2011 in Ho Chi Minh City.

In judo, Amar Benikhlef and Ali Idir have won the African Judo Championships several times in their categories. Several women including Soraya Haddad and Salima Souakri have won medals at the African Championship of Nations of Women's Judo and at the Olympic Games. Algeria's volleyball team qualified to the 2010 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship, they have won titles in several international competitions in the past. Basketball is another important sport in Algeria. Freestyle swimmer and African and Arabic champion. Another growing sport in Algeria is Rugby union; the Algeria national rugby team played their first official game on 18 December 2015 since the creation of the Algerian rugby federation. This historic match was played against the Tunisian rugby union team, to which they won 16 - 6; this was the first international match played on Algerian soil, televised on the Algerian channel Canal Algerie in the country for the first time. 1960 World Military Cup 1975 Mediterranean Games 1978 All-Africa Games 1990 African Cup of Nations 2004 Pan Arab Games 2005 Volleyball U19 World Championship 2007 All-Africa Games Below the list of the Best Awards sounding of athletes of the year organized by the Algeria Press Service since 1977, in collaboration with the national press.

Rugby union in Algeria Marathon des Dunes Algeria national rugby union team Algerian Rugby Federation Official website of the Ministry of Youth and Sport