A courtesan, in modern usage, is a euphemism meaning an escort, mistress or a prostitute, for whom the art of dignified etiquette is the means of attracting wealthy, powerful, or influential clients. The term meant a courtier, a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person. In feudal society, the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, social and political life were completely mixed together. Prior to the Renaissance, courtesans served to convey information to visiting dignitaries, when servants could not be trusted. In Renaissance Europe, courtiers played an important role in upper-class society; as it was customary during this time for royal couples to lead separate lives—commonly marrying to preserve bloodlines and to secure political alliances—men and women would seek gratification and companionship from people living at court. In fact, the verb'to court' meant "to be or reside at court", came to mean "to behave as a courtier" and then'courtship', or "to pay amorous attention to somebody".
The most intimate companion of a ruler was called the ”favourite”. In Renaissance usage, the Italian word cortigiana, feminine of cortigiano came to refer to a person who attends the court, to a well-educated and independent woman a trained artist or artisan of dance and singing one associated with wealthy, powerful, or upper-class society, given luxuries and status in exchange for entertainment and companionship; the word was borrowed by English from Italian through the French form courtisane during the 16th century associated to the meaning of donna di palazzo. A male figure comparable to the courtesan was the Italian cicisbeo, the French chevalier servant, the Spanish cortejo or estrecho; the courtesans of East Asia those of the Japanese empire, held a different social role than that of their European counterparts. Examples of Japanese courtesans included the oiran class, who were more focused on the aspect of entertainment in comparison with European courtesans. One type of courtesan was known as the cortigiana onesta, or the honest courtesan, cast as an intellectual.
Another was a lower class of courtesan. The former was the sort most romanticized and treated more-or-less equal to women of the nobility, it is with this type of courtesan. The cortigiane oneste were well-educated and worldly, held simultaneous careers as performers or artists, they were chosen on the basis of their "breeding"—social and conversational skills, common-sense, companionship—as well as their physical attributes. It was their wit and personality that set them apart from regular women. Sex constituted only a facet of the courtesan's array of services. For example, they were well-dressed and ready to engage and participate in a variety of topics ranging from art to music to politics. In some cases, courtesans were from well-to-do backgrounds, were married—but to husbands lower on the social ladder than their clients. In these cases, their relationships with those of high social status had the potential to improve their spouses' status—and so, more than not, the husband was aware of his wife's profession and dealings.
Courtesans from non-wealthy backgrounds provided charming companionship for extended periods, no matter what their own feelings or commitments might have been at the time, sometimes had to be prepared to do so on short notice. They were subject to lower social status, religious disapproval, because of the immoral aspects of their profession and their reliance upon courtisanerie as a primary source of income. In cases like this, a courtesan was dependent on her benefactor or benefactors financially, making her vulnerable. Courtesans serving in this capacity began their career as a prostitute, although many came to the profession by other means, it was not uncommon for a courtesan to enter into an arranged long-term liaison by contract with a wealthy benefactor. These contracts were written up by and witnessed by lawyers, were binding. Most included some provision for the financial welfare of the courtesan beyond the end of the relationship in the form of an annuity. Many such women became so powerful and financially that they could be particular about the men they associated with.
Wealthy benefactors would go to great lengths to court a courtesan as a prize, the ultimate goal being a long-term contract as a mistress. Courtesans were passed from one benefactor to another, thereby resulting in them being viewed in society circles as lower than both their benefactor and those of wealth and power with whom they would socialize. In instances of this sort, if the courtesan had satisfactorily served a benefactor, that benefactor would, when ending the affair, pass them on to another benefactor of wealth as a favor to the courtesan, or set them up in an arranged marriage to a semi-wealthy benefactor. In the event that the courtesan had angered or dissatisfied a benefactor, they would find themselves cast out of wealthy circles, returning more than not to street prostitution. Should not be confused with a royal mistressThose from wealthy backgrounds, either by birth or marriage, who were acting as courtesans only for the social or political advancement of themselves and/or their spouses were treated as equals.
They were more respected by their extramarital companions, both placi
Valery Stepanovich Tretyakov is a retired Soviet and Russian Colonel general. The commander of the Transbaikal Military District, head of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, he was born on 24 December 1941 in the city of Kuibyshev Oblast. He graduated from the Tashkent Military College Lenin with honors, the Frunze Military Academy with honors, the General Staff Academy of the Armed Forces named Voroshilov, higher academic courses at the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces named Voroshilov, he served as a platoon commander, company commander, battalion chief of staff in the Turkestan Military District, Chief of Staff and commander 239th Motorized Rifle Regiment of the 21st Taganrog Motor Rifle Division in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, the Chief of Staff and commander 72nd Guards Motor Rifle Division Krasnogradsky in the Kiev Military District, Chief of Staff of the 29th Army and the commander of the 39th Army in the Mongolian People Republic, 1st Deputy Commander and Commander troops Transbaikal Military District, chief of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, at the disposal of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation
Middle Georgia College was a four-year state college unit of the University System of Georgia. On Jan. 8, 2013, it was consolidated with Macon State College into a new institution, now known as Middle Georgia State University. The college's main campus was in Cochran, that campus is now a satellite campus of Middle Georgia State University; the campus continues to operate with the same facilities. MGC had two other campuses — located in Eastman and Dublin — and they continue to operate as campuses of Middle Georgia State University. Middle Georgia College dates back to the establishment of New Ebenezer College, which occupied the site of the current Cochran campus of Middle Georgia State University and was established in 1884 by the New Ebenezer Baptist Association; the association was composed of Baptist churches in Pulaski, Dodge and Telfair counties. The first building on the campus was completed in 1886, classes were first held in 1887 with 100 students. During the early period, the institution was divided into collegiate departments.
A stated purpose of the curriculum, as described in the catalog of 1887, was "to prepare pupils for business or for the Junior Class in Universities. This includes Latin, Mathematics, Natural Science and several modern languages, with English studies and Music." The New Ebenezer Baptist Association discontinued their financial support for their namesake college in 1898, forcing the school to close its doors. The college's building served as a high school for the city of Cochran until 1913, when the high school moved. No documentation exists regarding the facilities from 1913-1919, leading to the presumption that it was unoccupied during that time. In 1919, the Georgia State College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts opened a branch dedicated to serving the needs of the Twelfth congressional district in the building used by New Ebenezer College. In 1927, the school's name was changed to Middle Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical Junior College, though it remained a branch of the state agricultural school.
In 1929, the school's name was changed to Middle Georgia College and responsibility for its operation was given to a nine-person board of trustees. MGC was made an independent institution in 1931, when it was created as one of the original units of the newly created University System of Georgia. During World War II, MGC hosted the 50th College Training Detachment of the U. S. Army Air Force and graduated 17 classes of aviation students from March 1943- July 1944. In 1964, Dr. Louis C. Alderman, Jr. become president. Many new buildings as well as renovations of existing facilities marked his tenure in growing the college's reputation, academic excellence, campus beauty. During this term, the Dublin Campus was opened in 1984. Dr. Alderman died on December 13, 1987, having served the longest term of any past or subsequent president of the college. Alderman Community Hall was dedicated to his memory on May 21, 2009. A new program and campus was added to the school in 2007, when the Georgia Aviation Technical College in Eastman was merged with Middle Georgia College.
In January 2012, the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia approved the consolidation of the college with Macon State College. The Board of Regents approved the name change to Middle Georgia State College on Tuesday, May 8, 2012 and laid out a path for elevating the consolidated institution to university status after a review process; the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the regional accrediting agency, gave its approval of the consolidation in December 2012, the Board of Regents acted to make the consolidation official, effective on Jan. 8, 2013. The MGC baseball team won 4 NJCAA national championships: 1979, 1980, 1982, 1995; the team reached the JUCO World Series 13 times: 1975, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1990, 1995, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2009. Andrico Hines, American football player Josh Reddick, Major League Baseball player George Thornewell Smith, politician Jerry Zulli, college baseball coach