Courtney Love

Courtney Michelle Love is an American singer and actress. A figure in the punk and grunge scenes of the 1990s, Love's career has spanned four decades, she rose to prominence as the lead vocalist of the alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989. Love has drawn public attention for her uninhibited live performances and confrontational lyrics, as well as her publicized personal life following her marriage to Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain. In 2020, NME named her "one of the most influential singers in alternative culture of the last 30 years."Born to countercultural parents in San Francisco, Love had an itinerant childhood, but was raised in Portland, where she played in a series of short-lived bands and was active in the local punk scene. After being in a juvenile hall, she spent a year living in Dublin and Liverpool before returning to the United States and was cast in the Alex Cox films Sid and Nancy and Straight to Hell, she formed Hole in Los Angeles, receiving attention from underground rock press for the group's 1991 debut album, produced by Kim Gordon.

Hole's second release, Live Through This, was met with multi-platinum sales. In 1995, Love returned to acting, earning a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance as Althea Leasure in Miloš Forman's The People vs. Larry Flynt, which established her as a mainstream actress; the following year, Celebrity Skin, was nominated for three Grammy Awards. Love continued to work as an actress into the early 2000s, appearing in big-budget pictures such as Man on the Moon and Trapped, before releasing her first solo album, America's Sweetheart, in 2004; the next years were marked by publicity surrounding Love's legal troubles and drug addiction, which resulted in a mandatory lockdown rehabilitation sentence in 2005 while she was writing a second solo album. That project became Nobody's Daughter, released in 2010 as a Hole album but without the former Hole lineup. Between 2014 and 2015, Love released two solo singles and returned to acting in the network series Sons of Anarchy and Empire. Love has been active as a writer.

Courtney Michelle Harrison was born on July 9, 1964, at Saint Francis Memorial Hospital in San Francisco, the first child of psychotherapist Linda Carroll and Hank Harrison, a publisher and road manager for the Grateful Dead. Love's godfather is the founding Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh, her mother, adopted at birth and raised by a prominent Italian-Catholic family in San Francisco, was revealed to be the biological daughter of novelist Paula Fox. According to Love, she was named after Courtney Farrell, the protagonist of Pamela Moore's 1956 novel Chocolates for Breakfast, she is of Cuban, German and Welsh descent. Love spent her early years in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco until her parents' 1969 divorce, spurred by her mother's allegations that her father had fed Courtney LSD when she was a toddler. Though he denied the claim, full custody of Love was awarded to her mother. In 1970, Carroll relocated with Love to the rural community of Marcola, Oregon where they lived along the Mohawk River while she completed her psychology degree at the University of Oregon.

There, Love was adopted by Frank Rodriguez. He and her mother had two daughters and a son who died in infancy of a heart defect when Love was ten. Love attended a Montessori school in Eugene, where she struggled academically and had trouble making friends. At age nine, a psychologist noted. In 1972, Love's mother divorced Rodriguez and moved the family to Nelson, New Zealand. There, she enrolled Love from which she was soon expelled. In 1973, she was sent back to live in the United States, where she was raised in Portland, Oregon by her former stepfather and other family friends. During this time, her mother gave birth to two of Love's other half-brothers. At age fourteen, she was arrested for shoplifting a T-shirt from a Woolworth's, was sent to Hillcrest Correctional Facility, a juvenile hall in Salem, Oregon, she was subsequently placed in foster care until she became emancipated at age 16. She supported herself by working illegally as a topless dancer at Mary's Club in downtown Portland adopting the last name "Love" to conceal her identity.

She worked various odd jobs, including picking berries at a farm in Troutdale, as a disc jockey at a gay disco. During this time, she enrolled at Portland State University, studying philosophy. Love has said that she "didn't have a lot of social skills," and that she learned them while frequenting gay clubs and spending time with drag queens. In 1981, she was granted a small trust fund, left by her adoptive grandparents, which she used to travel to Dublin, where her biological father was living. While there, she enrolled in courses at Trinity College, she would receive honorary patronage from Trinity's University Philosophical Society in 2010. After leaving Trinity, Love relocated to Liverpool, where she became acquainted with musician Julian Cope and his band, The Teardrop Explodes, lived in his house. "They kind of took me in", she recalled. "I was sort of a mascot. In Cope's autobiography Head-On, Love is referred to as "the ad

The Spanish Bride

The Spanish Bride is a historic novel by Georgette Heyer. This story is based on the true story of Harry Smith and his wife Juana María de los Dolores de León Smith, he had a illustrious military career and was made a baronet. The town of Ladysmith in South Africa is named after his wife. After the siege and sack of the Spanish city of Badajoz by British and Portuguese forces in 1812, 14-year-old, convent raised orphan and her older sister sought sanctuary among officers of the 95th Rifles in the British camp outside the city walls. From the first moment he saw her, Brigade-Major Harry Smith fell in love with Juana. Over all objections from his brother officers, Harry married Juana a few days later. Instead of letting herself be sent home to her husband's family, she chose to accompany Harry with the army, she remained with him throughout the rest of the Peninsular War, accompanying the baggage train, sleeping in the open on the field of battle, riding among the troops, sharing all the privations of campaigning.

Her beauty, sound judgment and amiable character endeared her to the officers, including the Duke of Wellington, she was idolized by the soldiers. After the defeat of Napoleon, Harry installed her in lodgings; as Harry spoke fluent Spanish he had never bothered to teach Juana to speak English so engaged a tutor for her. Harry had volunteered for service in the United States, where he witnessed the burning of the capitol at Washington. Following the Battle of New Orleans Harry returned to England. In the meantime Harry’s family had visited her in London and persuaded her to come and stay with them in Cambridgeshire; when Napoleon escaped from Elba, Harry returned with his regiment to Europe. Juana was in Belgium during the Battle of Waterloo. Following the battle she insisted on searching the field for her husband’s body when she was told that he had been killed; however the report referred to another officer called Smyth and Juana was reunited with the uninjured Harry. The book ends with the pair embracing and Juana saying, “Mi tirano odioso!”

Although the book is written as one of Heyer’s Regency novels, she did a great deal of research.

Semi-empirical mass formula

In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus from its number of protons and neutrons. As the name suggests, it is based on theory and on empirical measurements; the formula represents the liquid drop model proposed by George Gamow, which can account for most of the terms in the formula and gives rough estimates for the values of the coefficients. It was first formulated in 1935 by German physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, although refinements have been made to the coefficients over the years, the structure of the formula remains the same today; the formula gives a good approximation for atomic masses and thereby other effects. However, it fails to explain the existence of lines of greater binding energy at certain numbers of protons and neutrons; such numbers, known as magic numbers, are the foundation of the nuclear shell model. The liquid drop model, was first proposed by George Gamow and further developed by Niels Bohr and John Archibald Wheeler.

It treats the nucleus as a drop of incompressible fluid of high density, held together by the nuclear force, there is a similarity to the structure of a spherical liquid drop. While a crude model, the liquid drop model accounts for the spherical shape of most nuclei, makes a rough prediction of binding energy; the corresponding mass formula is purely in terms of the numbers of protons and neutrons it contains, contains five terms: Volume energy, when an assembly of nucleons of the same size is packed together into the smallest volume, each interior nucleon has a certain number of other nucleons in contact with it. So, this nuclear energy is proportional to the volume. Surface energy corrects for the previous assumption made that every nucleon interacts with the same number of other nucleons; this term is negative and proportional to the surface area, is therefore equivalent to liquid surface tension. Coulomb energy, the potential energy from each pair of protons; as this is a repulsive force, the binding energy is reduced.

Asymmetry energy, which accounts for the Pauli exclusion principle. Unequal numbers of neutrons and protons imply filling higher energy levels for one type of particle, while leaving lower energy levels vacant for the other type. Pairing energy, which accounts for the tendency of proton pairs and neutron pairs to occur. An number of particles is more stable than an odd number due to spin coupling; the mass of an atomic nucleus, for N neutrons, Z protons, therefore A = N + Z nucleons, is given by m = Z m p + N m n − E B c 2 where m p and m n are the rest mass of a proton and a neutron and E B is the binding energy of the nucleus. The semi-empirical mass formula states the binding energy is: E B = a V A − a S A 2 / 3 − a C Z A 1 / 3 − a A 2 A ± δ Each of the terms in this formula has a theoretical basis, as will be explained below; the coefficients a V, a S, a C, a A and a coefficient that appears in the formula for δ are determined empirically. The term a V A is known as the volume term; the volume of the nucleus is proportional to A, so this term is proportional to the volume, hence the name.

The basis for this term is the strong nuclear force. The strong force affects both protons and neutrons, as expected, this term is independent of Z; because the number of pairs that can be taken from A particles is A 2, one might expect a term proportional to A 2. However, the strong force has a limited range, a given nucleon may only interact with its nearest neighbors and next nearest neighbors. Therefore, the number of pairs of particles that interact is proportional to A, giving the volume term its form; the coefficient a V is smaller than