In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
A power station referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power; the relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electrical current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas to generate electricity. Others use nuclear power, but there is an increasing use of cleaner renewable sources such as solar, wind and hydroelectric. In 1878 a hydroelectric power station was built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England, it used water from lakes on his estate to power Siemens dynamos. The electricity supplied power to lights, produced hot water, ran an elevator as well as labor-saving devices and farm buildings. In the early 1870s Belgian inventor Zénobe Gramme invented a generator powerful enough to produce power on a commercial scale for industry.
In the autumn of 1882, a central station providing public power was built in England. It was proposed after the town failed to reach an agreement on the rate charged by the gas company, so the town council decided to use electricity, it used hydroelectric power for household lighting. The system was not the town reverted to gas. In 1882 the world's first coal-fired public power station, the Edison Electric Light Station, was built in London, a project of Thomas Edison organized by Edward Johnson. A Babcock & Wilcox boiler powered a 125-horsepower steam engine; this supplied electricity to premises in the area that could be reached through the culverts of the viaduct without digging up the road, the monopoly of the gas companies. The customers included the Old Bailey. Another important customer was the Telegraph Office of the General Post Office, but this could not be reached though the culverts. Johnson arranged for the supply cable to be run overhead, via Holborn Newgate. In September 1882 in New York, the Pearl Street Station was established by Edison to provide electric lighting in the lower Manhattan Island area.
The station ran until destroyed by fire in 1890. The station used reciprocating steam engines to turn direct-current generators; because of the DC distribution, the service area was small. In 1886 George Westinghouse began building an alternating current system that used a transformer to step up voltage for long-distance transmission and stepped it back down for indoor lighting, a more efficient and less expensive system, similar to modern system; the War of Currents resolved in favor of AC distribution and utilization, although some DC systems persisted to the end of the 20th century. DC systems with a service radius of a mile or so were smaller, less efficient of fuel consumption, more labor-intensive to operate than much larger central AC generating stations. AC systems used a wide range of frequencies depending on the type of load; the economics of central station generation improved when unified light and power systems, operating at a common frequency, were developed. The same generating plant that fed large industrial loads during the day, could feed commuter railway systems during rush hour and serve lighting load in the evening, thus improving the system load factor and reducing the cost of electrical energy overall.
Many exceptions existed, generating stations were dedicated to power or light by the choice of frequency, rotating frequency changers and rotating converters were common to feed electric railway systems from the general lighting and power network. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century central stations became larger, using higher steam pressures to provide greater efficiency, relying on interconnections of multiple generating stations to improve reliability and cost. High-voltage AC transmission allowed hydroelectric power to be conveniently moved from distant waterfalls to city markets; the advent of the steam turbine in central station service, around 1906, allowed great expansion of generating capacity. Generators were no longer limited by the power transmission of belts or the slow speed of reciprocating engines, could grow to enormous sizes. For example, Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti planned what would have been the largest reciprocating steam engine built for a proposed new central station, but scrapped the plans when turbines became available in the necessary size.
Building power systems out of central stations required combinations of engineering skill and financial acumen in equal measure. Pioneers of central station generation include George Westinghouse and Samuel Insull in the United States and Charles Hesterman Merz in UK, many others. In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine that transforms thermal energy from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, so they are sometimes called steam power stations. Not all thermal energy can be transformed into mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated he
Southern California Edison
Southern California Edison, the largest subsidiary of Edison International, is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California. It provides 14 million people with electricity across a service territory of 50,000 square miles. However, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, San Diego Gas & Electric, Imperial Irrigation District, some smaller municipal utilities serve substantial portions of the southern California territory; the northern part of the state is served by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company of San Francisco. Southern California Edison still owns all of its electrical transmission facilities and equipment, but the deregulation of California's electricity market in the late 1990s forced the company to sell many of its power plants, though some were sold by choice. In California, SCE retained only its hydroelectric plants, totaling about 1,200 MW, its 75% share of the 2,150-MW San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, shut down since January 2012. SCE still owns about half of the 1,580-MW coal-fired Mohave Generating Station in Laughlin, which supplied electricity to California and Arizona.
The utility lost all of its natural gas-fired plants, which provided most of its electrical generation. The large, aging plants were bought by out-of-state companies such as Mirant and Reliant Energy, which used them to manipulate the California energy market. Southern California Edison's power grid is linked to PG&E's by the Path 26 wires that follow Interstate 5 over Tejon Pass; the interconnection takes place at a massive substation at Buttonwillow. PG&E's and WAPA's Path 15 and Path 66 from Buttonwillow north connect to BPA's grid in the Pacific Northwest. There are several other interconnections with local and out-of-state utilities, such as Path 46. In addition, SCE operates a regulated water utility. SCE is the sole commercial provider of natural gas and fresh water service to Santa Catalina Island, including the city of Avalon, California. SCE operates the utilities under the names of Catalina Island Gas Company and Catalina Island Water Company; the origins of the company lie with the grand scheme of magnate Henry E. Huntington and hydraulic engineer John S. Eastwood, developed around 1908, for a vast complex of reservoirs to be constructed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of central California.
Huntington founded Pacific Light and Power, one of the two dozen companies he controlled at the time, to execute what would become one of the largest hydropower systems in the United States, the Big Creek Hydroelectric Project. Pacific Light and Power was one of the predecessor companies to SCE, along with Edison Electric, Mt. Whitney Power & Electric Co. California Electric Power Co. Southern California Power Co. and others. In November, 2014, Southern California Edison announced a partnership with Ice Energy to provide more efficient energy storage by freezing water at night when electricity is cheaper. In 2015, Southern California Edison began laying off American information technology employees and replacing them with H-1B visa immigrants from India; the layoffs were questioned by members of the United States Senate. Southern California Edison agreed to pay a $650,000 settlement for the 2011 blackout with FERC and NERC. On December 16, 2011, a shooting occurred when an employee of Southern California Edison opened fire at an office building in Irwindale.
The employee killed two co-workers and wounded two others before committing suicide. Southern California Edison allows its customer to obtain their electricity from renewable sources by subscribing to a "green rate". In 2006, Southern California Edison planned to secure 1,500 megawatts or more of power generated from new projects to be built in the Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm area; the contract, which more than doubles SCE's wind energy portfolio, envisions more than 50 square miles of wind parks in the Tehachapi region, triple the size of any existing U. S. wind farm. In March 2008, Southern California Edison announced a $875 million project to build a network of 250 megawatts of photovoltaic solar power generation, making it the biggest solar cell project in the nation; the photovoltaic cells will cover 65,000,000 square feet of rooftops in southern California and will generate enough power to serve 162,000 homes. In 2009, Southern California Edison entered into a contract with Solar Millennium to purchase solar thermal power up to 726 MW.
Southern California Edison entered into a contract with Stirling Energy Systems to buy electricity from a 500 megawatt, 4,600 acre, solar power plant, due to open in 2009. The purchase was canceled in late 2010, as changes in technology reduced the cost of photovoltaic-based solar power to below that of solar Stirling generated power; this would have been the first commercial application of the dish stirling system. A different technology from the more familiar solar panel, the dish concentrates solar energy by the use of reflective surfaces and by the use of the Stirling heat engine to convert the heat into electricity. In 2014, Southern California Edison installed more than 600,000 lithium-ion battery cells at a substation in Tehachapi, California in order to test storing power generated from an area that has 5,000 wind turbines. In 2014 SCE had a renewables mix of 23%. By 2016, 28.2% of SCE's power
Fresno County, California
Fresno County the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of January 1, 2018, the population was 1,007,229; the county seat is the fifth-largest city in California. Fresno County comprises the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is located in north of Bakersfield. The area now known as Fresno County was the traditional homeland of Yokuts and Mono peoples, was settled by Spaniards during a search for suitable mission sites. In 1846, this area became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War. Fresno County was formed in 1856 from parts of Mariposa and Tulare counties. Fresno is Spanish for "ash tree" and it was in recognition of the abundance of the shrubby local Ash, Fraxinus dipetala, growing along the San Joaquin River that it received its name. Parts of Fresno County's territory were given to Mono County in 1861 and to Madera County in 1893; the original county seat was along the San Joaquin River in Millerton, but was moved to the growing town of Fresno on the newly built Southern Pacific Railroad line after a flood destroyed much of the town.
The settling of Fresno County was not without its conflicts, land disputes, other natural disasters. Floods caused immeasurable damage elsewhere and fires plagued the settlers of Fresno County. In 1882, the greatest of the early day fires wiped out an entire block of the city of Fresno, was followed by another devastating blaze in 1883. At the same time residents brought irrigation and extensive agriculture to the area. Moses Church developed the first canals, called "Church Ditches," for irrigation; these canals allowed extensive cultivation of wheat. Francis Eisen, leader of the wine industry in Fresno County began the raisin industry in 1875, when he accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine. A. Y. Easterby and Clovis Cole developed extensive grain and cattle ranches; these and other citizens laid the groundwork for the cultivation of Fresno County – now one of the nation's leading agricultural regions. In more recent times cotton became a major crop in Fresno and the southern San Joaquin Valley, but recent drought and lower demand have lessened cotton's importance to the local economy.
The discovery of oil in the western part of the county, near the town of Coalinga at the foot of the Coast Ranges, brought about an economic boom in the 1900s though the field itself was known at least as early as the 1860s. By 1910, Coalinga Oil Field, the largest field in Fresno County, was the most richly productive oil field in California; the Coalinga field continues to produce oil, is the eighth-largest field in the state. More than thirty structures in Fresno County are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Fresno Water Tower, which once held over 250,000 US gallons of water for the city of Fresno, the Meux Home, Kearney Mansion Museum. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,011 square miles, of which 5,958 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Major watercourses are the San Joaquin River, Kings River, Delta-Mendota Canal, Big Creek, Friant Kern Canal, Helm Canal and Madera Canal, it is bordered on the west on the east by the Sierra Nevada.
It is the center of a large agricultural area, known as the most agriculturally rich county in the United States. The county withdrew 3.7 billion US gallons of fresh water per day in 2000, more than any other county in the United States. Fresno County is part of the Madera AVA wine region. Fresno was named after two particular ash trees that grew near the town of Minkler on the Kings River, one of, still alive and standing. Giant Sequoia National Monument Kings Canyon National Park Sequoia National Forest Sierra National Forest A number of minerals have been discovered in the county, including macdonaldite, walstromite, verplanckite, muirite and kampfite; the 2010 United States Census reported that Fresno County had a population of 930,450. The racial makeup of Fresno County was 515,145 White, 49,523 African American, 15,649 Native American, 89,357 Asian, 1,405 Pacific Islander, 217,085 from other races, 42,286 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 468,070 persons. 46.0% of Fresno County's population is of Mexican descent.
As of the census of 2000, there were 799,407 people, 252,940 households, 186,669 families residing in the county. The population density was 134 people per square mile. There were 270,767 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 54.3% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 25.9% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races. 44.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.5% were of German ancestry according to Census 2000. 59.3% spoke English, 31.5% Spanish and 3.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 252,940 households ou
Shaver Lake is an artificial lake on Stevenson Creek, in the Sierra National Forest of Fresno County, California. At elevation 5,500 ft, several smaller streams flow into the lake, it receives water from the underground tunnels of Southern California Edison's Big Creek Hydroelectric Project; the town Shaver Lake is located on its south-west shore. The lake was formed with the construction of Shaver Lake Dam, built by Southern California Edison and completed in 1927; the 180-foot dam was built in 50-foot blocks, with a keyway to hold it in place and a 75-centimeter copper sheet to make it watertight. Its capacity is 135,283 acre⋅ft; some water from the lake is discharged into Stevenson Creek for fish and other wildlife, but the rest is diverted to Big Creek, where it powers several hydroelectric plants in succession. The area now covered by the lake was extensively logged before the dam was built, an extensive log flume system several miles long was constructed to bring logs down the mountain.
The town to this day maintains a nostalgic logging theme. Several buildings in town are in fact old, converted sawmills. Adjacent to the lake is Camp Edison and operated by SCE. On August 13, 1943, Grace Craycroft, the daughter of pioneer lumberman Charles B. Shaver after whom the lake and town is named, drowned after suffering from a heart attack whilst attempting to save a 12-year-old boy from drowning; the reality TV shows Endurance High Sierras and Capture were filmed at Shaver Lake in summer 2006 and summer 2013, respectively. The Shaver Lake Trophy Trout Project is a non-profit organization to educate the public on fishing and make Shaver Lake a fishing destination. Camp Chawanakee, a Boy Scout Camp run by the Sequoia Council, is held on a peninsula in the South of Shaver Lake. BSA troops from all over California attend each Summer. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California Shaver Lake, California Department of Water Resources. "Station Meta Data: Shaver Lake". California Data Exchange Center.
State of California. Retrieved 2009-04-01. Shaver Lake Trophy Trout Project