A coven refers to a group or gathering of witches. The word "coven" remained unused in English until 1921 when Margaret Murray promoted the idea that all witches across Europe met in groups of thirteen which they called "covens". In Wicca and other similar forms of modern neopagan witchcraft, such as Stregheria and Feri, a coven is a gathering or community of witches, like an affinity group, engagement group, or small covenant group, it is composed of a group of practitioners who gather together for rituals such as Drawing Down the Moon, or celebrating the Sabbats. The number of people involved may vary. Although some consider thirteen to be ideal, any group of at least three can be a coven. A group of two is called a "working couple". Within the community, many believe that a coven larger than thirteen is unwieldy, citing unwieldy group dynamics and an unfair burden on the leadership; when a coven has grown too large to be manageable, it may split, or "hive". In Wicca, this may occur when a newly made High Priest or High Priestess called 3rd Degree initiation, leaves to start their own coven.
Wiccan covens are jointly led by a High Priestess and a High Priest, although some are led by only one or the other, some by a same-sex couple. In more recent forms of neopagan witchcraft, covens are sometimes run as democracies with a rotating leadership. With the rise of the Internet as a platform for collaborative discussion and media dissemination, it became popular for adherents and practitioners of Wicca to establish "online covens" which remotely teach tradition-specific crafts to students in a similar method of education as non-religious virtual online schools. One of the first online covens to take this route is the Coven of the Far Flung Net, established in 1998 as the online arm of the Church of Universal Eclectic Wicca. However, because of potentially-unwieldy membership sizes, many online covens limit their memberships to anywhere between 10 and 100 students; the CFFN, in particular, tried to devolve its structure into a system of sub-coven clans, a system which ended in 2003 due to fears by the CFFN leadership that the clans were becoming communities in their own right.
The Urban Coven is a group founded on Facebook by Becca Gordon for women in Los Angeles to gather and howl at the moon. It meets monthly and is estimated to have 3,500 members. A January 2016 gathering at Griffith Park drew nearly 1,000 women, was described as follows: "Many of the women... were there in groups — mothers and daughters, colleagues. Some arrived solo and struck up conversations with other women or hiked in solitude." In popular culture, a coven is a gathering of witches who work spells in tandem. Such imagery can be traced back to Renaissance prints depicting witches and to the three "weird sisters" in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Orgiastic meetings of witches are depicted in the Robert Burns poem "Tam o' Shanter" and in the Goethe play Faust. Films featuring covens include Rosemary's Baby and its 2018 remake, The Witches of Eastwick, Four Rooms, The Craft, Underworld, Underworld: Evolution, The Covenant, Paranormal Activity 3, The Witch and Hereditary. In television, covens have been portrayed in the U.
S. in supernatural dramas such as Charmed, Witches of East End, The Vampire Diaries, The Originals, The Secret Circle, True Blood, Once Upon a Time and Chilling Adventures of Sabrina. The third season of American Horror Story is entitled Coven, focuses on witches. In vampire novels such as The Vampire Chronicles by Anne Rice and the Twilight series by Stephenie Meyer, covens are families or unrelated groups of vampires who live together. Covens feature in the video game Dishonored in the DLC's Knife of Dunwall, The Brigmore Witches. New Forest coven Margot Adler Drawing Down the Moon. Penguin Books. Miriam Simos The Spiral Dance. San Francisco: Harper. Janet and Stuart Farrar A Witches' Bible: The Complete Witches Handbook. Phoenix Publishing. List of Covens by Location at Witchvox Online Covens supported by SpellsOfMagic Choosing a Coven by Judy Harrow Choosing a Coven by Lisa McSherry Information on Covens by Spell Reviews
Elif Deniz is a Turkish women's football midfielder playing in the First League for Trabzon İdmanocağı with jersey number 11. She is a member of the Turkish national team since 2010, she received her license on May 2006 for her hometown club Kdz. Ereğlispor, where she played until October 2012. In the 2012–13 season, Elif Deniz transferred to Trabzon İdmanocağı. Elif Deniz was called for the Turkey girls' U-17 national team, debuted in the 2009 UEFA Women's U-17 Championship qualifying round match against the Irish girls on October 18, 2008, she participated at the 2010 UEFA Women's U-17 Championship qualifying round matches, capped 11 times in total for the youth nationals. She appeared for the first time in the Turkey women's U-19 team in the match against Icelandic juniors at the 2011 UEFA Women's U-19 Championship Second qualifying round on March 31, 2011. Elif Deniz participated at the 2012 UEFA Women's U-19 Championship – Final tournament matches, she scored one goal for the junior women's team.
She made her first appearance in the women's national team on February 3, 2010 playing in a friendly match against the Russian team. She participated in the qualifying round matches of UEFA Women's Euro 2013 qualifying – Group 2 and 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup qualification – UEFA Group 6; as of end June 19, 2014, she capped 7 times in the national team. As of January 3, 2016. Turkish Women's First League Kdz. Ereğlispor Third places: 2011–12Trabzon İdmanocağı Third places: 2014–15, 2015–16 Elif Deniz – UEFA competition record
Terberg Group B. V. is a specialised vehicle manufacturer in Benschop, Netherlands building special trucks and fitting specialist equipment to other manufacturer's trucks and vans. Customers operate terminals at ports and logistic centres. Other specialised vehicles are supplied to the construction and tunnelling industries. Terberg heavy-duty tractors and low-entry trucks are used by all sectors. Electric tractors are available. Headquarters are in Benschop. Headquarters for Germany are in Hamburg with branches in Bad Rappenau. Terberg makes waste collection systems and truck-mounted forklifts. In the Netherlands Terberg provides financial services including leasing and rental arrangements for passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Subsidiaries operate in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, France and Poland as well as Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates and, in America, in Brazil and the United States. Terberg began as blacksmiths, built carriages and after the Second World War renovated war-surplus trucks.
Terberg built its first truck in 1966 using components from a variety of manufacturers. Terberg standardised with Volvo components Terberg RosRoca Group, established in 2016, is managed from Warwick, England where Ros Roca's former subsidiary, Dennis Eagle, is located. Terberg Group holds the controlling share of Terberg RosRoca. Terberg RosRoca Group was formed by merging the Environmental division of Terberg Group and Ros Roca Environment of Spain; the components retained their trading names. When the merger was arranged Terberg RosRoca Group had 1,300 employees around the world and annual turnover of €385 million. There were production plants in the UK, Spain, Germany and China. Other Netherlands truck manufacturers DAF Trucks GINAF Group Official Special Vehicles
Toslow is a resettled fishing community in Placentia Bay on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The village was located in a natural harbour called Presque Harbour. According to Howley, the name is believed to be a corruption of the French for silver cup because "the little harbour is cup-like, the quartz in the rocky cliffs give it a silver-like appearance". In the 1836 census there were 21 people and in 1845 it had a population of 26, it was a prosperous community. By 1901 there were three lobster factories in the community; the community has gained notoriety from the familiar Newfoundland ballad of The Ryans and the Pittmans. The song mentions many of the surrounding communities such as Isle Valen and Little Bona amongst many others. Toslow is the subject of another popular Newfoundland ballad, Out from St. Leonard's where it graphically describes the plight of the residents as they were forced into resettlement; the chorus verse of the song is as follows: List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador
The mining industry of Yemen is at present dominated by fossil mineral of petroleum and liquefied natural gas, to a limited extent by extraction of dimension stone and refined petroleum. Reserves of metals like cobalt, gold, iron ore, niobium, platinum-group metals, silver and zinc are awaiting exploration. Industrial minerals with identified reserves include black sands with ilmenite, monazite and zirconium, clays, dimension stone, feldspar, gypsum, magnesite, pure limestone, salt, scoria and zeolites. Crude oil and natural gas reserves amounted to 479 billion cubic meters; the slow progress in the mineral sector is on account of the security situation caused by civil strife and political uncertainty in the country, a deterrent for private companies to operate. As of 2010 the mineral industry's contribution to the country’s GDP was 13.9%. Mining for gold by Sabaeans, now Yemen, is ancient history when a large number of gold mines existed, it is said that many of their palaces and temples were decorated with doors and walls with gold and gemstones.
These old mines exist. In recent explorations carried out by the Geological Survey & Mineral Resources Board and Foreign Companies some of these mines have been identified; the Sana'a and Thammar Provinces had 819 active mining sites, as of 2013, produced 2 million tons of building materials and 1,000 tons of some industrial minerals. In the fossil fuel sector, out of 105 concession blocks awarded, 13 blocks were exploited as of 2013. Export of petroleum accounted for 25% of the GDP growth providing revenue worth 70% to the government in 2011. Stone, refined petroleum products, salt have been produced during 2013. In 2013, natural gas production exported as LNG, was of the order of 10.3 billion cubic meters. Earlier legal framework in mining sector consisted of the Mines & Quarries Law, Executive Regulations and the Financial Regulations, which have been strengthened with new laws. Mineral exploration and production operations are defined now by Mines and Quarries Law No. 22 of 2010 under Article 8 of Yemen’s Constitution.
This law, approved by the Government in 2010, received consent of the Parliament on 16 December 2011. The law provides for regulations related to prospecting and mining operations including artisanal mining. Provisions in the law include royalty rates, income tax, limits on prospecting permits, quarrying permits; the Ministry of Mines, through its Yemen Geological Survey and Mineral Resources Board, is responsible for mineral production. Cobalt, nickel reserves are found in three locations in the Al Masna’a, the Suwar, the Wadi Qutabah in northeastern Yemen. Gold and silver have been identified in 40 locations and their extraction is now awaiting proposals under foreign investment. Gold deposits exist in the Medden area, said to be the largest with a reserve of 678,000 tons where the average yield of 15 grams of gold and 11 grams of silver are estimated. Nine locations have been identified for mining of iron oxide and titanium; the Jabali zinc and silver mine, to the northeast of Sana'a, has reserves of 12.6 million tons of oxide resources, though awarded for extraction, was under hibernation.
The International Day Against Homophobia and Biphobia is observed on May 17 and aims to coordinate international events that raise awareness of LGBT rights violations and stimulate interest in LGBT rights work worldwide. By 2016, the commemorations had taken place in 132 countries across the globe; the founders of the International Day Against Homophobia, as it was known, established the IDAHO Committee to coordinate grass-roots actions in different countries, to promote the day and to lobby for official recognition on May 17. That date was chosen to commemorate the decision to remove homosexuality from the International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization in 1990. For a long time in Germany, May 17 had been unofficially labelled as a "Gay Day." Written in the date format 17.5. It had a natural affinity with Paragraph 175 of the rule dealing with homosexuality; the day, as a concept, was conceived in 2004. A year-long campaign culminated in the first International Day Against Homophobia on May 17, 2005.
24,000 individuals as well as organizations such as the International Lesbian and Gay Association, the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, the World Congress of LGBT Jews, the Coalition of African Lesbians signed an appeal to support the "IDAHO initiative". Activities for the day took place in many countries, including the first LGBT events to take place in the Congo and Bulgaria. In 2009, transphobia was added to the name of the campaign, activities that year focused on transphobia. A new petition was launched in cooperation with LGBT organizations in 2009, it was supported by more than 300 NGOs from 75 countries, as well as three Nobel Prize winners. On the eve of May 17, 2009, France became the first country in the world to remove transgender issues from its list of mental illnesses. Frenchman Louis-Georges Tin was founder of the day, acted as its Committee Chairperson until his resignation in September 2013, he was succeeded by internationally renowned Venezuelan trans rights activist and law professor Tamara Adrián, who became one of the first trans legislators in Latin America in 2015.
Louis-Georges Tin and two other Committee members started a hunger-strike on June 2012 to urge the French president Hollande to introduce a UN resolution decriminalising homosexuality. In France, same-sex marriage has been legal since 18 May 2013. Biphobia was added to the name of the campaign in 2015; the Enforcement Act of Judicial Yuan Interpretation No. 748 that legalised same-sex marriage in Taiwan was passed on International Day Against Homophobia and Biphobia in 2019, with the law coming into effect on 24 May 2019. The main purpose of the May 17 mobilisations is to raise awareness of violence and repression of LGBT communities worldwide, which in turn provides an opportunity to take action and engage in dialogue with the media, public opinion, wider civil society. One of the stated goals of May 17 is to create an event that can be visible at a global level without needing to conform to a specific type of action; this decentralized approach is needed due to the diversity of social, religious and political contexts in which rights violations occur.
The day is strong in Europe and Latin America, where it is commemorated with public events in all countries. May 17 is marked in multiple countries in all world regions including, in 2013, 32 of the 76 countries in the world where same-sex relationships are criminalised. Common actions include large-scale street marches and festivals. In Cuba, for example, Mariela Castro has led out a huge street parade in honor of May 17 for the past 3 years. In Chile in 2013, 50,000 people took to the streets to mark May 17, the VIII Santiago Equality march. Arts and culture-based events are common. For example, Bangladeshi activists organised the music festival "Love Music Hate Homophobia" in 2013. Albanian LGBT activists have, in 2012 and 2013 been organising an annual Bike Ride for May 17 through the streets of the capital Tirana. In 2013, the day's Committee called for international actions for a Global Rainbow Flashmob to mark May 17. Activists in 100 cities, in 50 countries participated with diverse public events spanning coloured balloon releases, dance flashmobs, musical events, performance and street art.
On Friday, May 17, 2019, Taiwan became the first country in Asia to recognize same-sex marriage. In Nepal, this day is celebrated as International Day Against Queer / MOGAI -phobia' as well as IDAHOT. In 2003 the Canadian organization Fondation Émergence instituted a similar event, the National Day Against Homophobia, held on June 1. In 2006, they changed the date to May 17. In 2006, The Declaration of Montreal was adopted by the 2006 World Outgames; the Declaration demanded that the United Nations and all states recognize May 17 as the International Day Against Homophobia. In 2007, in Aosta Valley, the government approved the support for the IDAHOTIn 2010, Lula president of Brazil, signed an act that instituted May 17 as the National Day Against Homophobia in his country; the day is officially recognized by the EU Parliament, Portugal, the UK, Costa Rica, the Netherlands, France and Venezuela. It is recognized by numerous local authorities, such as the province of Quebec or the city of Buenos Aires.
In 2012, the city of Liverpool, England created a pione