Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment. Immersion in water and exposure to high ambient pressure have physiological effects that limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Humans are not physiologically and anatomically well adapted to the environmental conditions of diving, various equipment has been developed to extend the depth and duration of human dives, allow different types of work to be done. In ambient pressure diving, the diver is directly exposed to the pressure of the surrounding water; the ambient pressure diver may dive on breath-hold, or use breathing apparatus for scuba diving or surface-supplied diving, the saturation diving technique reduces the risk of decompression sickness after long-duration deep dives. Atmospheric diving suits may be used to isolate the diver from high ambient pressure. Crewed submersibles can extend depth range, remotely controlled or robotic machines can reduce risk to humans.
The environment exposes the diver to a wide range of hazards, though the risks are controlled by appropriate diving skills, types of equipment and breathing gases used depending on the mode and purpose of diving, it remains a dangerous activity. Diving activities are restricted to maximum depths of about 40 metres for recreational scuba diving, 530 metres for commercial saturation diving, 610 metres wearing atmospheric suits. Diving is restricted to conditions which are not excessively hazardous, though the level of risk acceptable can vary. Recreational diving is a popular leisure activity. Technical diving is a form of recreational diving under challenging conditions. Professional diving involves working underwater. Public safety diving is the underwater work done by law enforcement, fire rescue, underwater search and recovery dive teams. Military diving includes clearance diving and ships husbandry. Deep sea diving is underwater diving with surface-supplied equipment, refers to the use of standard diving dress with the traditional copper helmet.
Hard hat diving is any form of diving with a helmet, including the standard copper helmet, other forms of free-flow and lightweight demand helmets. The history of breath-hold diving goes back at least to classical times, there is evidence of prehistoric hunting and gathering of seafoods that may have involved underwater swimming. Technical advances allowing the provision of breathing gas to a diver underwater at ambient pressure are recent, self-contained breathing systems developed at an accelerated rate following the Second World War. Immersion in water and exposure to cold water and high pressure have physiological effects on the diver which limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Breath-hold endurance is a severe limitation, breathing at high ambient pressure adds further complications, both directly and indirectly. Technological solutions have been developed which can extend depth and duration of human ambient pressure dives, allow useful work to be done underwater.
Immersion of the human body in water affects the circulation, renal system, fluid balance, breathing, because the external hydrostatic pressure of the water provides support against the internal hydrostatic pressure of the blood. This causes a blood shift from the extravascular tissues of the limbs into the chest cavity, fluid losses known as immersion diuresis compensate for the blood shift in hydrated subjects soon after immersion. Hydrostatic pressure on the body from head-out immersion causes negative pressure breathing which contributes to the blood shift; the blood shift causes cardiac workload. Stroke volume is not affected by immersion or variation in ambient pressure, but slowed heartbeat reduces the overall cardiac output because of the diving reflex in breath-hold diving. Lung volume decreases in the upright position, owing to cranial displacement of the abdomen from hydrostatic pressure, resistance to air flow in the airways increases because of the decrease in lung volume. There appears to be a connection between pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure, which results in capillary engorgement.
This may occur during higher intensity exercise while submerged. Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold cold water, is a common cause of death from immersion in cold water, such as by falling through thin ice; the immediate shock of the cold causes involuntary inhalation, which if underwater can result in drowning. The cold water can cause heart attack due to vasoconstriction. A person who survives the initial minute after falling into cold water can survive for at least thirty minutes provided they do not drown; the ability to stay afloat declines after about ten minutes as the chilled muscles lose strength and co-ordination. The diving reflex is a response to immersion, it optimises respiration by preferentially distributing oxygen stores to the heart and brain, which allows extended periods underwater. It is exhibited in aquatic mammals, exists in other mammals, including humans. Diving birds, such as penguins, have a similar diving reflex; the diving reflex is trigger
St Keverne is a civil parish and village on The Lizard in Cornwall, United Kingdom. In addition to the parish an electoral ward exists titled St Meneage; this stretches to the western Lizard coast at Gunwalloe. The population of the ward at the 2011 election was 5,220; the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 started in St Keverne. The leader of the rebellion Michael An Gof was a blacksmith from St Keverne and is commemorated by a statue in the village. Before his execution, An Gof said that he should have "a name perpetual and a fame permanent and immortal". In 1997 a 500th anniversary march, "Keskerdh Kernow 500", celebrating the An Gof uprising, retraced the route of the original march from St Keverne, via Guildford to London; the parish is a large one. It includes some 10 miles of coast from Nare Point at the mouth of the Helford River to Kennack Sands, the Manacles offshore. Settlements on the coast include Porthallow and Coverack. Inland the parish includes the hamlets of Zoar, Traboe and Gwenter; the eastern part of Goonhilly Downs is in the parish.
St Keverne lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. St Keverne was, in the Middle Ages, the site of an important monastery; the church is dedicated to St Akeveranus, although for a considerable period this was corrupted to Kieran. The church is large for a village church and in its present form is 15th-century: however parts of the stonework appear to have been reused from a previous church building. Unusually for Cornwall, the tower is topped by a spire. Other features of interest include a mural painting. A 32-pounder carronade that divers recovered in 1978 from the wreck of HMS Primose stands by the lych-gate to the churchyard; the peal of ten bells is one of the largest two peals in a Cornish parish church. St. Keverne has been inhabited for many thousands of years, there is evidence of human habitation from at least the Mesolithic period, c. 5550 BC. The area is rich in archaeological history from a variety of different periods, including flints, cists, round houses, cliff castles.
The Mesolithic In 1967, A Mesolithic site known as Rock Mound was discovered at Poldowrian Site, situated near the Lankidden Cliff Castle. The Mesolithic site was dated between 5250 BC, from some hazelnut fragments. Flint tools were first discovered during attempts to plow the land for planting, overall, nearly 48,000 flint tools were discovered. Neolithic During the Neolithic period and beyond, St. Keverne was one of the primary sources of clay for pottery. Gabbroic clay covers an area of 7 square miles of the Lizard Peninsula in the area of St. Keverne Parish; the clay lies at a depth of 8 – 18 inches below the topsoil. In the late 1960s, Dr. D. Peacock examined numerous potsherds from around Cornwall, came to the conclusion that they were all made from the same gabbroic clay from St. Keverne. Most of the paleolithic pottery from around Cornwall has been found to be made of gabbroic clay, such as the sherds at the Neolithic site of Carn Brea at Redruth. Beaker Pottery St. Keverne has yielded an exceptional amount of Beaker pottery.
The Beaker Mound at Poldowrian has yielded one of the finest caches of Beaker pottery in Cornwall. Bronze Age Goonhilly Downs contains over 65 Bronze Age barrows, as well as the "dry tree" standing stone. A Bronze Age standing stone exists at Tremenheere, which means "Standing Stone Farm" and there is another place of the same name in Ludgvan. Other antiquities are a cist called the Three Brothers of Grugith on Crowza Downs and a destroyed fogou at Polkernogo. Iron Age St. Keverne has a number of Iron Age sites, with two of the most dramatic being the cliff castles of Chynalls and Lankidden. All, left in these sites are the faint markings of the ditches and banks that would have protected these castles, but during the Iron Age they would have provided a "prominent focus within a landscape quite densely populated by contemporary settlements or "rounds."" Another notable Iron Age artefact originating in St. Keverne is the elaborately engraved bronze mirror discovered in a cist grave, in 1833; this mirror was accompanied by two brooches, some beads, two rings.
St Keverne was in Celtic times part of the Meneage. The monastery at St Keverne was seized soon after by a lay lord. By 1236 the churches and demesnes of Tregonan had come into the possession of the Cistercian abbey at Beaulieu and their title was confirmed by Richard, Earl of Cornwall in 1258; this was a valuable possession including as it did the rectorial tithe of a large and prosperous parish, the tithe of fish, the lands of the churchtown. The right of sanctuary held by Beaulieu Abbey was extended to St Keverne. A small cell of monks was maintained at Tregonan. In the parish is Lesneague which can be derived from Cornish lis and manahec which would indicate that it was once the seat of a local chieftain. Michael An Gof, leader of the first Corni
Camelford is a town and civil parish in north Cornwall, United Kingdom, situated in the River Camel valley northwest of Bodmin Moor. The town is ten miles north of Bodmin and is governed by Camelford Town Council. Lanteglos-by-Camelford is the ecclesiastical parish; the ward population at the 2011 Census was 4,001. The Town population at the same census was 865 onlyCamelford is in the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency represented by Scott Mann MP since 2015; until 1974, the town was the administrative headquarters of Camelford Rural District. The two main industrial enterprises in the area are the slate quarry at Delabole and the cheese factory at Davidstow and there is a small industrial estate at Highfield; the A39 road passes through the town centre: a bypass has been discussed for many years. Camelford Station, some distance from the town, closed in 1966, its position near the highest land in Cornwall makes the climate rather wet. On 8 June 1957, 203 millimetres of rain fell at Camelford.
Roughtor is the nearest of the hills of Bodmin Moor to the town and numerous prehistoric remains can be found nearby as well. The Town Hall is now used as a branch public library. By the riverside is Enfield Park; the economy depends on agriculture and tourism. There was a china clay. Camelford is the home of the North Cornwall Museum and Gallery which contains paintings and objects of local historical interest. To the northwest at Slaughterbridge is an Arthurian Centre and at nearby Camelford Station is the Cycling Museum. To the east are the hills of Roughtor and Brown Willy and to the south the old parish churches at Lanteglos and Advent; the main road through Camelford is the A39 and there is a thrice-daily Western Greyhound bus service from Newquay to Exeter via Launceston that serves the town. A tentatively-planned bypass is on hold. From 1893 to 1966 the town had a station on the North Cornwall Railway; the nearest national railway station is 14 miles distant. Camelford has been linked to the legendary Camelot, the battle of Camlann, but historians have refuted these suggestions.
The name comes from the original, Brythonic name of the river in combination with cam- = crooked and the English'ford', though this is not accepted by all. Camelford has sometimes been linked to Gafulford the site of a battle against the West Saxons, more to have been at Galford in Devon.) Nearby Slaughterbridge has been supposed to be the site of a battle. Helstone was in the Middle Ages one of the chief manors of the Hundred of Trigg and in Celtic times the seat of a chieftain. In the Domesday Book this manor was held by Earl Robert of Mortain: there were 2 hides, land for 15 ploughs; the manor of Penmayne was a dependency of this manor. It was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall; the town elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons: the first MPs sat in the Parliament of 1552. It was considered a rotten borough, in 1832 the Camelford parliamentary constituency was abolished and the town became part of the East Cornwall constituency; the seal of the borough shows: Arg.
A camel passing through a ford of water all proper with legend "Sigillum Vill: de Camelford". In July 1988, the water supply to the town and the surrounding area was contaminated when 20 tons of aluminium sulphate was poured into the wrong tank at the Lowermoor Water Treatment Works on Bodmin Moor. An independent inquiry into the incident, the worst of its kind in British history, started in 2002, a draft report was issued in January 2005, but questions remain as to the long-term effects on the health of residents. Michael Meacher, who visited Camelford as environment minister, called the incident and its aftermath, "A most unbelievable scandal." The parish church of Camelford is at Lanteglos by Camelford though there is a Church of St Thomas of Canterbury in the town. Lanteglos church is dedicated to St Julitta. Arthur Langdon recorded the existence of seven stone crosses in the parish, including three at the rectory. There was in medieval times a chapel of St Thomas which fell into disuse after the Reformation.
The Rector of Lanteglos is responsible for the adjacent parish of Advent. In Market Place is the Methodist Church; the founder of Methodism, John Wesley, visited Camelford on several occasions during his journeys in Cornwall. In the 1830s and 1840s the Camelford Wesleyan Methodist circuit underwent a secession by more than half the members to the Wesleyan Methodist Association. There is an older Methodist chapel in Chapel Street. Soul's Harbour Pentecostal Church is situated on the Clease adjacent to the car park, it is affiliated with The Assemblies of God of Great Britain and was founded in 1987. The buildi
Helston is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula 12 miles east of Penzance and 9 miles south-west of Falmouth. Helston is the most southerly town on the island of Great Britain and is around 1.5 miles farther south than Penzance. The population in 2011 was 11,700; the former stannary and cattle market town is best known for the annual Furry Dance, said to originate from the medieval period. However, the Hal-an-Tow is reputed to be of Celtic origin; the song, music, associated with the Furry Dance is known to have been written in 1911. In 2001, the town celebrated the 800th anniversary of the granting of its Charter; the name comes from the Cornish'hen lis' or'old court' and'ton' added to denote a Saxon manor. Only one edition refers to'Henlistona', it was granted its charter for the price of forty marks of silver. It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the tin coinage duty due to the Duke of Cornwall when a number of stannary towns were authorised by royal decree.
A document of 1396 examined by Charles Henderson shows that the old form "Hellys" was still in use The manor of Helston in Kerrier was one of the seventeen Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall. The seal of the borough of Helston was St Michael his wings standing on a gateway; the two towers domed upon the up-turned dragon, impaling it with his spear and bearing upon his left arm an escutcheon of the arms of England, viz Gu three lions passant guardant in pale Or, with the legend "Sigillum comunitatis helleston burg". It is a matter of debate as to. A common belief is that in the 13th-century Loe Bar formed a barrier across the mouth of the River Cober cutting the town off from the sea. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, blocking the river and creating a barrier beach; the beach is formed of flint and the nearest source is found offshore under the drowned terraces of the former river that flowed between England and France, now under the English Channel.
Daniel Defoe describes Helston in his tour around Great Britain thus, ″This town is large and populous, has four spacious streets, a handsome church, a good trade: this town sends members to Parliament.' He mentions that the River Cober makes a tolerable good harbour and several ships are loaded with tin, although over one hundred years before Defoe, Richard Carew described Loe Bar as "The shingle was porous and fresh water could leave and seawater enter depending, on the relative heights of the pool and sea". Defoe's description seems to be the first and the origin of other sources claiming Helston to be a port in the historic period. Loe Pool is referred to in a document of 1302, implying the existence of Loe Bar at this date, if not much earlier, thus precluding the passage of shipping up the Cober. At the same time it was recorded that the burgesses of Helston exercised jurisdiction over the ships anchored at Gweek, but no mention was made of ships at Helston, no customs records or other documentation of port traffic relating to Helston survives.
There is no known archaeological evidence for the existence of a port at Helston* and there is no primary evidence to support Defoe’s account. However, contributing to the belief of a port at Helston was the discovery of what some people believe to be slipways and mooring rings, during excavations around 1980. There was no known shipping from the sea after 1260, but before 1200, in'the 1182 record of Godric of Helleston paying a fine of ten marks for exporting his corn out of England from Helston without a licence.' This could be considered the most significant piece of documentary evidence signifying Helston's former port days, though it does not prove the case. At the time of Domesday Book, Gweek had no inhabitants whilst Helston was the largest settlement in the west of Cornwall, with 113 households. In 1837 a plan was drawn up to open Loe Pool to shipping using a pier to counteract siltation, but it was never carried out; the site of Helston's castle is now a bowling green near the Grylls Monument, there since 1760.
The castle was a simple pre-1086 motte and bailey structure, known as Henliston Castle, replaced in around 1280 by a stone structure of a similar design for Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. By 1478 it had fallen into ruin; the Helston parliamentary constituency was created in 1298 and elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons. Helston is now part of the St Ives constituency, which covers the western part of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; the current member is Derek Thomas. Helston is within the South West England European Parliamentary Constituency. At local government level, the town is administered by Helston Town Council. Helston is situated along the banks of the River Cober in Cornwall. Downstream is Cornwall's largest natural lake Loe Pool, formed when a shingle bar blocked the mouth of the river by rising sea levels forming a barrier beach. To the south is the Lizard Peninsula, an area important for its complex geology and wildlife habitats. Helston is on the A394 road. To the west, the A394 leads to Penzance.
The B3297 runs north from Helston to Re
Newlyn is a seaside town and fishing port in south-west Cornwall, UK. Newlyn lies on the shore of Mount's Bay and forms a small conurbation with the neighbouring town of Penzance, it is part of the Penzance civil parish. The principal industry is fishing, although there are a wide variety of yachts and pleasure boats, in the harbour, as Newlyn is becoming an popular holiday destination, with many pubs and restaurants. Although the parish is now listed under Penzance there is an electoral ward in separate existence called Newlyn and Mousehole; the population as of the 2011 census was 4,432. The settlement is recorded as Nulyn in 1279 and as Lulyn in 1290, the name is thought to be derived from the Cornish for "pool for a fleet of boats", thought to refer to the shallows offshore known as Gwavas Lake, traditionally the principal mooring for the fishing fleet in the area. Before the rise of Newlyn as an important settlement the landing rights and most property within the Newlyn area were owned by the Manor of Alverton.
Newlyn's history has been linked to its role as a major fishing port. The natural protection afforded by the Gwavas Lake led to many local fishermen using this area as a preferred landing site; the Spanish Raid of 1595 destroyed Penzance and Paul as well as Newlyn. In 1620 the Mayflower stopped off at Newlyn old quay to take on water. A plaque on the quay reads: To the memory of Bill Best Harris 1914 – 1987 Historian and son of Plymouth whose researches indicated that the MAYFLOWER 16 – 8 – 1620 docked at the Old Quay Newlyn for water and supplies making it the last port of call in England The water supply at Plymouth being the cause of fever and cholera in the city Let debate begin In 1755, the Lisbon earthquake caused a tsunami to strike the Cornish coast more than 600 miles away from the epicentre; the sea rose ten feet in ten minutes at Newlyn, ebbed at the same rate. The 19th century French writer, Arnold Boscowitz, claimed that "great loss of life and property occurred upon the coasts of Cornwall".
Before the 19th century, "Newlyn" referred only to the area near the old quay. The part of the village that now contains the fish market was known as "Streetanowan", this was separated at high tide from "Newlyn Town" the site of the lower part of the modern harbour being reclaimed land and a beach. In fact Newlyn comprises three discrete hamlets all separated by bodies of water, being Tolcarne, Street-an-Nowan and Trewarveneth. Newlyn was part of the ancient parish of Paul, it was common for villagers to climb the steep route from "Newlyn Cliff" to Paul via the area, now known as Gwavas to worship at Paul Church. Until the mid-20th century an ancient stone cross was present on this route at "Park an Grouse", this cross was one site of veneration of the Cornish sea deity Bucca, the name'Bucca' has been used as a nickname for people who reside in Newlyn: the location of the cross is now unknown. In 1851 Newlyn became the separate ecclesiastical parish of Newlyn St Peter; the church of St Peter was built in the Early English style in 1859–66.
The interior is embellished with various works of art including the altarpiece and a statue of the Madonna and Child. "The ensemble is an outstanding example of Anglo-Catholic embellishment of the period ". There is a Cornish cross by the road near the churchyard. In the 1880s a number of artists formed an artists' colony; the painters of Newlyn came to be known as the Newlyn School. In 1896 Newlyn was the scene of the Newlyn riots following protests over the landing of fish on a Sunday by fishermen from the North of England, the local Cornish fishermen being members of the Methodist church and as such strong supporters of sabbatarianism. In 1915, the Ordnance Survey tidal observatory was established in the harbour and for the next six years measurements of tidal height were taken every 15 minutes. In 1937, the fishing vessel Rosebud sailed to London to deliver a petition to the Minister of Health on behalf of those villagers whose homes were threatened under the government's slum clearance scheme.
During the Second World War Newlyn was a base for the Air Sea Rescue craft covering the Western Approaches. The harbour was bombed during the war, hitting the collier Greenhithe, beached in the harbour at the time and supplied coal to the east coast drifters, which travelled to Newlyn during the mackerel fishing season between the wars. Reporting the event on the "Germany Calling" propaganda broadcast Lord Haw-Haw announced that the Luftwaffe had sunk a British cruiser in Newlyn Harbour; the 2014 LP Cornish Pop Songs by indie band the Hit Parade contains several songs referencing Newlyn fishing industry including "The Ghost of the Fishing Fleet", a comment on the declining investment in the area, neglect by central government and the recent influx in tourist trade. Newlyn, along with nearby Mousehole and Paul, was the last stronghold of the Cornish language due to the strength of its fishing fleet. William Gwavas, James Jenkins, Nicholas Boson, Thomas Boson, John Boson, John Keigwin, John Kelynack Jnr had roots in or strong links with the district.
Subsequently, several antiquarians including Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, Daines Barrington, Georg Sauerwein and Henry Jenner who all collected Cornish writings or sayings, the latter two became proficient in its use. In 1894 Newlyn became part of Paul Urban Dis
Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man. SSSI/ASSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation; the acronym "SSSI" is pronounced "triple-S I". Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs. Sites may be divided into management units, with some areas including units that are noted for both biological and geological interest. Biological SSSI/ASSIs may be selected for various reasons, which for Great Britain is governed by published SSSI Selection Guidelines. Within each area, a representative series of the best examples of each significant natural habitat may be notified, for rarer habitats all examples may be included.
Sites of particular significance for various taxonomic groups may be selected —each of these groups has its own set of selection guidelines. Conservation of biological SSSI/ASSIs involves continuation of the natural and artificial processes which resulted in their development and survival, for example the continued traditional grazing of heathland or chalk grassland. In England, the designating body for SSSIs, Natural England, selects biological SSSIs from within natural areas which are areas with particular landscape and ecological characteristics, or on a county basis. In Scotland, the designating authority is Scottish Natural Heritage. In the Isle of Man the role is performed by the Department of Environment and Agriculture. Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic.
Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, so becomes a GCR site. All GCR sites are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may be of importance for stratigraphy. Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings and other landforms.
If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, conservation involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage. Following devolution, legal arrangements for SSSIs and ASSIs differ between the countries of the UK; the Isle of Man ASSI system is a separate entity. Scottish Natural Heritage publishes a summary of the SSSI arrangements for SSSI owners and occupiers which can be downloaded from the SNH website. Legal documents for all SSSIs in Scotland are available on the SSSI Register, hosted by The Registers of Scotland. Further information about SSSIs in Scotland is available on the SNH website; the decision to notify an SSSI is made by the relevant nature conservation body for that part of the United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Natural England, Scottish Natural Heritage or Natural Resources Wales. SSSIs were set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided in England and Wales by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further amended in 2000, in Scotland by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
SSSIs are covered under the Water Resources Act 1991 and related legislation. An SSSI may be made on any area of land, considered to be of special interest by virtue of its fauna, geological or physiographical / geomorphological features. SSSI notification can cover any "land" within the area of the relevant nature conservation body, including dry land, land covered by freshwater; the extent to which an SSSI/ASSI may extend seawards differs between countries. In Scotland an SSSI may include the intertidal land down to mean low water spring or to the extent of the local planning authority area, thus only limited areas of estuaries and coastal waters beyond MLWS may be included. In England, Natural England may notify an SSSI over estuarial waters and further adjacent waters in certain circumstances (section 28 of The