A covered bridge is a timber-truss bridge with a roof and siding, which in most covered bridges create an complete enclosure. The purpose of the covering is to protect the wooden structural members from the weather. Uncovered wooden bridges have a lifespan of only 20 years because of the effects of rain and sun, but a covered bridge could last 100 years. Covered bridges are structures with longitudinal timber-trusses which form the bridge's backbone; some were built as railway bridges, using heavy timbers and doubled up lattice work. Most bridges were built to cross streams, the majority had just a single span. All contained a single lane. A few two-lane bridges were built, having a central truss. Many different truss designs were used. One of the most popular designs was the Burr Truss, patented in 1817, which used an arch to bear the load, while the trusses kept the bridge rigid. Other designs included the King, Queen and Howe trusses. Early trusses were designed without an understanding of the engineering dynamics at work.
In 1847, American engineer Squire Whipple published the first correct analysis of the way a load is carried through the truss, which enabled him to design stronger bridges with fewer materials. About 1,600 covered bridges remain in the world; the small number of surviving bridges is due to deliberate replacement and the high cost of restoration. They tend to be in isolated places, making them subject to arson; the oldest surviving truss bridge in the world is the Kapellbrücke in Switzerland. Modern-style timber truss bridges were pioneered in Switzerland in the mid-1700s. About 14,000 covered bridges have been built in the United States in the years 1825 to 1875. Today, surviving bridges are numbered at fewer than 1,000 by the United States Department of Transportation, at 880 by The National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges; the first known covered bridge constructed in the United States was the Permanent Bridge, completed in 1805 to span the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. However, most other early examples of covered bridges don't appear until the 1820s.
Extant bridges from that decade include New York's Hyde Hall Bridge and Pennsylvania's Hassenplug Bridge, both built in 1825, the Haverhill-Bath Covered Bridge and the Roberts Covered Bridge, in New Hampshire and Ohio both built in 1829. The longest, historical covered bridges remaining in the United States are the Cornish-Windsor Bridge, spanning the Connecticut River between New Hampshire and Vermont, Medora Bridge, spanning the East Fork of the White River in Indiana. Both lay some claim to the superlative depending upon. In the mid-1800s, the development of cheaper wrought iron and cast iron led to metal rather than timber trusses. Metal structures did not need protection from the elements, so no longer needed to be covered; the bridges became obsolete because most were single-lane, had low width and height clearances, could not support the heavy loads of modern traffic. Between 1969 and 2015, the number of surviving covered bridges in Canada declined from about 400 to under 200. In 1900, Quebec had an estimated 1,000 covered bridges.
Relative to the rest of North America, Quebec was late in building covered bridges, with the busiest decade for construction being the 1930s. The designs were varied, but around 1905, the design was standardised to the Town québécois, a variant on the lattice truss patented by Ithiel Town in 1820. About 500 of these were built in the first half of the 1900s; the last bridge was built by the Ministry of Colonisation in 1958 in Lebel-sur-Quévillon. There are now 82 covered bridges in Quebec, Transports Québec including the Félix-Gabriel-Marchand Bridge, the province's longest covered bridge. In 1900, New Brunswick had about 400 covered bridges. Today, there are 58 covered bridges in New Brunswick, including the world's longest, the Hartland Bridge. In addition to being practical, covered bridges were popular venues for a variety of social activities and are an enduring cultural icon; the Edgar Allan Poe story "Never Bet the Devil Your Head" Plot points in the 1988 comedy films Beetlejuice and Funny Farm refer to them.
The Diehls Covered Bridge in Pennsylvania is featured in the opening scenes of the 1980s anthology horror television series Tales from the Darkside, created by George A. Romero; the Need for Speed included a track with covered bridges, where they were a prominent landmark and a jump at high speeds. The Joe Hill novel "NOS4A2" Features a character named Victoria McQueen that utilizes a covered bridge called the "Shorter Way" as a portal to travel across vast distances. Covered Bridge Map, an interactive map showing locations of covered bridges in the United States and Canada
MTV Lithuania & Latvia was a twenty-four-hour music and entertainment channel operated by MTV Networks Europe. The channel was formed in September 2006 at Lithuania, at January 2009 it got re-formed to double channel including both Lithuania and Latvia and targeted audiences in Lithuania and Latvia. In 2006, MTV Networks Europe established MTV Networks Baltic a new broadcasting service which provided localized channels for Latvia and Estonia. MTV Networks Baltic launched three separate channels within the region in September, 2006. MTV Networks Baltic comprised MTV Latvia, MTV Lithuania and MTV Estonia, but due to financial difficulties with the region heightened by the global economic downturn, MTV Networks International merged MTV Latvia and MTV Lithuania to form MTV Lithuania and Latvia in January 2009. MTV Estonia remained; the first video to air on MTV in the Baltic region was Justice vs. Simian – "We Are Your Friends". In 2008, MTV Networks International signed a new licensing agreement with Israeli Communications company Ananey Communications to continue to operate and manage the MTV brand within the Baltic Region.
The channel ceased broadcasting on November 18, 2009. As of November 18, 2009 MTV Europe has replaced MTV Baltic channels. Lithuania receives MTV Europe and other Viacom international channels, distributed by "Starworks LT"; the channel combined local and international music, as well as MTV's trademark shows such as Pimp My Ride, Celebrity Deathmatch and Wildboyz which were shown with subtitles in Lithuanian. The network aired local programmes as European Top 20, Baltic Top 20, Dance Floor Chart, MTV Oops and MTV Supermercado. Prior to closing, it had launched a reality show live from the MTV Lietuva headquarters, the humour show Baltish and Pimp My Ride Baltic were created by MTV Lietuva. Lithuanian MTV VJs are VJ Jonas and twins VJ Artūras and VJ Robertas. MTV News Baltic Top 20 Dance Floor Chart MTV's Most Wanted Sandra Wishlist Show Wishlist Top 10 @ 10 Making the Video MTV Special This Is The New S*** Baltic Top 100 World Chart Express UK Top 10 Rock Chart Hitlist Base Chart Baltish Ežio stažas MTV Oops Pimp My Ride Baltic MTV Supermercado MTV Rainbow Celebrities chart MTV B-Day MTV News.
7 days Music Download Chart Top 10 Euro Top 20 MTV Push MTV World Stage MTV at the Movies MTV Live Sessions MTV EMA EMA Spotlight The Real World True Life Made MTV Cribs MTV Essentials Brooke Knows Best MTV's Busted My Super Sweet 16 The City Boiling Points A Double Shot at Love Wildboyz Dirty Sanchez Dismissed Beavis & Butthead Room Raiders Parental Control Run's House Viva La Bam MTV Movie Awards MTV VMA Chillout Zone MTV Beat MTV Amour MTV Roulette MTV's Breakfast Club MTV Flasher MTV Fuzz Smells like 90s Alternative Nation MTV New Rave SpongeBob SquarePants Rise and Shine Don't Stop The Music Popular Music Superock The Block Patyzone Superpop Coca-Cola Soundwave Pradėk nuo savęs No Smoking Power MTV Exit MTV Fanwalk Ežio inkubatorius MTV Networks Europe launched separate MTV channels in Lithuania and Latvia in September 2006. Both channels offered a mixture of international content. Due to the global recession and its impact on Latvia, MTV Networks Baltic merged both channels to form MTV Lietuva & Latvija this channel will operate for the foreseeable future until the economic crisis is rectified.
MTV Lietuva & Latvija and MTV Estonia ceased operations on November 18, 2009 and have been replaced by the original MTV Europe channel. Mantas Stonkus Jonas Bačelis Ugnė Skonsmanaitė Artūras Mediuška Robertas Mediuška DJ Sezzy Orinta Servaitė Silvija Vilkaitė Tomas Sinickis Andrius Afanasjev Jurgis Didžiulis Artūras Burnickis MTV Lithuania and Latvia homepage
The Athena Promachos was a colossal bronze statue of Athena sculpted by Pheidias, which stood between the Propylaea and the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens. Athena was the goddess of wisdom and warriors. Pheidias sculpted two other figures of Athena on the Acropolis, the huge gold and ivory cult image of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon and the Lemnian Athena; the designation Athena Promachos is not attested before a dedicatory inscription of the early fourth century CE. The Athena Promachos was one of the earliest recorded works by Pheidias and was a well-known and famous Athenian landmark. According to the Greek traveler and geographer, the top of Athena's helmet as well as the tip of her spear could be seen by sailors and anyone approaching Athens from Attica, at Sounion, it stood between the Erechtheion and the Propylaea. Erected around 456 BCE, the Athena Promachos was either to memorialize the Battle of Marathon or the Persian Wars, what the dedicatory inscription refers to, it took somewhere near nine years to construct.
According to the Greek Byzantine historian, Niketas Choniates, the Athena Promachos stood at around thirty feet tall. It is known that the statue was to be a'thanks' after war but there are many disagreements about which war, it has been suggested that the Athena Promachos may have been a cult statue. For a long time there was speculation if the Athena Promachos existed, however most scholars now agree that it did as there is proof from Roman coins that depict it. Surviving accounts for the creation process for the sculpture cover nine years, but the dates are not identifiable, because the names of officials are missing; the sculpture may have commemorated Kimon's defeat of the Persians at the Eurymedon in 467 or the peace of Kallias in 450 or 449. Made of bronze, the Athena Promachos was spoken of as both'the bronze Athena' and'the great bronze Athena,' in ancient times; the term'Promachos' meaning'fighting before' or'in front of' was not used when referring to the statue. Athena Promachos stood overlooking her city for 1000 years, until shortly after 465 CE, when the sculpture was transported to Constantinople as a trophy in the "Oval Forum", which became the last bastion and safe haven for many surviving Greek bronze sculptures under the protection of the Eastern Empire's Imperial court.
Niketas Choniates documented a riot taking place in the Forum of Constantine in Constantinople in 1203 CE where a large, statue of Athena was destroyed by a "drunken crowd" of Crusaders, now thought to have been the Athena Promachos. Of surviving models thought to represent the type, the two outstanding ones are the Athena Elgin, a small bronze statuette in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, who bears an owl in her outstretched hand, the Athena Medici torso in the Musée du Louvre, of which there are a number of replicas; the engravings on the shield which Athena is holding were drafted by the great Greek painter, Parrhasius of Ephesus. Although he drafted them, the engravings were Mys; the engravings were not done during the time the statue was being made but added after. A'molding pit' from the fifth century BCE was found near the south side of the Acropolis and it is thought that the statue was made in a nearby workshop. Niketas gives a vivid description of the Athena Parthenos: "The goddess wore an ankle-length garment belted at the waist and over it an aegis, complete with gorgoneion.
Her neck was uncovered. On her head she wore a helmet with a horse-hair crest and her hair could be seen escaping from beneath the helmet on to her forehead. At the back, the hair was plaited, her left hand held the folds of her dress, while the right was outstretched towards the south." Athena Parthenos, another lost colossal statue, located inside the Parthenon. Made by Phidias. Lemnian Athena, classical Greek statue made by Phidias. Varvakeion Athena, a 3rd-century Roman copy of the Athena Parthenos; the first specific archaistic Athena Promachos coin image was depicted on coins that were issued by Alexander the Great in 326. One side of this coin depicts Heracles while the other side shows the god, with Athena by his knee ready to fight with her spear in her right hand and a shield held in her left. Around ten years the Athena Promachos appears on coins issued by Ptolemy in Alexandria before taking the title of king around 315 BCE. Attic coins from the second and third centuries CE show the only known images of Phidias' Athena Promachos.
On one side is the depiction of the view of the Acropolis from the north. Between the Propylaia and the Erechtheion, there is large female statue of Athena facing towards the west; as these images place the statue of the Athena Promachos in this specific location, there is no doubt that it existed. There is another group of provincial Roman coins. In this depiction she is wearing a Corinthian helmet with a "wave" of hair upon her forehead; these coins date from the first half of the second century CE to the second half of the third century CE and are considered to be the most common. Since more coinage depictions of Athena wearing a Corinthian helmet have been found as opposed to t
HMS America was a 64-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 5 August 1777 at Deptford. She took part in the Battle of the Chesapeake on 5 September 1781, in 1795 was part of the British fleet at the Battle of Muizenberg. America was under way off the Azores on 13 December 1800 when she ran against the Formigas Reef and suffered severe damage to her hull. With some difficulty she was returned to harbour. On 27 December America's captain and senior officers were court martialled aboard HMS Carnatic, anchored off Port Royal, Jamaica. All were acquitted when the court established that the grounding had been caused by errors in the ship's charts, upon which the Reef was marked as being to the south of its actual location. Following the grounding, America was withdrawn from active service and redesignated as a prison ship, she was decommissioned and broken up in 1807
The extensor medii proprius is a rare anatomical variant in the extensor compartment of the forearm. The aberrant muscle is analogous to the extensor indicis with the insertion being the middle finger instead of the index finger; the extensor medii proprius originates from the distal third of ulna near the extensor indicis and the adjacent interosseous membrane. It passes through the fourth extensor compartment along with the extensor indicis and the extensor digitorum, it inserts to the extensor expansion of the middle finger on the ulnar side of the tendon of the extensor digitorum of the middle finger, insertion deep to the extensor digirorum tendon was seen. Insertion to the fibrous tissue proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint of the middle finger was reported; the reported incidence of the extensor medii proprius in cadaveric dissections ranges from 0% to 12%. Meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of this muscle was higher in North American and Japanese populations than European and Indian populations.
The extensor medii proprius extends the middle finger. The presence of this anomalous muscle results in a more independent movement of the middle finger; the extensor medii proprius is unlikely to cause symptoms. However, awareness of this anomalous muscle may help physicians for identification and for proper planning of surgery. Extensor digitorum Extensor indicis Extensor indicis et medii communis List of anatomical variations Extensor Digitorum Communis - Anatomy Atlases
The Amazing Race 7 was the seventh installment of the American reality television show The Amazing Race. It featured 11 teams of each with a pre-existing relationship, in a race around the world; this installment premiered on March 1, 2005 and completed its broadcast run on May 10, 2005. Married couple Uchenna and Joyce Agu were the winners of this season; the Amazing Race 7 traveled nearly 40,000 miles. Filming began on November 20, 2004 and finished on December 19, 2004; the teams raced in ten countries, five of which were not visited in the series. The new countries were Peru, Botswana and Jamaica. Puerto Rico, a US territory in the Caribbean appeared for the first time; this was the first edition to not circumnavigate the world by traveling continuously either west or east while crossing each meridian. Once teams traveled as far east as India, they returned to the United States traveling westward through Europe and the Caribbean. However, the route does approach that of a great circle on the globe.
In this edition of the Race, a change was made to the non-elimination leg penalty. In addition to being stripped of all their money and receiving no allowance for the next leg of the Race, teams were forced to surrender all of their possessions, except for their passports and the clothes they were wearing, for the remainder of the Race, they were no longer allowed to beg for money prior to the start of the next leg. The racers could receive or buy clothing or toiletries from other teams. Leg 3 of this Race featured a difficult Roadblock in which players had to eat 4 pounds of meat and organs. Four players quit this food-eating task: Rob, Meredith and Patrick; the most to quit a task in a single leg at the time. Although it was not aired on television or in the DVD, Patrick quit the Roadblock but decided to complete it; the aired portion had Patrick never taking the four-hour penalty. Host Phil Keoghan greeted teams at the check-in mat midway through Leg 8 to hand them their next clue, marking the first time on The Amazing Race that teams stepped on the check-in mat to be handed their next clue, to have their next clue handed to them by Keoghan.
Controversy surrounded the final leg of the Race: when Rob & Amber and Uchenna & Joyce arrived at the airport in San Juan, they were both sold tickets for a flight leaving than one whose gate was about to close. While Rob & Amber managed to get on this earlier departing flight, Uchenna & Joyce were shown through the gate as the boarding corridor between the gate exitway and airplane began to shut. After a commercial break, the boarding corridor reopened to the gate to pick up Joyce. No explanation was given as to why the gate reopened, which has led to widespread speculation about intervention by the production staff. In the "Revisiting the Race" special feature on the Season 7 DVD, Uchenna and Host Phil Keoghan deny the accusations of intervention by the production crew. Uchenna describes his experience with finding the same airline agent at the gate who had informed him that there was no earlier available flight. Rob describes Uchenna running around frantically trying to get onto the flight, which the final edited version of the show does not portray.
Phil cites the fact that the decision to reopen the door rested with the pilot, that intervention by the production crew would have resulted in someone leaking such information out. Applications for The Amazing Race 7 were closed on August 11, 2004. Semi-finalist interviews were held in September 2004, final casting interviews were held in Los Angeles between September and October 2004. Filming took place between November to December 2004. Uchenna & Joyce were slated to be contestants on The Amazing Race 6, they were sequestered in Santa Monica, California but were cut at the last minute before the Race began in Chicago, they are the first team that came back from no money from the last leg to winning the Amazing Race. Joyce Agu appeared in Star Trek: The Next Generation as Ensign Gates, a background character who piloted the USS Enterprise. Amber Brkich appeared on Survivor: The Australian Outback and Rob Mariano appeared on Survivor: Marquesas. After competing on the Race, Rob was called back for a third time to compete on Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains and a fourth time to compete on Survivor: Redemption Island, which Rob went on to win.
Rob & Amber both returned to Survivor to compete on Survivor: Winners at War. Rob & Amber's marriage was shown on CBS. Brian Smith would appear on The Big Bang Theory as Penny's dim-witted boyfriend, Zack. Rob & Amber and Uchenna & Joyce were selected for The Amazing Race All-Stars among a cast of returning teams from Seasons 1–10. On May 23, 2016, Rob Mariano appeared. In September 2005, The Amazing Race 7 won the Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Reality-Competition Program", the third consecutive award for the television series. Although Seasons 5 and 6 were eligible, producers chose Season 7 since it was the most recent installment of the show. Travelocity replaced the show's previous regular sponsors, American Airlines Vacations and Royal Caribbean International. In addition to trips, the company provided a special prize of US$20,000 in vacation money, won by Ron & Kelly, in a random drawing on Leg 9 after matching the marking on the bottom of the company's mascot gnome; the DVD for Season 7 was released on December 20, 2005.
Lynn & Alex, Brian & G