A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Covington is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,961, making it the third-least populous city in Virginia, it is surrounded by Alleghany County, of which it is the county seat. Located at the confluence of Jackson River and Dunlap Creek, Covington is one of three cities in the Roanoke Regional Partnership; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Covington with Alleghany county for statistical purposes. The city has a council–manager government; the current mayor of Covington is Thomas H. Sibold Jr; the local newspaper is The Virginian Review, continuously published since August 10, 1914. Covington is served by two radio stations. WKEY simulcasts on 103.5 FM and 1340 AM, WJVR broadcasts on 101.9 FM with simulcast on 1230 AM in nearby Clifton Forge. Fire protection is provided by the Covington Fire Department, chartered on March 4, 1902; the Covington Rescue Squad provides emergency medical services to the city of Covington. Both the fire department and rescue squad are volunteer organizations.
The rescue squad is the third oldest volunteer rescue squad in Virginia. Covington is named in honor of General Leonard Covington, hero of the War of 1812 and friend of James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. Luke Mountain Historic District, Persinger House, Rosedale Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.7 square miles, of which 5.5 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. The city lies along both sides of the Jackson River; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Covington has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; the population of Covington has declined since reaching its peak of 11,062 in 1960. The population decline has resulted from losses of manufacturing jobs in the area. One major loss of manufacturing jobs occurred after a fire at the Hercules plant in June 1980, causing $23 million in damage and worker layoffs.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,303 people, 2,835 households, 1,740 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,111.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.06% White, 13.14% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.59% from two or more races. 0.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,195 housing units at an average density of 563.3 per square mile. There were 2,835 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families. Of all households 34.0% were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 20.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,325, the median income for a family was $36,640. Males had a median income of $30,755 versus $20,316 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,758. About 10.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Covington's economy is dominated by Westrock, operating in the city since 1890; the facility employs about 1300 workers from Covington and Alleghany County. Its production includes bleached paper and paperboard for packaging, is the second largest on the East Coast. Both Alleghany County, VA and Covington City are known for the low cost of their housing markets and close proximity to The Homestead in Bath County, The Greenbrier in White Sulphur Springs and Roanoke, each of, within about a 45-minute drive.
Covington has a team in the Valley Baseball League called the Lumberjacks. The area is serviced by Interstate 64 and Route 220 offering rail and interstate access to the area. Rail passenger service is provided at VA 12 miles away. Covington has one 8–12 high school, one 4–7 middle school called, one pre-kindergarten through third grade elementary school, one State Governors School, one technical center for high-school students, one community college. National Register of Historic Places listings in Covington, Virginia City of Covington The Covington Fire Department online Covington Rescue Squad Travel & Tourism
Rosedale Historic District (Covington, Virginia)
Rosedale Historic District is a national historic district located at Covington, Alleghany County, Virginia. The district encompasses 76 contributing buildings, 1 contributing site, 2 contributing structures in a predominantly residential section of Alleghany County; the buildings represent a variety of popular architectural styles including the Queen Anne, Greek Revival, Classical Revival styles. The most notable residence is Rose Dale, constructed in the late-1850s as a plantation house; the Rosedale neighborhood was in established in 1899-1900. In addition to the dwellings a former hospital is situated in the district, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1998
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
Persinger House is a historic home located at Covington, Alleghany County, Virginia. The original section was built about 1757, enlarged in 1888, it is a two-story, six bay, single-pile log and frame house with weatherboard siding and a gable roof. A 20th century kitchen is connected to the house by a hyphen, it features a two-story, porch supported by chamfered posts, simple cut-out friezes, a Chinese lattice railing. On the property is a contributing late-19th century barn, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982
Hercules, Inc. was a chemical and munitions manufacturing company based in Wilmington, incorporated in 1912 as the Hercules Powder Company following the breakup of the Du Pont explosives monopoly by the U. S. Circuit Court in 1911. Hercules Powder Company became Hercules, Inc. in 1966, operating under this name until 2008, when it was merged into Ashland Inc. An earlier Hercules Powder Company was formed in 1882 by Laflin & Rand Powder Company; this company was dissolved on June 30, 1904. Hercules was one of the major producers of smokeless powder for warfare in the United States during the 20th century. At the time of its spin-off, the DuPont Corp. retained the processes and patents for the production of "single-base" nitrocellulose gunpowders, whereas Hercules was given the patents and processes for the production of "double-base" gunpowders that combined nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. A special formulation of dynamite was patented in 1874 by J. W. Willard, superintendent of the California Powder Works in Santa Cruz, California.
He called his invention "Hercules powder", a competitive jab at rival Giant Powder Company which had acquired the exclusive U. S. rights to Alfred Nobel's original dynamite formula. The mythological Hercules was known as a giant slayer; the California Powder Works became the only manufacturer of Hercules powder. In 1877, J. W. Willard moved to Cleveland, Ohio to oversee the opening of a new California Powder Works plant there, dedicated to the manufacture of Hercules powder. In 1881, the California Powder Works moved its Hercules powder manufacturing in California to a new site along the northeast shore of San Francisco Bay; the company town that grew up around the facility became known as "Hercules" incorporated as Hercules, California. In 1882, thanks to their interlocking ownership interests with the California Powder Works by that time, the DuPont corporation and Laflin & Rand Powder Company acquired the rights to manufacture Hercules powder and incorporated the Hercules Powder Company for that purpose.
In 1904, Du Pont dissolved the company as part of its ongoing effort to consolidate the many explosives manufacturers that it controlled under the Du Pont name. In 1911, the United States won a lawsuit that it had brought against the Du Pont corporation under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act; the U. S. Circuit Court in Delaware found that Du Pont had been operating an unlawful monopoly, ordered a breakup of its explosives and gunpowder manufacturing business; the breakup resulted in the creation of two new companies in 1912, Atlas Powder Company and Hercules Powder Company. Atlas received the explosives manufacturing portion of Du Pont's business, while Hercules received the gunpowder portion; the first management team of this new Hercules Powder Company included President H. Dunham, T. W. Bacchus, G. G. Rheuby, J. T Skelly, Norman Rood, Fred Stark, C. D. Prickett, George Markell; some of their products were used by the military in World War I. A school and a plant named after T. W. Bacchus in Utah. Hercules Powder Company ranked 65th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.
In the 1920s and 30s, Hercules diversified into the pine resin products business. Richard F. Heck, recipient of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, gained experience with transition metal chemistry while working at Hercules in 1957. By the 1960s, the community was experiencing the first signs of a suburban transition; the Hercules Powder Co. once a small dynamite manufacturing firm, had begun producing rocket motors at its Bacchus Works south of the Magna community. The growing availability of jobs was one factor encouraging subdivision development in the Magna and West Valley areas. In 1966, the Hercules Powder Company changed its name to Inc.. In 1995, Inc. sold its subsidiary Hercules Aerospace Co. to Alliant Techsystems Inc.. The sale included all of. By the end of the 1990s, Hercules Inc. had sold off a significant number of its divisions that had not been profitable for the company. This has caused the price of shares of common stock in Hercules to rise above 70 dollars. Several successful cost-savings programs were implemented in addition of corporate buying its own shares.
At that time, Hercules had a significant amount of assets available for possible purchases of other corporations. Hercules, Inc. had a Paper Technology Division whose products were becoming commodities. In order to survive, this division needed to obtain new products. First, Hercules Inc. tried to purchase the Allied Colloids Company. Next, Hercules bought the Betz-Dearborn Corporation. Betz-Dearborn produced chemicals for paper processing, the Hercules PTD produced functional chemicals for paper. According to some business analysts, Hercules Inc. paid about three times as much for Betz-Dearborn as compared with its actual value. Soon after the purchase of Betz-Dearborn, the price per share of stock in Hercules Inc. had dropped from above $70 to below $10. It has been speculated that Hercules Inc. was close to going bankrupt after this failed purchase operation. Afterwards, several senior managers were forced out of the company because of this failure; the price of stock shares in Hercules Inc. never recovered from this debacle.
Hercules Inc. was sold off to the Ashland Corporation in 2008, dissolved. Some of the more recent gunpowders marketed to reloaders include the brand names "Bullseye", "2400", "Reloder", "Unique", "Red Dot"; these gunpowders are
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website