United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
U.S. Route 84
U. S. Route 84 is an east–west U. S. Highway, it started as a short Georgia–Alabama route in the original 1926 scheme, but by 1941 it had been extended all the way to Colorado. The highway's eastern terminus is a short distance east of Midway, Georgia, at an interchange with Interstate 95; the road continues toward the nearby Atlantic Ocean as a county road. Its western terminus is in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, at an intersection with U. S. 160. The section from Brunswick, Georgia to Roscoe, Texas has been designated by five state legislatures as part of the El Camino East/West Corridor; the designation was in recognition of its history as a migration route from the Atlantic coast to the present Mexico–United States border, one of the routes that Spanish settlers called El Camino Real. The designation is intended to promote the route for both tourism and NAFTA-facilitated trade with Mexico. States are asking for federal funds to widen the US 84 El Camino East/West Corridor; the western terminus of US 84, Pagosa Springs, was made famous by C. W. McCall in the 1975 song and album Wolf Creek Pass.
US 84 ends 1 mile east of downtown Pagosa Springs at a T-intersection with US 160. South of Pagosa Springs, the 28 miles of the Colorado section of US 84 pass through a portion of San Juan National Forest; the highway climbs Confar Hill, a drainage divide between the Rio Blanco and Navajo River, before descending into the village of Chromo and passing into New Mexico. US 84 enters Rio Arriba County, New Mexico 28 miles south of its terminus at US 160. About 6 miles south of the Colorado–New Mexico state line, US 64 comes from the west and travels concurrently with US 84 for the next 28 miles. Only 3 miles east of this intersection, the concurrency crosses the Continental Divide at Sargent Pass, elevation 7,718 feet above sea level or more than 3,100 feet lower than Wolf Creek Pass, the next Continental Divide highway pass to the north. Therefore, only 37 miles of US 84 are located west of the Continental Divide. About 12 miles east of the intersection, US 64/US 84 enters the town of Chama. At a T-intersection, New Mexico State Road 17 enters from the north and terminates at said intersection, while US 64 and US 84 enter from the south and west.
After heading south from Chama, US 64 and US 84 combine for about 14 miles to Tierra Amarilla, where US 64 departs from US 84 and heads southeast, while US 84 continues south. About 57 miles down the road, US 84 is joined by US 285 south of the small community of Chili. About 5 miles further, US 84/US 285 enters the city of Española from the north as North Paseo de Onate Street. At the south end of the town, US 84/US 285 becomes an expressway. About 9 miles further, US 84/US 285 becomes a limited-access freeway. 15 miles further south, the two return to surface street status, travel past downtown Santa Fe via St. Francis Drive. On the south side of Santa Fe at Interstate 25's exit 282A, US 84/US 285 merges with northbound I-25/US 85. All four highways head east and to the south to avoid the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Just before turning north, US 285 continues south. After winding north and south, the freeway begins heading north, US 84 exits about 55 miles at exit 339 near Romeroville and travels in an east/southeast direction, while I-25/US 85 continue north to Colorado.
Following a path southeast and south for 42 miles, US 84 merges with I-40 at I-40's exit 256. After 17 miles I-40/US 84 enters Santa Rosa. About 21 miles from its confluence with I-40, US 84 diverges at exit 277; the highway travels south/southeast for 42 miles until merging with US 60 in downtown Fort Sumner. From the intersection with US 60, US 60/US 84 travels east, passing through Taiban and Melrose before intersecting US 70 after 61 miles in Clovis. From the intersection with US 70, US 64/US 70/US 84 travels east 8.7 miles entering Texico. Here, about 280 feet before the Texas–New Mexico state line, US 60 splits from US 70/US 84 with US 70/US 84 continuing east into Farwell, Texas. Despite being an east-west route, US-84 is signed as north-south between Ft. Sumner and the Colorado border. US 70/US 84 crosses into Texas at Farwell. After passing through Farwell, US 70/US 84 veers to the southeast, continuing as a concurrency until Muleshoe. From Muleshoe, US 70 leaves the route, while US 84 continues on a southeasterly direction across the level plains of the Llano Estacado.
Along this stretch, US 84 travels parallel to the BNSF Railway, crosses a sandy section called the Muleshoe Dunes, passes Littlefield, the birthplace of country singer Waylon Jennings. US 84 continues in a southeasterly direction through cotton fields and small towns such as Anton and Shallowater entering Lubbock, the largest city in the South Plains and the birthplace of Buddy Holly. Signed as Avenue Q, US 84 passes through the heart of downtown Lubbock before making a sharp easterly turn on the southeast side of the city, where it is known as the Slaton Highway. After bypassing the town of Slaton, US 84 makes another gentle turn to the east, following a southeasterly heading through Post and Roscoe, where it merges with I-20. From this point, US 84 follows I-20, until Abilene, where it leaves the interstate, making a hard southerly turn and forming the western side of a three-quarter loop around the city. From the south side of Abilene, US 84 continues as a concurrency with US 83 (signed as US 84 West/East
Butler County, Alabama
Butler County is a county in the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,947, its county seat is Greenville. Its name is in honor of Captain William Butler, born in Virginia and fought in the Creek War, and, killed in May 1818. Butler County was formed from Conecuh County and Monroe County, Alabama, by an act passed December 13, 1819, by the Legislature while in session at Huntsville; this was the first session of the Legislature of Alabama as a State. The name of Fairfield was first proposed for this county, but was changed on the passage of the bill to Butler, in honor of Captain William Butler; the exact date of the first settlement made by white people in the limits of Butler County is not known. Some records have it as early as 1814, but the earliest settler of no dispute is James K. Benson, who settled in the Flat in 1815, built the first house erected in Butler County, it was built near where Pine Flat Methodist Church now stands, was made of logs. Shortly after, William Ogly and John Dickerson came with their families and made a settlement on the Federal Road, about 3 miles south of where Fort Dale was erected.
In the fall of 1816, a party from the state of Georgia came to settle in Pine Flat, including Thomas Hill, Warren A. Thompson, Captain John Watts, Benjamin Hill. In 1817, many more settlers arrived. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 778 square miles, of which 777 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Interstate 65 U. S. Highway 31 State Route 10 State Route 106 State Route 185 State Route 245 State Route 263 Lowndes County Crenshaw County Covington County Conecuh County Monroe County Wilcox County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,947 people residing in the county. 54.4% were White, 43.4% Black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% of some other race and 0.8% of two or more races. 0.9% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,399 people, 8,398 households, 5,870 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 9,957 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 58.38% White, 40.81% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 0.39% from two or more races. 0.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,398 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.70% were married couples living together, 18.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 27.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 88.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,791, the median income for a family was $30,915.
Males had a median income of $28,968 versus $18,644 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,715. About 20.40% of families and 24.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.30% of those under age 18 and 28.60% of those age 65 or over. Greenville Georgiana McKenzie Bolling Chapman Industry Forest Home Spring Hill William Butler, militiaman during the Creek War Hilary A. Herbert, Secretary of the Navy under President Grover Cleveland Warren A. Thompson, explorer Hank Williams, country singer Earnie Shavers, hardest hitting heavyweight boxer Janie Shores, Alabama Supreme Court justice National Register of Historic Places listings in Butler County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Butler County, Alabama The Greenville Advocate Butler County Clerk of Court The South Alabama News The Greenville Standard
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Conecuh National Forest
The Conecuh National Forest in southern Alabama covers 83,000 acres, along the Alabama - Florida line in Covington and Escambia counties. Topography is level to moderately broad ridges with stream terraces and broad floodplains; the Conecuh Trail winds 20 miles through Alabama's coastal plain. The trail was built by the Youth Conservation Corps; each year, beginning in 1976, the young people of the Corps extend the trail through park-like longleaf pine stands, hardwood bottomlands, other plant communities of the Conecuh National Forest. The name Conecuh is believed to be of Muskogee origin, it means "land of cane,", appropriate because the trail runs through canebrakes in several sections. Situated just above the Florida panhandle, the forest has a distinct southern flavor of mist-laden hardwood swamps, pitcher plant bogs, southern coastal plain pine forest; these hilly coastal plains are home to longleaf pine, upland scrub oak, dogwood, as well as an aquatic labyrinth of winding creeks and cypress ponds.
Clear-cut in the 1930s, the Conecuh was reforested with slash pine that reduced the number of nesting trees for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. The forest is undergoing a reforestation from slash pine to the native longleaf. In time, this should increase the number of red-cockaded woodpeckers; the forest is headquartered in Montgomery. The other National Forests in this state are Talladega and William B. Bankhead. There are local ranger district offices located in Andalusia. There are two developed National Forest recreation areas in Conecuh National Forest. Both are located along Alabama State Road 137 north of the community of Wing. Open Pond Recreation Area is a 450 acre area set aside for hiking, fishing and camping, it is located about eight miles north of the Alabama/Florida State line along Alabama State Road 137. At the center of the recreation area is Open Pond, a natural sinkhole lake. Several other lakes are in the immediate vicinity of the facilities and can be reached by trail or on unpaved roads.
Open Pond itself is available for freshwater fishing. Two piers are available, non-motorized or electric motorized boats are permitted on the lake. An Alabama fishing license is required. Available is a large picnic shelter for group gatherings; this shelter was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1938, according to a plaque in the log and stone structure. No swimming is allowed at Open Pond. Day use fees at Open Pond are US$5 per vehicle; this allows for all recreational uses. These fees may be waived if someone in the vehicle possesses a valid Federal Interagency Recreation Pass. Camping fees for non-electric sites are US$6, US$12 for electric/water sites. Discounts are available for camping fees when using the senior citizen Federal Interagency Recreation Passes. With the senior Interagency Recreation Pass, camping fees are US$3 for non-electric sites, US$8 for electric/water sites; those paying for campsites do not have to pay day use fees. Day use fees paid at Open Pond may be used to enter the Blue Lake Recreation Area two miles north of Open Pond.
Seventy-five campsites are available on a first-come, first-served basis at the Open Pond Campground. Campsites are found on the waterfront as well as in woodlands. There are four campground loops. Roadways along all loops are paved; the "A Loop" is for tent camping, water is available at spigots in the loop. There are no electric hookups in the A Loop. Restrooms and showers are available within the "A Loop". There are ten campsites available; the "B Loop" is a group camping area. There are no hookups, restrooms, or showers in the "B Loop"; the group camping area consists of a large field surrounded by woodlands separated from the developed camping loops. A trail connects to water supplies in the "A Loop". Restrooms and showers are a short hike away in the "C Loop"; the "C and D Loops" are both similar in that they provide recreational vehicles water electric hookups. 15, 30, 50 Amp receptacles are available. Each site consists of a fine gravel pad for an RV, a pad for a tent, picnic table, lantern hangar.
Several sites are concrete and are for, but not limited to, use as handicapped accessible. These loops contain modern restrooms and bath houses with private hot showers. Forty campsites are located in the "C Loop", while twenty-five sites are in the "D Loop". An RV dump station is located at the entrance to the Open Pond Recreation Area. Trails connect the "D Loop" of the campground to additional small sinkhole ponds and the day-use picnic areas. By using the roadway that begins at the picnic areas and bicycling around Open Pond is possible; the trail is blazed with small white diamond reflective signs attached to posts. The Open Pond Fire Tower is located on the north side of the Open Pond Recreation Area. According to a plaque at the bottom of the tower, the tower was built in 1938; the plaque indicates the tower is registered as U. S. Tower #97 on the National Historic Lookout Register. According to the Register, the tower was constructed between 1938 and 1939 by the Civilian Conservation Corps.
The tower is one of two such towers in Conecuh National Forest. Blue Lake Recreation Area is located about nine miles north of the Alabama/Florida State line off of Alabama State Road 137; this day use area, located along the north shore of Blue Lake, provides the only official location in Conecuh National Forest where swimming is permitted. A bath house is provided, along with a small sandy beach. Lim
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid