Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu
Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu, KG, PC was an English peer during the Tudor period. Anthony Browne was the eldest of the six sons of Sir Anthony Browne by his first wife, Alice Gage, the daughter of Sir John Gage of Firle, Sussex. Browne was elected a member of parliament for Guildford in 1545, named standard-bearer jointly with his father in 1546. Before 16 February 1547 he was appointed as an equerry in the royal stables, he was among the forty Knights of the Bath created at the coronation of King Edward VI on 20 February 1547. According to Elzinga, Browne's conservative views, his support for Henry VIII's daughter, Princess Mary, antagonized the Edwardian regime, but he was nonetheless re-elected for Guildford in 1547, at his father's death on 28 April 1548 was allowed to purchase his wardship for £333 6s 8d, although he was replaced as standard-bearer, as being too young for the position, he inherited from his father an estate worth at least £1,177 12s 2d per annum. On reaching the age of majority he was restored to the position of standard-bearer, had licence to enter on his lands on 4 May 1550.
He was Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex from 1552 to 1553, returned as MP for Petersfield, Hampshire, in March 1553, although nothing further is known of his role in the House of Commons. He appears to have taken no active part in the succession crisis which followed the death of Edward VI, despite receiving a letter from the Privy Council on 8 July 1553 and a letter from Lady Jane Grey herself two days later. After Queen Mary's accession to the throne in July 1553 Browne was appointed to several positions in the royal household. From October 1553 he was Keeper of Guildford Park. In April 1554 he was appointed Master of the Horse to Queen Mary's consort, Philip II of Spain, for which he was granted an annuity of £200. From June 1554 he was keeper of the chase at Hampton Court Palace. However, in early September 1554 King Philip replaced the English appointees in his household with Spaniards, Browne lost his position as Philip's Master of Horse. Browne continued to hold civic offices. In April 1554 he was elected Knight of the Shire for Surrey, in the same year was a Justice of the Peace for Surrey and Sussex.
At Queen Mary's marriage to King Philip at Hampton Court on 2 September 1554, Browne's second wife, Magdalen Dacre, walked in the bridal procession, Browne was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Montagu. He took his seat in the House of Lords on 12 November, is said to have attended regularly. From 16 February to 24 August 1555 Montague travelled to Rome as one of the English ambassadors sent to treat with Pope Julius III for the restoration of Catholicism in England, he was installed as a Knight of the Garter on 17 October 1555. In 1557 he served under William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, as lieutenant-general of the English forces in Picardy at the siege of St Quentin. On 28 April 1557 he was appointed to the Privy Council, he was one of fifteen executors of Queen Mary's will, one of the chief mourners at her funeral. When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in November 1558, Montague was replaced on the Privy Council, in the Parliament of 1559 spoke against the new regime's measures for religious reform, including bills for uniformity in religion, for the re-establishment of the royal supremacy, for the dissolution of the religious houses, restored during Queen Mary's reign.
In 1563 he again spoke against a bill involving the oath of supremacy. Despite his opposition to the regime's religious reforms, Montague retained Queen Elizabeth's favour through his prudence and loyalty, he was sent on diplomatic missions to Spain in 1560 and 1565. According to Elzinga, Montague had landed income in the 1560s of between £2000 and £3000 a year, as one of the wealthiest peers in Sussex was reappointed as joint Lord Lieutenant of Sussex during the Northern Rebellion in 1569. However, in November both Montague and his son-in-law, Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, were implicated in the rebellion. In a letter dated 1 December 1569 the Spanish ambassador, Guerau de Spes, wrote to the Duke of Alba that both Montague and Southampton'have sent to me for advice as to whether they should take up arms or go over to your Excellency'. According to Akrigg and Southampton set sail for Flanders, but were driven back by contrary winds. Although they were ordered to come to court to explain their actions, to all appearances things were smoothed over, neither Montague nor his son-in-law was punished for his involvement.
In the following year Montague's son-in-law was in more serious trouble, although Montague himself appears to have escaped unscathed. After Pope Pius V's excommunication of the Queen, English Catholics were required to choose between loyalty to religion and loyalty to the sovereign. Southampton sought counsel from John Lesley, Bishop of Ross, at a secret meeting in the marshes of Lambeth, where they were intercepted by the watch, in consequence, on 18 June 1570 the Privy Council ordered Southampton's arrest and confined him to the house of Henry Beecher, Sheriff of London. On 15 July he was placed in the custody of Sir William More at Loseley, where More was under instructions to induce Southampton to take part in Protestant devotions in the household. After doing so, Southampton was released in November. A year in September 1571, under questioning concerning the Ridolfi plot, the Bishop of Ross incriminated Southampton by revealing the entire story of their meeting in Lambeth marsh. Southampton was confined to the Tower for 18 months.
He was released on 1 May 1573, again p
James V of Scotland
James V was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. His only surviving legitimate child, Queen of Scots, succeeded him when she was just six days old. James was the son of King James IV of Scotland and his wife Margaret Tudor, a daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII, was the only legitimate child of James IV to survive infancy, he was born on 10 April 1512 at Linlithgow Palace and baptized the following day, receiving the titles Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He became king at just seventeen months old when his father was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. James was crowned in the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle on 21 September 1513. During his childhood the country was ruled by regents, first by his mother, until she remarried the following year, by John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, next in line to the Crown after James and his younger brother, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross, who died in infancy.
Other regents included Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell, a member of the Council of Regency, bestowed as Regent of Arran, the largest island in the Firth of Clyde. In February 1517 James came from Stirling to Holyroodhouse, but during an outbreak of plague in the city he was moved to the care of Antoine d'Arces at nearby rural Craigmillar Castle. At Stirling, the 10-year-old James had a guard of 20 footmen dressed in his colours and yellow; when he went to the park below the Castle, "by secret and in right fair and soft wedder," six horsemen would scour the countryside two miles roundabout for intruders. Poets advised him on royal behavior; as a youth, his education was in the care of University of St Andrews poets such as Sir David Lyndsay. William Stewart, in his poem Princelie Majestie, written in Middle Scots, counselled James against ice-skating: To princes als it is ane vyce,To ryd or run over rakleslie, Or aventure to go on yce, Accordis nocht to thy majestie. In the autumn of 1524 James was proclaimed an adult ruler by his mother.
Several new court servants were appointed including Henry Rudeman. Thomas Magnus, the English diplomat, gave an impression of the new Scottish court at Holyroodhouse on All Saints' Day 1524: "trumpets and shamulles did sounde and blewe up mooste pleasauntely." Magnus saw the young king singing, playing with a spear at Leith, with his horses, he was given the impression that the king preferred English manners over French fashions. In 1525 Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, the young king's stepfather, took custody of James and held him as a virtual prisoner for three years, exercising power on his behalf. There were several attempts made to free the young King – one by Walter Scott of Branxholme and Buccleuch, who ambushed the King's forces on 25 July 1526 at the battle of Melrose, was routed off the field. Another attempt that year, on 4 September at the battle of Linlithgow Bridge, failed again to relieve the King from the clutches of Angus; when James and his mother came to Edinburgh on 20 November 1526, she stayed in the chambers at Holyroodhouse, which Albany had used, James using the rooms above.
In February 1527 Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, gave James a huntsman. Magnus thought the Scottish servant sent to Sheriff Hutton Castle for the dogs was intended to note the form and fashion of the Duke's household, for emulation in Scotland. James escaped from Angus's care in 1528 and assumed the reins of government himself; the first action James took. The Douglas family – excluding James's sister, safely in England – were forced into exile and James besieged their castle at Tantallon, he subdued the Border rebels and the chiefs of the Western Isles. As well as taking advice from his nobility and using the services of the Duke of Albany in France and at Rome, James had a team of professional lawyers and diplomats, including Adam Otterburn and Thomas Erskine of Haltoun, his pursemaster and yeoman of the wardrobe, John Tennent of Listonschiels, was sent on an errand to England, though he got a frosty reception. James increased his income by tightening control over royal estates and from the profits of justice and feudal rights.
He gave his illegitimate sons lucrative benefices, diverting substantial church wealth into his coffers. James spent a large amount of his wealth on building work at Stirling Castle, Falkland Palace, Linlithgow Palace and Holyrood, he built up a collection of tapestries from those inherited from his father. James strengthened the royal fleet. In 1540 he sailed to Kirkwall in Orkney Lewis, in his ship the Salamander, first making a will in Leith, knowing this to be "uncertane aventuris." The purpose of this voyage was to show the royal presence and hold regional courts, called "justice ayres." Domestic and international policy was affected by the Reformation after Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church. James V did not tolerate heresy, during his reign a number of outspoken Protestants were persecuted; the most famous of these was Patrick Hamilton, burned at the stake as a heretic at St Andrews in 1528. In the reign, the English ambassador Ralph Sadler tried to encourage James to close the monasteries and take their revenue so that he would not have to keep sheep like a mean subject.
James replied that he had no sheep, he could depend on his god-father the King of France, it was against reason to close the abbeys that "stand these many years, God's service
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death. He was the last king of the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, his defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare's history plays; when his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June 1483. Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king, he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, were not seen in public after August and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on Richard's orders.
There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard's former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry's forces defeated Richard's army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain. Henry Tudor ascended the throne as Henry VII. Richard's corpse was buried without pomp, his original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, his remains were lost, as they were believed to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church; the University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York.
He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. Richard was born on 2 October 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, the twelfth of 13 children of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, his childhood coincided with the beginning of what has traditionally been labelled the'Wars of the Roses', a period of political instability and periodic open civil war in England during the second half of the fifteenth century, between the Yorkists, who supported Richard's father, opposed the regime of Henry VI and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, the Lancastrians, who were loyal to the crown. When his father and the Nevilles were forced to flee to Ludlow in 1459, Richard and his older brother, George were placed in the custody of the Duchess of Buckingham, the Archbishop of Canterbury; when his father and elder brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, were killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, Richard and George were sent by their mother to the Low Countries. They returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
They participated in the coronation of Richard's eldest brother as King Edward IV on 28 June 1461, when Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made both a Knight of the Garter and a Knight of the Bath. Edward appointed him the sole Commissioner of Array for the Western Counties in 1464, when he was 11. By the age of 17, he had an independent command. Richard spent several years during his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the tutelage of his cousin the Earl of Warwick known as the Kingmaker because of his role in the Wars of the Roses. Warwick supervised Richard's training as a knight: in the autumn of 1465 Edward IV granted Warwick £1000 for the expenses of his younger brother's tutelage. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, when he was 12 or from 1465 until his coming of age in 1468, when he turned 16. While at Warwick's estate, it is that he met both Francis Lovell, who would be his firm supporter in his life, Warwick's younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville.
It is possible that at this early stage Warwick was considering the king's brothers as strategic matches for his daughters and Anne: young aristocrats were sent to be raised in the households of their intended future partners, as had been the case for the young dukes' father, Richard of York. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match. During Warwick's lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the king's permission. George joined his father-in-law's revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward though rumour coupled Richard's name with Anne Neville until August 1469. Richard and Edward were forced to flee to Burgundy in October 1470 after Warwick defected to the side of the former Lancastrian queen Margaret of Anjou. In 1468, Richard's sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, the brothers could expect a welcome there. Edward was restored to the throne in the spring 1471, following the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, both of which the eighteen-year-old Richard played a crucial role.
During his adolescence
English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – Marxists such as Christopher Hill – have long favoured the term "English Revolution". The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired.
Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired.
Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out less than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su
Henry VII of England
Henry VII was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Henry attained the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses, he was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war, his supportive stance of the British Isles' wool industry and his standoff with the Low Countries had long-lasting benefits to all of the British economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that indebted many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VII's death, after a commission revealed widespread abuses. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years.
Henry can be credited with a number of administrative and diplomatic initiatives. He paid close attention to detail, instead of spending lavishly he concentrated on raising new revenues and after a reign of nearly 24 years, he was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII; the new taxes were unpopular and two days after his coronation, Henry VIII arrested his father's two most unpopular ministers, Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley. They were charged with high treason and were executed in 1510. Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Countess of Richmond, his father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth. Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V, he rose to become one of the "Squires to the Body to the King" after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. Owen is said to have secretly married the widow of Catherine of Valois. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII.
Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, "formally declared legitimate by Parliament". Henry's main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunt's mistress for about 25 years, thus Henry's claim was somewhat tenuous: it was from a woman, by illegitimate descent. In theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile. Gaunt's nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunt's children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397. In 1407, Henry IV, Gaunt's son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but declaring them ineligible for the throne. Henry IV's action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henry's claim.
Nonetheless, by 1483 Henry was the senior male Lancastrian claimant remaining, after the deaths in battle or by murder or execution of Henry VI, his son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, the other Beaufort line of descent through Lady Margaret's uncle, the 2nd Duke of Somerset. Henry made some political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support and safeguarding his army's passage through Wales on its way to the Battle of Bosworth, he came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr, on occasion Henry displayed the red dragon of Cadwaladr. He took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth. A contemporary writer and Henry's biographer, Bernard André made much of Henry's Welsh descent. In reality, his hereditary connections to Welsh aristocracy were not strong, he was descended by the paternal line, through several generations, from Ednyfed Fychan, the seneschal of Gwynedd and through this seneschal's wife from Rhys ap Tewdwr, the King of Deheubarth in South Wales.
His more immediate ancestor, Tudur ap Goronwy, had aristocratic land rights, but his sons, who were first cousins to Owain Glyndŵr, sided with Owain in his revolt. One son was executed and the family land was forfeited. Another son, Henry's great-grandfather, became a butler to the Bishop of Bangor. Owen Tudor, the son of the butler, like the children of other rebels, was provided for by Henry V, a circumstance that precipitated his access to Queen Catherine of Valois. Notwithstanding this lineage, to the bards of Wales, Henry was a candidate for Y Mab Darogan – "The Son of Prophecy" who would free the Welsh from oppression. In 1456, Henry's father Edmund Tudor was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists, he died in three months before Henry was born. Henry's uncle Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke and Edmund's younger brother, undertook to protect the young widow, 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry; when Edward IV became King in 1461, Jasper Tudor went into exile abroad.
Pembroke Castle, the Earldom of Pembroke, were granted to the Yorkist William Herbert, who assumed the guardianship of Margaret Beaufort and the young Henry. Henry lived in the Herbert household
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period and beyond, the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England. It is not used to refer to the whole period of the Tudor dynasty, but to the style used in buildings of some prestige in the period between 1500 and 1560, it followed the Late Gothic Perpendicular style and was superseded by Elizabethan architecture from about 1560 in domestic building of any pretensions to fashion. In the much more slow-moving styles of vernacular architecture "Tudor" has become a designation for styles like half-timbering that characterize the few buildings surviving from before 1485 and others from the Stuart period. In this form the Tudor style long retained its hold on English taste. Nevertheless,'Tudor style' is an awkward style-designation, with its implied suggestions of continuity through the period of the Tudor dynasty and the misleading impression that there was a style break at the accession of Stuart James I in 1603.
The low Tudor arch was a defining feature. Some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. Mouldings are more spread out and the foliage becomes more naturalistic. During the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, many Italian artists arrived in England. However, in the following reign of Elizabeth I, the influence of Northern Mannerism derived from books, was greater. Courtiers and other wealthy Elizabethans competed to build prodigy houses that proclaimed their status; the Dissolution of the Monasteries redistributed large amounts of land to the wealthy, resulting in a secular building boom, as well as a source of stone. The building of churches had slowed somewhat before the English Reformation, after a great boom in the previous century, but was brought to a nearly complete stop by the Reformation. Civic and university buildings became more numerous in the period, which saw general increasing prosperity. Brick was something of an exotic and expensive rarity at the beginning of the period, but during it became widely used in many parts of England for modest buildings restricting traditional methods such as wood framed daub and wattle and half-timbering to the lower classes by the end of the period.
Scotland was a different country throughout the period, is not covered here, but early Renaissance architecture in Scotland was influenced by close contacts between the French and Scottish courts, there are a number of buildings from before 1560 that show a more thorough adoption of continental Renaissance styles than their English equivalents. Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and 17th-century design. Though this period is better known for the luxuries and excesses of his son and granddaughter, it was under Henry VII that the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance began and it is underestimated how much effort the founder of the Tudor dynasty invested in making huge changes to the way things were done before versus the way they were being done by the time he died. Prior to 1485, many wealthy and noble landowners lived in homes that were not comfortable but built to withstand sieges, though manor houses that were only fortified, if at all, had been built.
Castles and smaller manor houses had moats and crenelations designed for archers to stand guard and pick off approaching enemies. However, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI, fortifications like castles became obsolete; the autumn of 1485 marked the ascension of Henry VII to the throne. Until Henry's accession, England had been engaged in the Wars of the Roses that had left the royal coffers in deep trouble-Yorkists had raided the treasury just after the death of Edward IV. Therefore, in 1487, Henry Tudor passed laws against livery and maintenance, which checked the nobility's ability to raise armies independent of the crown, raised taxes mightily on the nobility through a trusted advisor, John Morton. Henry Tudor was hellbent on repairing the damage done by so many years of war, that meant increasing financial security, it meant recentralising power in London with the crown alone and away from interrelated nobles, squabbling over scraps of power since the reign of Richard II, evidenced by the crown beginning to be fought over by different branches of the descendants of Edward III at that time.
From Henry's point of view, there were taxes to collect, bills of attainder to hand out to the disloyal, Yorkists to marry off to Lancastrians, the majesty of the monarchy to repair and restore, a metaphorical wrecking ball to be applied to the medieval ideal of the warrior king crouching in his fortress and his vassals in theirs. During the reign of Henry VII, he made some savvy business investments in the alum trade and made vast improvements to the waterborne infrastructure of the country: the site of his dry dock in Portsmouth still is used today, because of Henry's investments in alum records show a striking increase in the volume of ships and thus trade coming in and out of England. Portsmouth was an early pet project of Henry VII, one he paid £193 for the entire construction, a sum that for its time was enormous, it must be note that not all Tudor architecture was of a residential nature, this particular one is important as it laid the foundation for other civic projects done under Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.
Henry Tudor built the first dry dock in the wo
River Rother, West Sussex
The River Rother flows from Empshott in Hampshire, England, to Stopham in West Sussex, where it joins the River Arun. At 52 kilometres long, most of the river lies within West Sussex except for the first 10 kilometres which lie in Hampshire; the upper river, from its source to Midhurst, has been used to power watermills, with the earliest recorded use being in 1086, when the Domesday survey was conducted. Although none are still operational, many of the buildings which housed the mills still exist, in some cases, still retain their milling machinery; this upper section is noted for a number of early bridges, which have survived since their construction in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. The lower river, from Midhurst to its junction with the River Arun, has been used for navigation. Boats used the section from the Arun to Fittleworth following improvements made to the Arun in 1615, after the Arun Navigation was completed in 1790, the Earl of Egremont made the river navigable up to Midhurst by constructing eight locks and some small cuts.
The work was completed in 1794, many of the bridges built at that time still survive. With the opening of the Mid-Sussex Railway branch to Midhurst in 1859, traffic declined, commercial use of the river had ceased by the 1880s. Pleasure boats continued to be used on the river for many years, published accounts of journeys along the decaying navigation appeared in 1914 and 1920; the navigation was abandoned in 1936, after an undergraduate pointed out that it was still a public right of way. The river flows through the South Downs National Park, is a designated Site of Nature Conservation Importance, in recognition of its value for wildlife, it supports a wide range of fish, its upper reaches are the only location in Sussex where native white clawed crayfish can be found. The quality of the water is good, the river is measured at four gauging stations, three on the main channel, one of the River Lod, just before its junction with the Rother. Water from the underlying Lower Greensand aquifer and the adjacent chalk aquifer helps to maintain the flows during the summer months, despite the fact that large volumes are abstracted from both the aquifers and the river for the public water supply.
Following improvements to the River Arun in 1615, which allowed boats to reach Pallingham, they could navigate part of the Rother, as far upstream as Fittleworth. The canal engineer William Jessop was asked to survey the river below Petworth Mills in 1783, was recalled in 1790, when he surveyed it below Midhurst. In the same year, the construction of the Arun Navigation was finished, in 1791, George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, based at Petworth House, obtained an Act of Parliament which would enable him to improve the Rother; the Act authorised a branch canal to Petworth. Since he owned most of the land adjacent to the river, the precise route of the navigation was not specified, he was free to improve the channel or make cuts as he saw fit; the only restriction was that cuts could not be made through enclosed grounds. Compared to most other canals at the time, the charges for using the navigation were low, as the Earl wanted to develop the region rather than make a profit; the river's lower section, below Midhurst, was made navigable by the construction of the Western Rother Navigation in 1794.
The length of the navigation was 11.25 miles of which less than 2 miles consisted of new cuts, with the rest following the existing channel. It rose through 54 feet from Stopham to Midhurst by a series of eight locks, cost £13,300 to build. Traffic consisted of coal transported up-river, with cargoes of timber and Petworth marble in the other direction. A branch connected it to Petworth by the short Petworth Canal, 1.25 miles long with two locks, terminated at Haslingbourne to the south of the town. It was opened in 1793, having cost the Earl £5,000 to build, but only lasted for a few years, until a turnpike road was diverted; this made access to Petworth easier, the canal ceased to be used. Unlike many canals, where navvies were brought into the neighbourhood to carry out the work, the Earl employed local men on the project, most of them employed by him, a clergyman praised him for this when writing in 1808, as it led to much less disruption, but provided increased income for those who worked on the scheme.
Wages rose from 8 or 9 shillings per week to 15 shillings. During his life, the Earl invested some £100,000 in waterways, some in his native county of Sussex, but in attempts to build a canal from London to Portsmouth. Between 1802 and 1831, the average income from the canal was around £550 per year. Competition arrived in 1859, when the Mid-Sussex Railway opened a line from Horsham through Pulborough to Petworth. Traffic declined, by the 1880s, the navigation was no longer used by commercial boats, although it was not abandoned until 1936. Despite the navigation being closed, a guide to Midhurst published in 1895 advertised that skiffs could be hired, fishing could be enjoyed; the boats were hired out by a plumber called William Port, his business continued to prosper until 1912, when his boathouse burned down. Rowing boats were available for hire at Coultershaw and Fittleworth. Another book called A New Oarsman's Guide, published in 1896, suggested that the river could be canoed from Iping to the Arun, a distance of 19 miles, when there was sufficient water.
By that time, none of the locks were workable, boats had to be carried around them. In 1887, part of the river bank near Todham Lock, which bordered the Cowdray estate of the Earl of Egmont, had collapsed, the Earl suggested that Lord L