Cradle Mountain is a mountain in the Central Highlands region of the Australian state of Tasmania. The mountain is situated in the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park. At 1,545 metres above sea level, it is the sixth-highest mountain in Tasmania. Cradle Mountain sits between the Big Northern Tasmanian Aboriginal nations. Aboriginal Tasmanians were persecuted by the European settlers upon their arrival, the last free Aboriginals in the area were seen just south of Cradle Mountain in 1836. Europeans first explored, climbed, Cradle Mountain in 1827 and 1828 with Joseph Fossey and Henry Hellyer surveying for the Van Diemen's Land Company. Trappers worked in the area from the 1860s until the collapse of the fur trade in the 1950s, although hunting in the park was declared illegal after 1927, they established huts, including Du Cane and Pine Valley, burned the land to encourage fresh growth and game. A large expanse of King Billy pines were found by James Smith in 1863, the area was logged until the 1910s.
Smith's son continued logging the area on private land from 1943 to the 1972, ending after significant public protest. Cattle and sheep grazed in Cradle Valley from 1910 to 1930. In the 1910s Gustav and Kate Weindorfer climbed Cradle Mountain, they found the land beautiful and Gustav poclaimed "This must be a national park for the people for all time. It is magnificent, people must know about it and enjoy it", they began campaigning for the area from Cradle Mountain to Lake St Clair to be a national park, set up a popular chalet the next year. It was declared a scenic reserve in 1922, a wildlife reserve in 1927 and its current designation of national park from 1947. During this transition former trappers began building huts and guiding bushwalkers, including Paddy Hartnett and Bob Quaile. In 1931 fur trapper Bert Nichols blazed the Overland Track starting from Cradle Mountain and heading south to Lake St Clair. By 1935 it was used by independent walking parties; the area around the mountain has a large number of day walks, as well as being one terminus of the Overland Track.
The Overland Track winds through a variety of landscapes to its opposite end—80.8 kilometres to the south—at Lake St Clair, Australia's deepest lake. The mountain is climbed by walkers year round, it is a strenuous return hike from the Dove Lake car park with a recommended allotted time of six-and-a-half hours. The climb up the rocky part of the mountain involves scrambling over large boulders for several hundred metres; the entire climb is exposed to any bad weather that may arrive while climbing the upper slopes in winter can be dangerous due to slick ice on the rocks and heavy snow covering holes and other hazards. From the summit, there are views of Barn Bluff and Mount Ossa; the mountain rises above Lake Wilks and Crater Lake. The mountain has four named summits. In order of height they are Smithies Peak, Weindorfers Tower and Little Horn; the mountain itself is named after its resemblance to a gold-mining cradle. The area is covered in a variety of alpine and sub-alpine vegetation, including the colourful deciduous beech, itself an anomaly given that most Australian native flora is evergreen.
Alpine coral fern and button grass dominate the alpine wet sedgelands near the mountain summit. Stands of Tasmanian snow gum can be found at lower elevations alongside Tasmanian eyebright, scoparia heath, mountain rocket, Cheshunt pine and pencil pine. Within the valleys surrounding the mountain, species such as myrtle beech, sassafras, King Billy pine and celery top pine form thick temperate rainforest with dense, mossy undergrowth. Wombats are a common sight throughout the area, while pademelons, Tasmanian devils and echidnas can be seen. Bird species in the area include green rosellas, black currawongs, pink robins and Tasmanian scrubwrens, while peregrine falcons and wedge-tailed eagles nest on the mountains cliffs. Tiger snakes are a venomous snake species known to be found in the area. Fungi are a part of the park's biodiversity. While the Management Plan for Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park only mentions fungi in the context of their destructive effects, the park has a variety of fungi that perform beneficial ecological roles.
Parasitic fungi—often regarded negatively—are a vital part of healthy ecosystems, regulating ecosystem functions. As primary recyclers of organic matter, saprobic fungi break down fallen branches and leaf litter, making vital nutrients available to other organisms. Other fungi form symbiotic relationships with other organisms. Although acknowledged, the great majority of plants in Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park form mutually beneficial mycorrhizal relationships with fungi. Given the diversity of plants, specialist habitats and micro-climates in the park, a diversity of fungi, including lichens, is expected to occur. Several hundred species have been recorded by field naturalists and interested individuals and can be found in the Atlas of Living Australia. Despite their essential roles in underpinning terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are recognised as a vital part of Australia's biodiversity. Although Australia has national and state level biodiversity conservation strategies and has ratified international conventions, most overlook fungi, including Tasmania's Natural Heritage Strategy, which only makes one generic reference to fungi.
One of the more a conspicuous species found in the wetter parts of the park is the strawberry brack
Queenstown is a town in the West Coast region of the island of Tasmania, Australia. It is in a valley on the western slopes of Mount Owen on the West Coast Range. At the 2016 census, Queenstown had a population of 1,755 people. Queenstown's history has long been tied to the mining industry; this mountainous area was first explored in 1862. It was long after that when alluvial gold was discovered at Mount Lyell, prompting the formation of the Mount Lyell Gold Mining Company in 1881. In 1892, the mine began searching for copper; the final name of the Mount Lyell company was Railway Company. Early in 1895 a Post Office was opened at Penghana, at the Queen River fork and crossing, about a kilometre north of present-day Queenstown on the road to Strahan; the only other substantial building nearby was Robertson & Hunter's store.. Queenstown Post Office opened on 21 November 1896 and the Penghana office closed; the name "Penghana" was adopted for a substantial house nearby, from around 1925–1944 the residence of Mount Lyell mine manager R. M. Murray, persists today as Penghana Road.
A Queenstown South office opened in 1949 and closed in 1973. In the 1900s, Queenstown was the centre of the Mount Lyell mining district and had numerous smelting works, brick-works, sawmills; the area at the time was wooded. The population in 1900 was 5051; the town was the base of the Queenstown council up until amalgamation with other west coast councils in the 1990s. The town in its heyday had a collection of hotels and schools that have disappeared since the demise of the Mount Lyell company; the town was the base of the Organisation for Tasmanian Development started in 1982. There was a brief boom in prosperity in the 1980s, with the building of several nearby dams by the Hydro; the Darwin and Crotty dams that comprise Lake Burbury were built during this period. These followed the cancellation of the Gordon-below-Franklin Dam in 1983 after strong campaigning by environmentalists in the'No Dams' campaign; the mountains surrounding Queenstown have unusual pink and grey hues that come from the conglomerate rocks on the two most adjacent mountains - Mount Lyell and Mount Owen.
The mountains surrounding Queenstown are snowcapped through winter. Snow falls a few days out of the year. Owing to a combination of tree removal for use in the smelters and the smelter fumes, the heavy annual rainfall, the erosion of the shallow horizon topsoil back to the harder rock profile contributed to the stark state of the mountains for many decades. Typical of the successions that occur in fire affected areas in Western Tasmania, the low shrubbery that has revegetated adjacent to hillside creeks is a early stage of a long recovery for the ecology of the region; some concern by local residents in the 1980s, since, that the low-level succession of plants might affect the stark'moonscape' appearance of the southern parts of Mount Lyell, northern Mount Owen. Although there are still large areas incapable of sustaining regrowth due to the acute slopes and lack of soil formation, revegtation projects have been stymied; the Queen River was for most of the history of the Mount Lyell company the recipient of mining effluent and the Queenstown sewage - which continued into the King River and the Macquarie Harbour.
The Mount Lyell Remediation and Research and Demonstration Program scheme has since removed the direct flowing mining waste and local waste from the rivers. Today, the town and district attracts significant numbers of tourists, on either organised tours or the hire car'circuit' around Tasmania; some features continue to fascinate tourists, either the mountains, the slag heap or the gravel football ground. There are significant opportunities to catch glimpses of the town's past at the local museum, by driving up Orr Street, the old main street now with closed pubs and the dominant Post Office tower; the mining operation at the original Mount Lyell mine continues, with Copper Mines of Tasmania operating between 1995 and 1999 independently, after which it became part of an Indian company group - and its concentrates are shipped to India for processing. Exploration continues within the West Coast region for further economic mineral deposits, due to the complexity of the geology, there is always the possibility that new mines will open: the Henty Gold Mine is a good example as it commenced operation in the 1990s.
Queenstown is the terminus of the West Coast Wilderness Railway, which travels southwards alongside the Queen River, along the northern slopes of the King River to the port of Strahan in Macquarie Harbour. The Queenstown Heritage and Arts Festival was the first name of a biennial festival that celebrates Queenstown's history. One significant historical event it has celebrated was the centenary of the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster in the second festival in October 2012. In the third festival in October 2014, the Hydro Tasmania centenary was a major component. In 2016 the festival has been renamed, is now the Unconformity Festival Queenstown has a wet oceanic climate, is one of the wettest locations in Tasmania with an annual average rainfall of 2408.2 mm, spread throughout the year. Summers are mild although temperatures can rise above 30 °C while winters are cool and always cloudy. Brief, light snowfall occurs several times each winter, with occasional heavier snow falling every few years.
Queenstown is cloudy, getting only 29.0 days of clear skies annually. At the 2011 census, Queenst
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
Mount Ossa (Tasmania)
Mount Ossa is a mountain of the Pelion Range located in the Central Highlands region of Tasmania, Australia. With an elevation of 1,617 metres above sea level, Mount Ossa is the highest peak in Tasmania; the mountain lies in the heart of Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park and is composed of Jurassic dolerite.. The Mount Ossa highland area spans the boundary between the Big River and Northern Tasmanian Aboriginal nations and may have been used as an access route. Several artifacts and campsites containing various stone types and tools have been discovered around Pelion to the north, Lake St Clair to the south, it was first surveyed by Charles Gould in the 1860s and named after Mount Ossa in Greece following the theme of classical Greek names set by George Frankland, an early Tasmanian surveyor. However, its location was marked as on what is now called Mount Nereus, surveyors alternatively referred to is at Parsons Hood, Mount Dundas, Mount Blackhouse or numbered it. For years it was thought that Cradle Mountain was the highest in Tasmania, with inexact equipment stymying attempts to examine the area.
It was confirmed to be the highest mountain in Tasmania after an aerial survey in 1954. In 1892 the Mole Creek and Zeehan Mineral Prospecting and Exploration Company Ltd discovered Permian coal at the base of Mt Ossa and surrounding areas, excavating several tunnels; the seams were found to be of low quality and the tunnels were not developed, although copper mining was present in the surrounding area. A 1920s attempt to prospect for oil failed. Mining and surveying activities led to the development of the area. Stewards Track was created from the east, was extended and renamed the Innes Track. Old Pelion Hut formed the base of mining operations, still stands today as a hut on the Overland Track and start point for bushwalkers climbing Mount Ossa. Trappers worked in the area from the 1860s until the collapse of the fur trade in the 1950s, although hunting in the park was declared illegal after 1927, they established huts, some of which are still in use, burned the land to encourage fresh growth and game.
In the 1910s Gustav and Kate Weindorfer began campaigning for the area from Cradle Mountain to Lake St Clair, including Mount Ossa, to be a national park. It was declared a scenic reserve in 1922, a wildlife reserve in 1927 and its current designation of national park from 1947. During this transition former trappers began building huts and guiding bushwalkers, including Paddy Hartnett and Bob Quaile. Since Mount Ossa has become a popular bushwalking destination with an established route to the top. In 1991 30% of Overland Track walkers detoured up the mountain. Mount Ossa can be climbed via a well worn track from Pelion Gap to the summit, it can be approached either via the Arm River Track. Conditions can be severe in winter, with powerful winds and freezing temperatures. A short scramble is required to ascend the summit. List of highest mountains of Tasmania List of Ultras of Oceania State8 Tasmania Mount Ossa
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
The forest raven is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae native to Tasmania and parts of southern Victoria, such as Wilsons Promontory and Portland. Populations are found in parts of New South Wales, including Dorrigo and Armidale. Measuring 50–53 cm in length, it has all-black plumage and legs; as with the other two species of raven in Australia, its black feathers have grey bases. Adults have white irises. New South Wales populations are recognised as a separate subspecies C. tasmanicus boreus, but appear to be nested within the Tasmanian subspecies genetically. The forest raven lives in a wide variety of habitats in Tasmania but is restricted to more closed forest on mainland Australia. Breeding takes place in spring and summer, occurring in Tasmania than in New South Wales; the nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree. An omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, it eats a wide variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas and roadkill, it has been blamed for killing lambs and poultry and raiding orchards in Tasmania, is unprotected under Tasmanian legislation.
The forest raven is sedentary, with pairs bonding for life and establishing permanent territories. John Latham described the "South-Seas raven" in 1781, with loose throat feathers and found in "the Friendly Isles" in the South Seas, but did not give a binomial name. Although "the Friendly Isles" refers to Tonga, the specimen resembles what is now known as the forest raven and was collected by ships' surgeon William Anderson on the third voyage of James Cook in January 1777. Of the species, he had written, "Crows, nearly the same as ours in England". Tasked as the expedition's naturalist, Anderson collected many bird specimens but had died of tuberculosis in 1778 before the return home. Many collection localities were incorrect, notes were lost or pieced together many years later. German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin gave the species the name Corvus australis in the 13th edition of Systema naturae in 1788. Since Australia was settled by Europeans, all species of crows and ravens have been colloquially known as crows by the general population and are difficult to distinguish.
In his 1865 Handbook to the Birds of Australia, John Gould noted a single species of corvid in Australia, Corvus australis, which he called the white-eyed crow. He used Gmelin's 1788 name, which took precedence by virtue of its age over Vigors and Horsfield's description. In 1912 Scottish naturalist William Robert Ogilvie-Grant clarified the species as C. coronoides and C. cecilae. Subsequently, French-American ornithologist Charles Vaurie acted as First Revisor under Article 24 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Code and discarded C. australis as a junior homonym—in 1788, Gmelin had used the same binomial name to describe the black nunbird—to preserve the stability of the name. This has been followed by authors. Gregory Mathews described the forest raven as a distinct subspecies—Corvus marianae tasmanicus—of the Australian raven in 1912, its species name derived from Tasmania, the type locality. Rowley raised the forest raven to species rank in 1970, noting there were no intermediate forms between it and the little raven and that it was larger with a much more massive bill.
He described a second subspecies—Corvus tasmanicus boreus—the same year, observing that C. tasmanicus from Tasmania and southern Victoria has a short tail compared with individuals from the northern New South Wales population. Rowley gave the species name forest raven in 1970; the term "crow" is colloquially applied to all species of Australian corvid. Preliminary genetic analysis of the genus using mitochondrial DNA showed the three raven species to belong to one lineage and the two crows to another, that the two lineages are not related; the genetic separation between species is small and there was a suggestion the forest raven may be conspecific with the Australian raven. Subsequent multigene analysis using nuclear DNA by Jønsson and colleagues in 2012 clarified that the forest and little raven are each other's closest relative; the northern subspecies boreus turned out to be nested in the Tasmanian tasmanicus, indicating the populations separated recently. It is still recognised as a distinct subspecies by the International Ornithological Committee.
Ian Rowley proposed that the common ancestor of the five species diverged into a tropical crow and temperate raven sometime after entering Australia from the north. The raven diverged into the ancestor of the forest and little ravens in the east and Australian raven in the west; as the climate was cooler and drier, the aridity of central Australia split them as the habitat between became inhospitable. Furthermore, the eastern diverged into nomadic little ravens and, in forested refuges, forest ravens; as the climate became warmer, the western ravens spread eastwards and outcompeted forest ravens on mainland Australia, as evidenced by the forest raven being only found in closed forest refuges on the mainland but in a wider variety of habitats in Tasmania. The largest of the Australian corvids, the adult forest raven is 50–53 cm in length with a wingspan between 91–113 cm and weight of 650 g. There is no seasonal variation in plumage, glossy black with a blue or green sheen visible on the upperparts.
The wings are long and broad, with the largest of its ten primary feathers reaching the end of the tail wh
Alpine plants are plants that grow in an alpine climate, which occurs at high elevation and above the tree line. There are many different plant species and taxon that grow as a plant community in these alpine tundra; these include perennial grasses, forbs, cushion plants and lichens. Alpine plants are adapted to the harsh conditions of the alpine environment, which include low temperatures, ultraviolet radiation, a short growing season; some alpine plants serve as medicinal plants. Alpine plants occur in a tundra: a type of natural biome that does not contain trees. Alpine tundra occurs in mountains worldwide, it transitions to subalpine forests below the tree line. With increasing elevation it ends at the snow line where ice persist through summer. Alpine plants are not limited to higher elevations. However, high-elevation areas have different ecology than those located at higher latitudes. One of the biggest distinctions is that the lower bound of a tropical alpine area is difficult to define due to a mixture of human disturbances, dry climates, a lacking tree line.
The other major difference between tropical and arctic alpine ecology is the temperature differences. The tropics have a summer/winter cycle every day, where as the higher latitudes stay cold both day and night. In the northern latitudes, the main factor to overcome is the cold. Intense frost action processes have a profound effect on what little soil there is and the vegetation of arctic alpine regions. Tropical alpine regions are subject to these conditions as well, but they happen; because northern alpine areas cover a massive area it can be difficult to generalize the characteristics that define the ecology. One factor in alpine ecology is wind in an area. Wind pruning is a common sight within northern alpine regions. Along with wind pruning, wind erosion of vegetation mats is a common sight throughout Alaska. Long-lived perennial herbs are the most common type of plant in alpine environments, with most having a large, well-developed root and/or rhizome system; these underground systems store carbohydrates through the winter which are used in the spring for new shoot development.
Some species of saxifrages are evergreen. The leaves of these plants store energy in the form of lipids. Alpine plants go into vegetative dormancy at the end of the growing period, forming perennating buds with the shortening photoperiod. Seedling establishment is slow and occurs less than vegetative reproduction. In the first year of growth of perennial alpine plants, most of the photosynthate is used in establishing a stable root system, used to help prevent desiccation and for carbohydrate storage over winter. In this year, the plant may produce a few true leaves, but only the cotyledons are produced, it takes a few years for plants to become well established. Alpine plants can exist at high elevations, from 300 to 6,000 metres, depending on location. For example, there is a moss. Arenaria bryophylla is the highest flowering plant in the world, occurring as high as 6,180 m. In order to survive, alpine plants are adapted to the conditions at high altitudes, including cold, high levels of ultraviolet radiation, difficulty of reproduction.
Most alpine plants are faced with low temperature extremes at some point in their lives. There are a number of ways. Plants can avoid exposure to low temperature by using different forms of seasonal phenology, morphology, or by variable growth form preference, they can avoid the freezing of their exposed tissues by increasing the amount of solutes in their tissues, known as freezing-point depression. Another, somewhat similar, method plants may use to avoid freezing is supercooling, which prevents ice crystallization within plant tissues; these methods are only sufficient. In the alpine zone, temperatures are low enough that these methods are not sufficient; when plants need a more permanent solution, they can develop freeze tolerance. Plants can dehydrate their cells by moving water into intercellular spaces; this causes ice formation outside of the cell. When all of these strategies fail to prevent frost damage, alpine plants have the capacity to repair or replace the organs damaged; as it is difficult to prevent damage, many alpine plants depend on the replacement of their organs.
They help make this possible by placing their meristems below ground, where temperatures are warmer. Photosynthesis and respiration rates are not uniform throughout the growing season. At the start of the growing season, new shoots have low net photosynthesis rates and high respiration rates due to rapid growth of new shoots; as the temperature rises in a plants microclimate, the net photosynthesis rates will increase as long as ample water is available and will peak during flowering. Alpine plants are able to start photosynthesizing and reach maximum photosynthesis rates at lower temperatures compared to plants adapted to lower elevations and warmer climates; this is due to the combined effects of environmental factors. In alpine areas, water availability is variable. Bryophytes and lichens exhibit high desiccation tolerance, which contributes to their abundance throughout all alpine areas habitats. Among higher plants, tissue desiccation is rare at high altitudes. If it does occur, it happens to plants growing on exposed sites, where wind stress is increased.
Alpine plants avoid water loss by deep rooting and in