Cragside is a Victorian country house near the town of Rothbury in Northumberland, England. It was the home of William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, founder of the Armstrong Whitworth armaments firm. An industrial magnate, scientist and inventor of the hydraulic crane and the Armstrong gun, Armstrong displayed his inventiveness in the domestic sphere, making Cragside the first house in the world to be lit using hydroelectric power; the estate was technologically advanced. In the grounds, Armstrong built dams and lakes to power a sawmill, a water-powered laundry, early versions of a dishwasher and a dumb waiter, a hydraulic lift and a hydroelectric rotisserie. In 1887, Armstrong was raised to the peerage, the first engineer or scientist to be ennobled, became Baron Armstrong of Cragside; the original building consisted of a small shooting lodge which Armstrong built between 1862 and 1864. In 1869, he employed the architect Richard Norman Shaw to enlarge the site, in two phases of work between 1869 and 1882, they transformed the house into a northern Neuschwanstein.
The result was described by the architect and writer Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel as "one of the most dramatic compositions in all architecture". Armstrong filled the house with a significant art collection. Cragside became an integral part of Armstrong's commercial operations: honoured guests under Armstrong's roof, including the Shah of Persia, the King of Siam and two future Prime Ministers of Japan, were customers for his commercial undertakings. Following Armstrong's death in 1900, his heirs struggled to maintain the estate. In 1910, the best of Armstrong's art collection was sold off, by the 1970s, in an attempt to meet inheritance tax, plans were submitted for large-scale residential development of the estate. In 1971 the National Trust asked the architectural historian Mark Girouard to compile a gazetteer of the most important Victorian houses in Britain which the Trust should seek to save should they be sold. Girouard placed Cragside at the top of the list. A Grade I listed building since 1953, Cragside has been open to the public since 1979.
William Armstrong was born on 26 November 1810 in Newcastle upon the son of a corn merchant. Trained as a solicitor, he moved to London. Returning to Newcastle, in 1835 he met and married Margaret Ramshaw, the daughter of a builder. A keen amateur scientist, Armstrong began to conduct experiments in electricity. In 1847, he abandoned the law for manufacturing and established W. G. Armstrong and Company at a site at Elswick, outside Newcastle. By the 1850s, with his design for the Armstrong Gun, Armstrong laid the foundations for an armaments firm that would, before the end of the century, see Krupp as its only world rival, he established himself as a figure of national standing: his work supplying artillery to the British Army was seen as an important response to the failures of Britain's forces during the Crimean War. In 1859, he was knighted and made Engineer of Rifled Ordnance, becoming the principal supplier of armaments to both the Army and the Navy. Armstrong had spent much of his childhood at Rothbury, escaping from industrial Newcastle for the benefit of his poor health.
He returned to the area in 1862. On a walk with friends, Armstrong was struck by the attractiveness of the site for a house. Returning to Newcastle, he bought a small parcel of land and decided to build a modest house on the side of a moorland crag, he intended ten rooms and a stable for a pair of horses. The house was completed in the mid-1860s by an unknown architect: a two-storey shooting box of little architectural distinction, it was constructed and furnished to a high standard. Armstrong's architect for Cragside's expansion was the Scot R. Norman Shaw. Shaw had begun his career in the office of William Burn and had studied under Anthony Salvin and George Edmund Street. Salvin had taught him the mastery of internal planning, essential for the design of the large and variegated houses which the Victorian wealthy craved. Salvin and Street had taught him to understand the Gothic Revival. At only 24, he won Travelling Studentship; the connection between Armstrong and Shaw was made when Armstrong purchased a picture, Prince Hal taking the crown from his father's bedside by John Callcott Horsley, which proved too large to fit into his town house in Jesmond, Newcastle.
Horsley was a friend of both, recommended that Shaw design an extension to the banqueting hall Armstrong had built in the grounds. When this was completed in 1869, Shaw was asked for enlargements and improvements to the shooting lodge Armstrong had had built at Rothbury four years earlier; this was the genesis of the transformation of the house between 1869 and 1884. Over the next thirty years, Cragside became the centre of Armstrong's world; the architectural historian Andrew Saint records that Shaw sketched out the whole design for the "future fairy palace" in a single afternoon, while Armstrong and his guests were out on a shooting party. After this rapid initial design, Shaw worked on building the house for over 20 years; the long building period, Armstrong's piecemeal, changeable, approach to the development of the house, his des
Papyrus 108, designated by P 108, is a copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Gospel of John, containing verses 17:23-24 & 18:1-5 in a fragmentary condition; the manuscript has been paleographically assigned to the late 2nd or early 3rd Century CE. The manuscript is housed at the Papyrology Rooms of the Sackler Library at Oxford University; the original manuscript would've been around 14.5 cm x 18.5 cm, with 23 lines per page. The handwriting script is representative of the reformed Documentary style; the text is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Although small, the manuscript concurs with Codex Sinaiticus, it has itacistic error in John 17:23. John 17:24 δεδωκας: P 108, P 60, P 66, א, B, C, D εδωκας: AJohn 17:24 κακεινοι: P 108, P 60vid, P 66, א, B, C, D, M και εκεινοι: AJohn 17:24 εδωκας: P 108, B, K, N, Γ, Θ, 209, al. Comfort, Philip W.. The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. Pp. 650–652. ISBN 978-0-8423-5265-9.
P. Oxy. LXIV 4447 from Papyrology at Oxford's "POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online" Image from P 108 recto, John 17:23-24 Image from P 108 verso, John 18:1-5 "Continuation of the Manuscript List" Institute for New Testament Textual Research, University of Münster. Retrieved April 9, 2008
L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato is a pastoral ode by George Frideric Handel based on the poetry of John Milton. Handel composed the work over the period of 19 January to 4 February 1740, the work was premiered on 27 February 1740 at the Royal Theatre of Lincoln's Inn Fields. At the urging of one of Handel's librettists, Charles Jennens, Milton's two poems, L'Allegro and il Penseroso, were arranged by James Harris, interleaving them to create dramatic tension between the personified characters of Milton's poems; the first two movements consist of this dramatic dialog between Milton's poems. In an attempt to unite the two poems into a singular "moral design", at Handel's request, Jennens added a new poem, "il Moderato", to create a third movement; the popular concluding aria and chorus, "As Steals the Morn" is adapted from Shakespeare's Tempest, V.i.65–68. Michael O'Connell and John Powell have published an analysis of Handel's setting of the text in his musical treatment. Soprano I Soprano II Alto Tenor Bass ChorusThere are no characters, no specific'L'Allegro" or "Penseroso".
The "drama" comes from alternating episodes representing the humors. Some versions give arias to different soloists. For instance, the "da capo" version of the aria "Straight mine eye hath caught new pleasures" is sung by a soprano but the truncated recitative version is sung by a bass. All soloists sing in the "il Moderato" section. In 1988, Mark Morris choreographed a dance performance to accompany the poetry. Full-text libretto hosted at wikisource. Score of L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato Full-text libretto hosted by Stanford University. Full-text of Milton's L'Allegro and il Penseroso at Project Gutenberg. Text and Commentary on L'Allegro at Dartmouth.edu Text and Commentary on il Penseroso at Dartmouth.edu Program notes by Boston Cecilia. Notes by Music with Ease. L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project