A crampon is a traction device, attached to footwear to improve mobility on snow and ice during ice climbing. Besides ice climbing, crampons are used for secure travel on snow and ice, such as crossing glaciers and icefields, ascending snow slopes, scaling ice-covered rock. There are three main attachment systems for footwear: step-in, strap bindings; the first two require boots with welts. The last type are more versatile and can adapt to any boot or shoe, but do not fit as as the other two types. Oscar Eckenstein designed the first 10-point crampon in 1908 reducing the need for step cutting; this design was made commercially available by the Italian Henry Grivel. Crampons are made of light weight aluminium, or a combination of the two. Lighter weight crampons are popular for alpine ski touring where demands are lower and light weight a premium. Early 10-point crampons lacked forward angled spikes and thus required step cutting on steep terrain. In the 1930s two additional forward-slanting points were added, making them exceptional for mountaineering and glacier travel and beginning a revolution in front pointing.

There is a range of models, including specialized crampons with as many as 14 points and models with single points for ice climbing. Crampons are fastened to footwear by means of a binding system. Improved attachment systems - such as a cam action "step-in" system similar to a ski binding and well adapted to plastic technical mountaineering boots - have increased crampon use. Crampons use a full "strap-in" system and a "hybrid" binding that features a toe strap at the front and a heel lever at the back. To prevent snow from balling up under crampons in temperatures around freezing, most models can be fitted with plastic or rubber "anti-balling" systems to reduce build-up. Rubber models use flexion to repel snow while plastic anti-balling plates employ a hydrophobic surface to prevent adhesion. Crampons are graded C1, C2 and C3 relative to their flexibility and general compatibility with different styles of boots. No crampons are suitable for B0 boots. Specialized "ski crampons" are employed in ski mountaineering on hard ice.

Far more common in the Alps than in the United States, these ski crampons are known by their European names: Harscheisen and coltelli French and Italian for "knives" in those languages. Ice Cleats Cleats Scandinavian crampon Crampon Review from Climbing Magazine, No. 226, December 2003. Caltech Alpine Club's guide to crampons at the Wayback Machine

Pavel Kamozin

Pavel Mikhailovich Kamozin was a Soviet Air Force Captain and double Hero of the Soviet Union. Kamozin became a pilot in the Soviet Air Force before World War II and was flying Polikarpov I-16s in June 1941. After being wounded in the foot on the second day of the war he was sent to become an instructor but returned to the front in the fall of 1942. By the end of April 1943 Kamozin had shot down 12 enemy aircraft. For this action he was awarded his first Hero of the Soviet Union award. By 1 July 1944, when he was awarded his second Hero of the Soviet Union award, Kamozin had shot down 29 enemy aircraft. In January 1945 his Bell P-39 Airacobra crashed due to an engine failure and Kamozin was wounded, he claimed 35 victories during the war. Postwar, he worked in civil aviation in Bryansk. Kamozin was born on 16 July 1917 in Bezhitsa in Oryol Governorate to a working-class Russian family. In 1931 he entered a trade school, he worked as a mechanic at the Red Profintern factory. In 1934 Kamozin began to study at the flying club.

He was drafted into the Red Army in 1937. He was sent to the Borisoglebsk Pilots Military Aviation School, from which he graduated in 1938; when Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Kamozin was a Polikarpov I-16 pilot in the Kiev Special Military District with the 43rd Fighter Aviation Regiment. On 23 June he was wounded in the foot. Kamozin was sent to be retrained on the Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 to become an instructor, he returned to combat a year later. Kamozin became a flight leader in the 246th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 236th Fighter Aviation Division, fighting in the Battle of the Caucasus. On Kamozin's first sortie on 19 July, over Shaumyan in the Tuapse area, he shot down three Bf 109s. In his first month of combat, he claimed four enemy aircraft, including a Do 217. On 7 October Kamozin shot down three Bf 109s. In November 1942, Kamozin destroyed two Bf 109s and a Bf 110 during one engagement. In December he transferred to become a squadron deputy commander in the 269th Fighter Aviation Regiment.

On 19 December, he was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War 1st class. He was awarded his first Order of the Red Banner on 23 March 1943. Kamozin had made 82 sorties and shot down 12 aircraft in 23 air battles. On 1 May 1943 he was awarded the Order of Lenin. Kamozin was sent to a reserve regiment for P-39 training, he was assigned to the P-39-equipped 66th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 329th Fighter Aviation Division in Crimea during October, where he soon became a squadron commander with the rank of Captain. In his first combat action with the squadron, Kamozin shot down an Fw 189 but his P-39 was damaged by anti-aircraft fire and he was forced to land in the area between the opposing lines. On 21 November, Kamozin was awarded the Order of the Red Banner a second time. In the battles for Sevastopol, the squadron claimed 64 aircraft, 19 of which were shot down by Kamozin. On 31 December he and his wingman, Vladimir Ladykin found a German transport plane escorted by six Bf 109s while returning from a reconnaissance mission.

Kamozin shot down the transport, upon the fall of Crimea found to have been carrying 18 German generals. On 31 January, he was awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky. After the fall of Crimea, the 66th was transferred to Myrhorod and Pyriatyn airfields, where it conducted air defense for the American shuttle bombing campaign between May and November 1944. By the midsummer of 1944, Kamozin had made 131 successful sorties and fought in 56 air battles in which he claimed 29 victories and 13 shared. On 1 July 1944 he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union a second time. On 29 December he transferred to the 101st Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment. From 13 January, he flew sorties in the East Prussian Offensive. On 20 January 1945 he flew another sortie, but due to an engine problem the P-39 stalled and crashed, he never recovered from injuries sustained in the accident and Kamozin spent Victory Day in the hospital. Most 21st century estimates of his final tally credit him with 4 shared victories.

In 1946, Kamozin was discharged. He worked in civil aviation, he conducted social work. Kamozin was made an honorary citizen of the city in 1966 and died on 24 November 1983, he was buried in a city cemetery. Twice Hero of the Soviet Union Order of Lenin Two Order of the Red Banner Order of Alexander Nevsky Order of the Patriotic War 1st class A street in Bryansk is named for Kamozin. A bronze bust was erected in the park near the Bryansk Engineering Palace of Culture. There is a museum devoted to Kamozin in Secondary School No. 11. Simonov, Andrey. Боевые лётчики — дважды и трижды Герои Советского Союза. Moscow: Russian Knights Foundation and Vadim Zadorozhny Museum of Technology. ISBN 9785990960510. OCLC 1005741956

Wigtownshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Wigtownshire, was a Scottish constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. It was represented by one Member of Parliament; the British parliamentary constituency was created in 1708 following the Acts of Union, 1707 and replaced the former Parliament of Scotland shire constituency of Wigtownshire, represented by two Shire Commissioners. The first British general election in Wigtownshire was in 1708. In 1707–08, members of the 1702–1707 Parliament of Scotland were co-opted to serve in the 1st Parliament of Great Britain. See Scottish representatives to the 1st Parliament of Great Britain, for further details. Wigtownshire was a Scottish shire; the constituency included the whole shire, except that between 1708 and 1885 the burghs of Stranraer, New Galloway and Wigtown, formed part of the Wigtown Burghs constituency. The constituency elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system until the seat was abolished in 1918.

In 1918 the Wigtownshire area was combined with Kirkcudbrightshire to form the Galloway constituency. Dalrymple resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Manor of Northstead, causing a by-election. Stewart succeeded to the peerage. In July 1886, Sir Herbert Maxwell accepted office as a Junior Lord of the Treasury, causing a by-election. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith, second edition edited by F. W. S. Craig ) Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W"