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Cranberry

Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In Britain, cranberry may refer to the native species Vaccinium oxycoccos, while in North America, cranberry may refer to Vaccinium macrocarpon. Vaccinium oxycoccos is cultivated in central and northern Europe, while Vaccinium macrocarpon is cultivated throughout the northern United States and Chile. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right, they can be found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Cranberries are low, creeping vines up to 2 meters long and 5 to 20 centimeters in height; the flowers are dark pink, with distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by bees; the fruit is a berry, larger than the leaves of the plant. It is edible, but with an acidic taste that overwhelms its sweetness. In 2017, the United States and Chile accounted for 98% of the world production of cranberries.

Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is a traditional accompaniment to turkey at Christmas dinner in the United Kingdom, at Christmas and Thanksgiving dinners in the United States and Canada. Cranberries are related to bilberries and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium; these differ in having bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed, woodier stems, forming taller shrubs. There are 3-4 species of cranberry, classified by subgenus: Vaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccus palustris is widespread throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia, northern North America, it has small 5–10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems; the fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavor. Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus occurs in northern North America, northern Europe and northern Asia, differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being more triangular, the flower stems hairless.

They differ in the fact that their leaves can be smaller in size though the main difference is their triangular shape. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccos. Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus native to northern North America across Canada, eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes), it differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being larger, 10–20 mm long, in its apple-like taste. Vaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccus erythrocarpus native to southeastern North America at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, in eastern Asia; the name, derives from the German, first named as cranberry in English by the missionary John Eliot in 1647. Around 1694, German and Dutch colonists in New England used the word, cranberry, to represent the expanding flower, stem and petals resembling the neck and bill of a crane; the traditional English name for the plant more common in Europe, Vaccinium oxycoccos, originated from plants with small red berries found growing in fen lands of England.

In North America, the Narragansett people of the Algonquian nation in the regions of New England appeared to be using cranberries in pemmican for food and for dye. Calling the red berries, the Narragansett people may have introduced cranberries to colonists in Massachusetts. In 1550, James White Norwood made reference to Native Americans using cranberries, it was the first reference to American cranberries up until this point. In James Rosier's book The Land of Virginia there is an account of Europeans coming ashore and being met with Native Americans bearing bark cups full of cranberries. In Plymouth, there is a 1633 account of the husband of Mary Ring auctioning her cranberry-dyed petticoat for 16 shillings. In 1643, Roger Williams's book A Key Into the Language of America described cranberries, referring to them as "bearberries" because bears ate them. In 1648, preacher John Elliott was quoted in Thomas Shepard's book Clear Sunshine of the Gospel with an account of the difficulties the Pilgrims were having in using the Indians to harvest cranberries as they preferred to hunt and fish.

In 1663, the Pilgrim cookbook appears with a recipe for cranberry sauce. In 1667, New Englanders sent to King Charles ten barrels of cranberries, three barrels of codfish and some Indian corn as a means of appeasement for his anger over their local coining of the Pine-tree shilling. In 1669, Captain Richard Cobb had a banquet in his house, serving wild turkey with sauce made from wild cranberries. In the 1672 book New England Rarities Discovered author John Josselyn described cranberries, writing: Sauce for the Pilgrims, cranberry or bearberry, is a small trayling plant that grows in salt marshes that are overgrown with moss; the berries are of a pale yellow color, afterwards red, as big as a cherry, some round, others oval, all of them hollow with sower astringent taste. Th

Torquay Town F.C.

Torquay Town Football Club was an English football club based in Torquay, Devon. The club existed from 1910 until 1921 before merging with Babbacombe to form Torquay United. By 1910, the Devon town of Torquay had three established amateur football teams in Torquay United and Babbacombe, all of whom were competing in the Torquay & District League. With Devon's two leading football clubs, Plymouth Argyle and Exeter City having turned professional, there were calls for Torquay's three main teams to amalgamate in order to create a single professional football club. Although Babbacombe preferred to maintain their independence and United merged to become Torquay Town. With United having led a somewhat nomadic existence since their foundation in 1899, the newly formed Torquay Town chose Ellacombe's Plainmoor ground as their home where they would soon be joined in a ground share with Babbacombe. Both Torquay Town and Babbacombe joined the Plymouth & District League for the 1910–11 season and Town enjoyed a respectable first season finishing 5th out of 13 teams.

They enjoyed a good run in the FA Cup, reaching the Fifth Qualifying Round before being knocked out by Accrington Stanley. Torquay Town's second season was better, becoming champions of the Plymouth & District League. However, the following two seasons saw a decline in Town's fortunes finishing in 6th and 10th place before the outbreak of World War I resulted in the closure of the club in August 1914; when competitive football resumed in 1919, Torquay Town were unable to recreate the achievements of their earlier seasons and, with Babbacombe now conceding to the inevitability of a merger between the two rival sides, both teams ceased to exist at the end of the 1920–21 season and subsequently joined together to form a new professional club. Installing Torquay Town's star striker Crad Evans as player-manager, the new team revived the name of Torquay United and were elected into the Football League in 1927. Plymouth & District League Champions: 1911–12 Devon Senior Cup Winners: 1910–11 "Torquayunited.com".

Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. "TFF History Room". "TUFC History". Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. "Historical Football Kits"

Bogeda Biosphere Reserve

The Bogeda Biosphere Reserve is located in the eastern region of the Tianshan Mountains in China's Xinjiang Province. Local residents named the area the Sangong River Valley after one of the largest rivers in this region, which originates from Bogeda Peak. Altogether, five major landscapes are distributed throughout the northern and southern areas of the biosphere reserve: ice-snow belts and sub-alpine meadow belts, forest belts, steppe belts and sand desert dunes; the topography consists of low mountain erosion hills and alluvial areas. Tianchi Lake lies adjacent to the Sangong River; the Bogeda Biosphere Reserve is situated within the temperate continental arid climate zone. Different habitat types range from snowy landscapes to meadows and sand dunes, offering ideal circumstances for the development of a rich biodiversity. Alpine and sub-alpine landscapes with Koresia capilliformis and perennial herbaceous cover 80% of the area; the low plain lingo halophyte vegetation desert zone contains flora species such as Suaeda physophora and Halostachys caspica.

Characteristic fauna species include Buteo rufinus and Felis lynx. However, numerous endangered or threatened animal species within the biosphere reserve struggle for survival, including Falco subbuteo and Gazella subgutturosa among others; the region is home to species of commercial or traditional importance, such as Cistanche salsa, which grows in desert habitats and is used for traditional Chinese medicine. About 134,000 people inhabit the Bodega biosphere reserve permanently, while over 410,000 people visit on a seasonal basis; the main economic activities are livestock and tourism. The majority of inhabitants are Han Chinese with Hui and Uygur populations living in the reserve; the nearest major town is Fukang City, located in the transition zone. Since the 1960s, the underground freshwater table has deepened, while the underground salt water table has risen; the result has been serious soil salinization and erosion, which hinders the cultivation of agricultural products. The Tianchi Lake, located in the core area on the mountains, is a Taoist shrine and constitutes the main cultural and traditional site of the Bogeda Biosphere Reserve.

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