A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs, Flowers may facilitate outcrossing or allow selfing. Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization, Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds, the essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts, the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, and the reproductive or sexual parts. A stereotypical flower consists of four kinds of structures attached to the tip of a short stalk, each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the receptacle. The four main whorls are as follows, Collectively the calyx, the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are typically thin and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.
Androecium, the whorl, consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts, a called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis. Gynoecium, the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels, the carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes and these give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl is called a pistil. A pistil may consist of a carpel or a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen, the supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous, although the arrangement described above is considered typical, plant species show a wide variation in floral structure.
These modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species, the four main parts of a flower are generally defined by their positions on the receptacle and not by their function. Many flowers lack some parts or parts may be modified into other functions and/or look like what is typically another part, in some families, like Ranunculaceae, the petals are greatly reduced and in many species the sepals are colorful and petal-like. Other flowers have modified stamens that are petal-like, the flowers of Peonies and Roses are mostly petaloid stamens
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical and decorative usage in, for example, window panes and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are silicate glasses based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their use as window panes. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can be painted and printed with vitreous enamels and these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures, because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels, vases, bottles and drinking glasses.
In its most solid forms it has used for paperweights, marbles. Some objects historically were so commonly made of glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses and these sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica, metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass, silica is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure SiO2. It has excellent resistance to shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting-temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate, which lowers the transition temperature.
The soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass, soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties, lead glass or flint glass is more brilliant because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium increases the refractive index, iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared energy, for example in heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents. Borosilicate glasses are known for having very low coefficients of expansion, making them resistant to thermal shock. Such glass is less subject to stress and is commonly used for the construction of reagent bottles. Borosilicate glass is sold under trade names as Borcam, Suprax, Heatex, Schott, Kimble. Borosilicate glass was first developed by German glassmaker Otto Schott in the late 19th century, Otto Schott is founder of todays SCHOTT AG, which has sold borosilicate glass under the brand name DURAN since 1893. Another manufacturer of DURAN is the DURAN Group, after Corning Glass Works introduced Pyrex in 1915, the name became a synonym for borosilicate glass in the English-speaking world. However, borosilicate glass is the name of a family with various members tailoring completely different purposes. Most common today is borosilicate 3.3 glass like SCHOTT Duran, the European manufacturer of Pyrex, Arc International, uses borosilicate glass in its Pyrex glass kitchen products, the U. S.
manufacturer of Pyrex kitchenware uses tempered soda-lime glass. The real difference is the trademark and the company owns the Pyrex name. The original Corning ware made of glass was trademarked in capital letters. When the kitchenware division was sold, the trademark was changed to lowercase, the bottom of new kitchenware and old kitchenware can be inspected for an immediate difference. The scientific division of Pyrex has always been using borosilicate glass, in addition to quartz, sodium carbonate and aluminium oxide traditionally used in glassmaking, boron is used in the manufacture of borosilicate glass. The composition of low-expansion borosilicate glass, such as those laboratory glasses mentioned above, is approximately 80% silica, 13% boric oxide, 4% sodium oxide, though more difficult to make than traditional glass due to the high melting temperature required, it is economical to produce. Its superior durability and heat resistance finds excellent use in laboratory equipment, lighting and, in certain cases.
Borosilicate glass is created by adding boric oxide to the traditional glassmakers frit of silica sand, since borosilicate glass melts at a higher temperature than ordinary silicate glass, some new techniques were required for industrial production. Borrowing from the trade, burners combining oxygen with natural gas were required. The manufacturing process depends on the geometry and can be differentiated between different methods like floating, tube drawing or moulding. The common type of glass used for laboratory glassware has a very low thermal expansion coefficient
Cobalt glass—known as smalt when ground as a pigment—is a deep blue colored glass prepared by including a cobalt compound, typically cobalt oxide or cobalt carbonate, in a glass melt. Cobalt is a very intense glass colorant and very little is required to show a noticeable amount of color. Cobalt blue glass is used as an optical filter in flame tests to filter out the yellow flame caused by the contamination of sodium. Cobalt glass such as Bristol blue glass is popular with collectors and it is appreciated for its attractive color. Cobalt aluminate, known as blue, can be used in a similar way. The earliest known example of cobalt aluminate glass dates to a lump from about 2000BC in ancient Mesopotamia, very possibly intended for use as a pigment, it is rare until the modern era. About five centuries cobalt oxide smalt appears as a pigment in Egyptian pottery, and soon after in the Aegean region, in paintings, smalt has a tendency to lose its colour over a long period and is little used today.
Chinese porcelain used smalt glazes from the Tang Dynasty onwards, though Chinese cobalt glass is found from the Zhou dynasty, Cobalt was used as a pigment in Central Asia from the 13th century. A fragment of a mud painting in the ancient Tangut city of Khara-Khoto has been found to contain smalt, a large quantity of smalt was purchased for the decoration of the gallery of Francis I of France at Fontainebleau in 1536. Smalt, normally now discoloured, is common in European paintings from the 15th to 17th centuries, for example, it was found in Hans Holbein the Youngers portrait of Sir William Butts, in Michael Pachers painting The Early Fathers Altar, and in the frescos of Domenico Ghirlandaio. The invention of a European smalt process has traditionally been credited to a Bohemian glassmaker named Christoph Schürer, its presence in Dieric Bouts The Entombment from circa 1455 proves that it was used at least a century earlier. The result was an intensive blue glass-like substance that was ground and sold to producers of glassware, Cobalt blue Cobalt Smalt, Bruno Mühlethaler and Jean Thissen, Studies in Conservation, Vol.14, No. 2, pp.
47–61, JSTOR Smalt Pigments through the Ages Bromo-Seltzer, Cobalt Blue bottles - Brief Summary M-inside-a-circle, Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore
Confectionery, called sweets or candy, is sweet food. The term varies among English-speaking countries, in general, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers confections and sugar confections. Bakers confectionery, called flour confections, includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, in the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections are more dominant. Sugar confectionery includes sweets, candied nuts, chewing gum and bubblegum, pastillage, in some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. The words candy and lollies are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery, the confectionery industry includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times, and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era, confections are low in micronutrients and protein but high in calories.
They may be fat-free foods, although some confections, especially fried doughs, are high-fat foods, many confections are considered empty calories. Specially formulated chocolate has been manufactured in the past for use as a high-density food energy source. Confections are defined by the presence of sweeteners and these are usually sugars, but it is possible to buy sugar-free sweets, such as sugar-free peppermints. The most common sweetener for cooking is table sugar, which is chemically a disaccharide containing both glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose gives a mixture called invert sugar, which is sweeter and is a commercial ingredient. Finally confections, especially commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch and these sweeteners include all types of corn syrup. Bakers confectionery includes sweet baked goods, especially those that are served for the dessert course, bakers confections are sweet foods that feature flour as a main ingredient and are baked.
Major categories include cakes, sweet pastries, scones, Sugar confections include sweet, sugar-based foods, which are usually eaten as snack food. This includes sugar candies, candied fruits and nuts, chewing gum, in the European Union, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community scheme matches the UN classification, under code number 10.82. Ice cream and sorbet are classified with dairy products under ISIC1050, NACE10.52, different dialects of English use regional terms for sugar confections, In Britain and some Commonwealth countries, sweets or, more colloquially, sweeties. In Australia and New Zealand, lollies and Chuddy are Australian slang for chewing gum. In North America, although this generally refers to a specific range of confectionery
Mary Gregory was an American artist known for her decoration of glass products at the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Gregory worked for Boston and Sandwich from 1880-1884, Gregory painted lamps and plaques of landscape scenes during her years at B&SGC. Gregory was born in Providence, Rhode Island to John Gregory and she was particularly well known for her paintings of Victorian Era children, and such artwork has been referred to as Mary Gregory since the 1920s. However, it was shown that such artworks were actually from an era. The glass most likely came from Bohemia, England, or Italy, despite this, many glass art enthusiasts continue to refer to such pieces as Mary Gregory. The Westmoreland Glass Company of Grapeville, Pennsylvania began marketing their glasswork as Mary Gregory in the 1920s and they would create glass paintings of Victorian Era children in profile, and say it was done in the style of Mary Gregory. Westmoreland artists painted the cherubic white silhouettes on black milk glass plates, glass boxes, heart-shaped plates, in the 1970s they painted these scenes on blanks that they called Blue Mist – a semi-opaque glass with a baby blue tint to it.
Many pieces of Mary Gregory show up as Cranberry plates, tumbler sets, glasses, her sister, and possibly others she had trained, used a white enamel paint with ground glass as a paint mixture. To bind the paint to the glass, they fired it after application and it was fused with the piece in this manner so the painting became part of the glass. Similar artwork was made by dozens of glass houses, and some, such as Fenton. Cranberry glass History of Mary Gregory - Andrew Lineham HGTV Mary Gregory Glass Mary Gregory Primer at the Wayback Machine National Westmoreland Glass Collectors Club
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
There is no generally accepted definition or standard for use of the term enamel paint, and not all enamel-type paints may use it. The term today means hard surfaced paint and usually is in reference to paint brands of higher quality, floor coatings of a gloss finish. Most enamel paints are alkyd resin based, some enamel paints have been made by adding varnish to oil-based paint. The Trial is one of a number of works by Nolan to use enamel paint, usually Ripolin, some enamel paints are now produced specifically for artists. Enamels paints can refer to nitro-cellulose based paints, one of the first modern commercial paints of the 20th century, they were substitute for new synthetic binding like alkyd and vinyl, this mainly due to toxicity and conservation. In art has been used by Pollock with the commercial paint named Duco®, the artist experimented and created with many types of commercial or house paints during his career. Nitro-cellulose enamels are known as modern lacquers. Floor enamel – May be used for concrete, basements, fast dry enamel – Can dry within 10–15 minutes of application.
Ideal for refrigerators and other industrial finishes, high-temp enamel – May be used for engines, exhaust, and BBQs. Enamel paint is used on wood to make it resistant to the elements via the waterproofing and rotproofing properties of enamel. Generally, treated surfaces last much longer and are more resistant to wear than untreated surfaces. Model building - Xtracolor and Humbrol are well known UK brands, Testors, a US company, offers the Floquil, Model Master and Testors brands
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence, Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, and the state was consequently renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century, rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the states formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland. It was an era of economic modernization and growth of industry and finance.
Outward migration was heavy to the colonies and to the United States. Britain built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. Britain formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, and moved closer to the United States. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British governments fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his governments attempts to introduce it.
When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized, in May 1803, war was declared again. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System and this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. Frances population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. The Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent, after Napoleons surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon once, simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes, arming hostile Indians and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States. The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Many parts of the cage have been completely undercut. She was transformed into a vine that twined around the king and restrained him. Dionysus and two followers are shown taunting the king, the cup is the only well-preserved figural example of a cage cup. The dichroic effect is achieved by making the glass with tiny proportions of nanoparticles of gold, the very few other surviving fragments of Roman dichroic glass vary considerably in their two colours. Cranberry glass or gold glass is somewhat similar and far more common, manufactured with colloidal gold. To a conventionally composed Roman glass flux 330 parts per million of silver and 40 of gold were added, These particles were precipitated as colloids, when viewed in reflected light the minute metallic particles are just coarse enough to reflect enough of the light without eliminating the transmission. In transmitted light the fine particles scatter the blue end of the more effectively than the red end, resulting in red transmission. The particles are only about 70 nanometers across, and embedded in the glass, so they cannot be seen by microscopy.
At this size they approach the size of the wavelengths of light. This is a feature unique among surviving cups, Harden suggests they were an afterthought, after the very lengthy cutting stage the fine polished appearance was achieved by a process called flame polishing that risked the complete loss of the object. A suggestion in 1995 that in fact this and other cage cups used a mixture of moulding and cutting has met with little acceptance. Indeed, it was not until the first full studies of the cup in 1950 that it was established for certain that the material was glass and not a gemstone, which had previously been in question. It seems likely that as many of three separate workshops or factories will have involved in the whole process, perhaps not in the same part of the Empire. The thick blank dichroic vessel was made by one specialist workshop. There are various small losses, of face of the panther is the most significant, and the cup is cracked. The base or foot of the cup is damaged, and the form of the base uncertain.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York has a fragment measuring 2 3/16 x 3 in. of a satyr from a cage cup that turns from olive green to reddish amber. The figure of Lycurgus, bound by the vine and naked apart from boots, is flanked on the left by a crouching Ambrosia, behind her one of Dionysuss satyrs stands on one foot as he prepares to hurl a large rock at Lycurgus
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy was an Austrian-Hungarian chemist. He was known for his research in colloids, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1925, the crater Zsigmondy on the Moon is named in his honour. They originated from Johannes Sigmondi and included teachers and Hungarian freedom-fighters, Richard was raised by his mother after his fathers early death in 1880, and received a comprehensive education. He enjoyed hobbies such as climbing and mountaineering with his siblings and his elder brothers and Emil, were well-known mountain climbers, his younger brother, Karl Zsigmondy, became a notable mathematician in Vienna. In high school Richard developed an interest in science, especially in chemistry and physics. In Munich he conducted research on indene and received his PhD in 1889, Zsigmondy left organic chemistry to join the physics group of August Kundt at the University of Berlin, and completed his habilitation at the University of Graz in 1893. Because of his knowledge about glass and its colouring, in 1897 the Schott Glass factory offered him a job which he accepted and he invented the Jenaer Milchglas and conducted some research on the red Ruby glass.
Zsigmondy left Schott Glass in 1900, but remained in Jena as private lecturer to conduct his research, together with the optical instrument manufacturer Zeiss, he developed the slit ultramicroscope. His scientific career continued in 1908 at the University of Göttingen, in 1925, Zsigmondy received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on colloids and the methods he used, such as the ultramicroscope. During his stay in Graz, Zsigmondy accomplished his most notable research work, the exact mechanism which yields the red colour of the Cranberry or Ruby glass was a result of his studies of colloids. In years he worked on gold hydrosols and used them to characterize protein solutions, while in Jena he developed the slit ultramicroscope together with Henry Siedentopf. After moving to Göttingen, Zsigmondy improved his optical equipment for the observation of finest nanoparticles suspended in liquid solution, as a result, he introduced the immersion ultramicroscope in 1912. In 1903 Zsigmondy married Laura Luise Müller, with whom he had two daughters, Annemarie and Käthe and he died a few years after retirement in 1929 in Göttingen, Germany.
He was a cousin of the architect Frigyes Schulek, whose mother was Auguszta Zsigmondy and he is related to the violinist Dénes Zsigmondy. Karl Grandin, ed. Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Biography, Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Properties of Colloids. Immersionsultramikroskop nach R. Zsigmondy von Winkel-Zeiss, Göttingen, immersion ultramicroscope with optics as of the 1912 patent