Cranes are a family, the Gruidae, of large, long-legged, long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes. The 15 species of cranes are placed in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except South America, they are opportunistic feeders that change their diets according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish and insects to grain and berries. Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, lay two eggs at a time. Both parents help to rear the young; some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances. Cranes are solitary during the breeding season, occurring in pairs, but during the nonbreeding season, they are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient. Most species of cranes have been affected by human activities and are at the least classified as threatened, if not critically endangered.
The plight of the whooping cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species. Cranes are large birds considered the world's tallest flying birds, they range in size from the demoiselle crane, which measures 90 cm in length, to the sarus crane, which can be up to 176 cm, although the heaviest is the red-crowned crane, which can weigh 12 kg prior to migrating. They are long-necked birds with streamlined bodies and large, rounded wings; the males and females do not vary in external appearance, but males tend to be larger than females. The plumage of cranes varies by habitat. Species inhabiting vast, open wetlands tend to have more white in their plumage than do species that inhabit smaller wetlands or forested habitats, which tend to be more grey; these white species are generally larger. The smaller size and colour of the forest species is thought to help them maintain a less conspicuous profile while nesting. Most species of cranes have some areas of bare skin on their faces.
This skin is used in communication with other cranes, can be expanded by contracting and relaxing muscles, change the intensity of colour. Feathers on the head can be moved and erected in the blue and demoiselle cranes for signaling, as well. Important to communication is the position and length of the trachea. In the two crowned cranes, the trachea is shorter and only impressed upon the bone of the sternum, whereas the trachea of the other species is longer and penetrates the sternum. In some species, the entire sternum is fused to the bony plates of the trachea, this helps amplify the crane's calls, allowing them to carry for several kilometres; the fossil record of cranes leaves much to be desired. The subfamilies were well distinct by the Late Eocene; the present genera are some 20 mya old. Biogeography of known fossil and the living taxa of cranes suggests that the group is of Old World origin; the extant diversity at the genus level is centered on Africa, making it all the more regrettable that no decent fossil record exists from there.
On the other hand, it is peculiar. Cranes are sister taxa to a lineage of flightless birds. A species of true crane, Grus cubensis, has become flightless and ratite-like. Fossil genera are tentatively assigned to the present-day subfamilies: Gruinae Palaeogrus Pliogrus Camusia "Grus" conferta Sometimes considered Balearicinae Geranopsis Anserpica Sometimes considered Gruidae incertae sedis Eobalearica Probalearica – A nomen dubium? Aramornis The cranes have a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring across most of the world continents, they are absent from Antarctica and, South America. East Asia is the centre of crane diversity, with eight species, followed by Africa, which holds five resident species and wintering populations of a sixth. Australia and North America have two occurring species each. Of the four crane genera, Balearica is restricted to Africa, Leucogeranus is restricted to Asia. Most species of cranes require large areas of open space. Most species nest in shallow wetlands; some species nest in wetlands, but move their chicks up onto grasslands to feed, whereas others remain in wetlands for the entirety of the breeding season.
The demoiselle crane and blue crane, which may nest and feed in grasslands, require wetlands for roosting at night. The only two species that do not always roost in wetlands are the two African crowned cranes, which are the only cran
Lower Ince railway station was a railway station in southern Wigan, England. Lower Ince station was in a cutting on the south side of Ince Green Lane, a short distance from the LYR's rival station, Ince; the station was on the Wigan Junction Railways line from Glazebrook West Junction to Wigan. The WJR was part of the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway and opened on 1 April 1884, with other stations along the line. Lower Ince Engine Shed stood north west of the station, it closed on 26 March 1952. The service patterns in 1895, 1947 and 1962 are documented in the authoritative Disused Stations website. In April 1884 the service pattern was straightforward. Six "Down" trains called from Manchester Central. In addition, one "express" passed Lower Ince without stopping. Of the six, three called at all stations, the remaining three missed some stations between Manchester and Glazebrook. With the exception of the "express" all trains called at all stations between Wigan; the "Up" service was similar. In 1922 six "Down" trains called, All Stations from Manchester Central on "Weekdays", with a further evening train from Lowton St Mary's only.
Three other trains called All Stations from Culcheth, but it is possible they originated from Liverpool Central or Warrington Central and turned west to north at Glazebrook West Junction. One of these trains ran on Fridays and Saturdays Only and the other two ran on Saturdays Only; the "Up" service was broadly similar, but the mix of Saturday Only trains was more complicated. There was no Sunday service. According to Beeching's Reshaping of British Railways the line was more used than many which did not close, however, as with many unmodernised and used commuter lines it was deemed uneconomic; the line's main passenger traffic was workers travelling from the Wigan area to industrial plants in Cadishead and Partington and around the docks in Salford and Manchester. The station closed on 2 November 1964 and has been demolished. List of closed railway stations in Britain Wigan North Western railway station Wigan Wallgate railway station Liverpool, St Helens & South Lancashire Railway Old railway lines in Wigan Bradshaw, George.
July 1922 Railway Guide. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-8708-5. OCLC 12500436. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Dow, George. Great Central, Volume Two Dominion of Watkin 1864-1899. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-1469-5. OCLC 655324061. Fields, N; the Wigan Junction Railways. Leigh: Triangle Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9550030-5-9. "The station's history". Disused Stations UK. "The station's services". Disused Stations UK. "The station on a 1948 OS Map". Npe maps. "The station on an 1888-1913 OS map with overlays". National Library of Scotland. "Station and line overlain on many maps". Rail Map Online. "The line and mileages". Railway Codes
Now We Can See is the fourth album from the Portland-based indie rock band The Thermals. The album was released on April 7, 2009 on Kill Rock Stars, their first album since switching labels from Sub Pop Records. Lead singer Hutch Harris claimed the album hinges on a leitmotif of "songs from when we were alive"; the first single from the album was the title track, "Now We Can See". It premiered at Pitchfork Media on February 10, 2009."Now We Can See" was featured in the second season finale of the NBC dramedy Chuck. The album holds a score of 79 out of 100 from Metacritic based on "generally favorable reviews"; the official track-listing was revealed on their label, Kill Rock Stars' website: All lyrics are written by Hutch Harris. Kathy Foster - drums, vocals, noise Hutch Harris - guitar, vocals